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I 










raartRTTor mi 



T^ 







^nblic fotumtnts of glasaatfeustlts: 



ANNUAL REPORTS 



Public Officers and Institutions 



1904. 



' PDBUSBBD BT THB BKCBBTABY OF THK COHUOMWZALTH. 



Vol. XII. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & TOTTER PBINTIKG CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Officb 8()i7ABI. 

1905. 



tNIVERSITY Of L -CAOO 
LIBRAF > 
266892 
MARCH I93« 



Index to Public Documents. 

Sebibs 1904. 



Vol. L 

Beport of the Secretary of the Commonwealth^ 
Report of Treasurer and Receiver General, 
Beport of Auditor of Accoants, 
Beport of Attorney-General, . . . . 



46 
5 
6 

12 



Vol. n. 

Beport of Tax CommiBsioner, . 
Aggregates of Polls, Property and Taxes, 
Abstract of Certificates of Corporations, . 
Report of Controller of County Accoants, 



16 
19 
10 
29 



Vol. in. 

Beport of State Board of Charity, 

Beport of State Board of Insanity, 

Beport of Trastees of the Danvers Insane Hospital, 
Beport of Trastees of the Northampton Insane Hospital, 
Beport of Trastees of the Taunton Insane Hospital, 
Beport of Trustees of the Worcester Insane Hospital, 
Beport of Trustees of the State Hospital, 
Beport of Trustees of the Westborough Insane Hospital, 
Beport of Trustees of the Massachusetts Hospital for Dipso- 
maniacs and Inebriates, 



17 
63 
20 
21 
22 
28 
26 
80 

47 



Report of Traetees of the Medfield Insane Asylum, 
Report of Trustees of the Massachusetts State Sanatorium, 
Report of Trustees of the Massachusetts Hospital for Epileptics, 
Report of Trustees of the State Colony for the Insane, . 



Vol. IV. 

Report of State Board of Health, .... 
Report of Board of Registration in Medicine, . 
Report of Board of Registration in Dentistry, . 
Report of Board of Registration in Pharmacy, 
Report of Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board, 



Vol. V. 

Report of Board of Railroad Commissioners and Returns of 

Railroad Corporations, 

Report of Board of Gas and Electric Light Commissioners, 



Vol. VI. 

Report of Commissioners of Savings Banks (Part I. — Savings 
Banks, Institutions for Savings, Safe Deposit, Loan and 
Trust Companies. Part II. — Co-operative Banks, Collateral 
Loan Companies, Mortgage Loan and Investment Companies) , 



Vol. VII. 

Report of Insurance Commissioner (Part I. — Fire and Marine. 

Part II. — Life, Casualty and Assessment), 
Report of Commissioners of Firemen's Relief Fund, 



59 
61 
62 
70 



34 

38 
S2 



14 
35 



8 



9 
64 



Vol. VIII. 

Report of Secretary of State Board of Education, . 
Report of Trustees of the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts 
School for the Blind, 



2 



27 



Report of Trastees of the Massachasetts School for the Feeble 

minded, 

Report of Librarian of the State Library, 
Report of Free Pabiic Library CommissioD, 
Report of CommiBsioDer of Pabiic Records, 



28 

3 

44 

52 



Vol. IX. 

Report of Secretary of the State Board of Agricoltare, . . 4 
Report of the Hatch ExperimcDt Station of the MasBachasetts 

Agricoltaral College, 83 

Report of Trustees of the Massachasetts Agricnltural College, 31 

Report of State Dairy Bareaa, 60 



Vol. X. 

Report of Adjatant General, 

Report of Chief of the District Police, . 

Report of Board of Prison Commissioners, 

Report of Board of Police for City of Boston, . 

Report of Board of Police for City of Fall River, . 

Report of Commissioner of State Aid and Pensions, 

Report of Board of Conciliation and Arbitration, 

Report of Trustees of the State Lyman and Industrial Schools, 18 

Report of Trustees of the State Farm, 24 



7 
32 
41 
49 
58 
68 
40 



Vol. XI. 

Report of Registration of Births, Marriages and Deaths, with 
Statistics of Divorce, and of Deaths investigated by the 

Medical Examiners, 1 

Report of Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 15 

Statistics of Manufactures, 86 

Betams of Number of Assessed Polls, Registered Voters, etc., 43 
Report of Cases of Contested Elections, ... .37 



Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 
Report of 



Vol. Xn. 

Board of Harbor and Land Commissioners, 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, . 
Commissioners of Naatical Training School, . 
Metropolitan Park Commission, 
Civil Service Commission, 
State Highway Commission, .... 
Wachusett Mountain State Reservation Commission 
Commissioners on War Records, 

Grey lock Commission, 

State Board of Publication, .... 

Charles River Basin Commission, 

Board of Registration in Veterinary Medicine, . 



11 
25 
42 
48 
53 
54 

65 

66 

67 

69 

71 

72 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . . , 



TWENTY-SIXTE ANNUAL REPORT 



Board of Harbor and Land 
commissionebs. 



roB THK Tear 1904. 



BOSTON ! 
WaiUHT & POTTER PKINTING CO.. STATE PRINTERS, 

18 POBT OffICB S4D4RB. 

1905. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



€>ammanbsmlih d S9^assHr|rttsjetts. 



REPORT. 



To the Honorable the Senate and House of BepresenkUives of the Com- 

monweaUh of MasaachuseUs. 

The Board of Harbor and Land Commissioners, pursuant 
to the provisions of law, respectfiiUy submits its annual re- 
port for the year 1904, covering a period of twelve months, 
from Xov. 30, 1903, being the twenty-sixth annual report 
of the Board since its establishment by chapter "263 of the 
Acts of 1879, which act conferred upon it the powers and 
duties of the several boards, established by chapter 149 of 
the Acts of 186(> and chapter 213 of the Acts of 1877. 

From Dec. 1, 1903, to Nov. 30, 1904, the Board has 
held 210 meetings, has given 246 formal and informal hear- 
ings, and lias received 152 petitions for license to build and 
maintain structures and for privileges in tide waters, great 
ponds and Connecticut River, to dredge material, to remove 
material from beaches, and for other purposes. 

Xinety-nine licenses for structures and privileges in tide 
^vate^s, great ponds and Connecticut River have been granted 
during the year ; also 37 permits for dredging, for the re- 
moval of material from beaches, and for other purposes. 

Sixty-six inspections have been made at various times by 
the Board, and under its direction, of work completed and 
in progress ; also of sites of authorized work, under appro- 
priations made by the Legislature, relating to : dredging 
operations in Boston harbor; improvements on the Com- 
monwealth's flats at South Boston ; the reclamation of the 



4 HARBOR AM) LAND COilMISSlOJSERS. [Jan. 

Province Lands in ProVincetown ; protective works on the 
Connecticut River at Hatfield and Hadley; Bass River in 
Beverly ; Salem harbor ; wall and jetties at Stony Beach in 
Hull ; channel and jetties at Green harbor ; Stage liarboi- 
in Chatham ; Red River in Chatham ; jetties and channel at 
Menamsha Inlet ; jetties and channel at Lake Antiionj- ; 
Vineyard Haven harbor ; jetties and channel in Bass River 
at South Yarmouth ; East and West bays at Osterville ; 
Cotuit harbor ; Witchmere harbor in Harwich ; also upon 
petitions and plans presented to the Board of the sites of 
proposed work in tide waters, the location of wrecks and 
obstructions to navigation; various structures built under 
licenses from the Board ; sites of alleged dumping of ma- 
terial into tide waters ; sites suggested for location of a new 
drawbridge across Taunton Great River, between Fall River 
and Somerset ; town boundary survey work. 

Through transactions of the Board there has been paid 
into the treasury of the Commonwealth during the past year, 
from rents, licenses, sales of land and other sources, and 
credited to the Conmionwealth's flats improvement fund and 
the harbor compensation fund for Boston harbor, the aggre- 
gate sum of $34,983.71. 

During the year the Board made 11 new contracts,* in- 
volving the estimated expenditure by the Commonwealth of 
$93,272.39. 

Boston Terminal Company. 

• 

Certain lands of the Commonwealth in Fort Point channel, 
covered by tide water and abutting the harbor line estab- 
lished by chapter 170 of the Acts of 1880, were taken by 
the Boston Terminal Company on Jan. 5, 1897, under 
chapter 516 of the Acts of 1896, which authorized the build- 
ing of the South Terminal station. On Sept. 2, 1897, the 
Board granted a license to the company to fill solid in tide 
water westerly of and adjoining the westerly side line of 
Dorchester Avenue extension, and between the southerly 
side line of Summer Street extension and the easterly side 

• See Appendix A. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 11. 5 

line of Federal Street, ''without waiving any of the rights 
of said Commonwealth to claim, demand and recover any 
and all damages sufTered by the taking of land under the 
provisions of chapter 516 of the Acts of 1896." 

Subsequently, the Board placed the claim of the Common- 
wealth for payment for the lands so taken in the hands of 
the Attorney-General, who brought suit to recover the value 
o{ 63,410 square feet of land under tide water. 

The Terminal company resisted payment on the grounds 

that the taking only changed the use of the land from travel 

by water to travel by land, inasmuch as it went into streets ; 

and that in acting under chapter 516 of the Acts of 1896 

it was by command of the Legislature and not of its own 

volition, and for these reasons it should not he charged with 

payment for the land. The Supreme Judicial Court failed 

to uphold the contention of the company and its liability 

became fixed. The parties have reached an agreement as 

to value without going to a jury, and the Terminal company 

is to pay the Commonwealth the round sum of $94,000 in 

full satisfiEU^tion and discharge. 

Boston Harbor. 

The natural advantages of Boston harbor for the purposes 
of a great port are familiar to the citizens of the Common- 
wealth. Up to the middle of the last century they sufficed 
for the growing commerce without artificial assistance. 
Now, however, the advent of enormous steamships as car- 
riers of merchandise and passengers requires the deepening 
of channels, broadening of basins, lengthening of docks and 
the enlargement of piers and wharves, together with gen- 
erally increased accommodation and improved facilities for 
handling cargoes. 

If economical accommodation is lacking at one port it 
is sought at another, and although superior economies are 
not wanting at the port, they must coexist with adequate 
facilities for rail transportation to hold success in competition. 

In the long run the well-equipped port, which puts the 
smallest toll on goods from the interior passing through for 



6 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

transportation abroad, stands the best chance for larg-e traffic . 
Striking instances of a greatly increased volume of busi- 
ness following a perfected equipment for transporting and 
handling grain are observable at New Orleans and Montreal. 
In both places large and judicious expenditures by the 
municipalities and the railroads combined to create most 
favorable arrangements for ti-anshipment at the least cost. 
In connection therewith the mouth of the Mississippi was 
deepened and the channels of the St. Lawrence were en- 
larged so as to increase their navigable capacity and render 
navigation safer. The result was an immense growth in 
export of cereals at those points, far beyond any previous 
experience, which continued so long as demanded by the 
markets abroad, and also an ability to maintain successful 
competition when the demand slackened. 

It may be interesting to note how fairly well during the 
recent five-year period the exports of grain from Boston 
have held, compared with other leading ports on this con- 
tinent, as exhibited in the following table, showing in round 
numbers the proportionate decrease in the total bushels 
of grain shipped from the Atlantic and Gulf ports, 1899- 
1903: — 

Montreal declined flrom 28,000,000 to 25,000,000 bushels. 

Portland declined from 11,000,000 to 3,000,000 bushels. 

Boston declined from 37,000,000 to 14,000.000 bushels. 

New York declined from 97,000,000 to 42,000,000 bushels. 

Philadelphia declined from 41,000,000 to 11,000,000 bushels. 

Baltimore declined from 61,000,000 to 23,000,000 bushels. 

Newport News declined from 22,000,000 to 8,000,000 bushels. 

New Orleans declined from 34,000,000 to 25,000,000 bushels. 

Galveston increased from 22,000,000 to 24,000,000 bushels, though in 
1902 only 12,056,594 bushels were exported. 

The value of the total imports and exports at Boston, 1875-79, was 
1439,640,323. 

The value of the total imports and exports at Boston, 1899-1903, was 
»914, 075,225. 

This is a good showing, notwithstanding the falling off in 
exports of grain from 37,000,000 bushels in 1899 to 14,000,- 
000 in 1903. The value of the exports was sustained by 
manufactured products, in which there was a large increase. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 7 

At the same time, imports increased from $63,500,000 in 
value in 1899 to $82,500,000 in 1903. The growth in 
exports of manufactured products, which must be the future 
reliance of the port for any marked prosperity, and the 
growth of imports are distinctly encouraging indications of 
development. 

The high quality of the product of specialized industries 
of New England has recently been the subject of favor- 
able comment by several disinterested foreign observers, 
and it unquestionably is upon that class of manufacturing 
interests that the future welfare of the eastern States must 
depend. The industrial enterprises must be relied on to 
provide material for commerce with the outside world. 

The conditions of transportation in this country of both 
domestic and export merchandise are as yet unsettled. 
Discrimination in &vor of some ports and against others 
still prevails, but the advantages of a port which offers 
ample accommodation with the best facilities for handling 
freight at a minimum charge cannot fail of ultimate recog- 
nition, and these are the points toward which intelligent 
effort is continually directed. 

When the time shall come that a uniform contract price 
covers the transportation of grain from a fixed zone in the 
interior of the United States to a fixed zone abroad, then 
shall we realize to its full extent the value of improved ac- 
commodations and increased facilities which the railroads, 
the Commonwealth and the Federal government by their 
several expenditures in the direction of a common benefit 
have been enabled to secure. 

The progress of harbor improvement at Boston during the 
past year, although slower than could be desired, has on the 
whole been jSairly satisfactory. 

Through the courtesy of Col. W. S. Stanton, U. S. A., 
engineer in charge of the district, the Board is able to report 
progress in the United States projects for improvement up 
to Dec. 1, 1904, as follows, viz. : — 

Project approved July 18, 1892 : to deepen and widen the main 
ship channel to a depth of 27 feet and a width of 1 ,000 feet. Un- 
der this project the upper and lower main ship channels have been 



8 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. (^Jao. 

dredged 1,000 feet wide and 27 feet deep. The width available to 
navigation is, however, contracted by ledges uncovered by dreclg- 
ing. Contracts for the removal of all remaining ledges are no^v in 
force and operations ander them are in progress. It is expected 
that they will be completed daring the ensuing season of 1905. 

Project approved March 8, 1899 : to provide for a channel 
1,200 feet wide and 30 feet deep from the main ship chanael in 
President Roads through Broad Sound channel. This channel lias 
been dredged 30 feet deep at mean low water to the full width of 
1,200 feet throughout, but seaward of the angle in the channel the 
available width is reduced to 1,145 feet by ledges and will be in- 
creased to 1,200 feet by dredging next season. 

Project approved June 13, 1902 : to provide channels 35 feet 
deep at mean low water, 1,200 feet wide from the navy yard at 
Charlestown and the Chelsea bridge and Charles River bridge to 
President Roads, and 1,500 feet wide from President Roads 
through Broad Sound to the ocean. 

Four contracts are in force each for dredging 2,445,000 cubic 
yards, aggregating 9,780,000 cubic yards, of which 7,500,000 are 
to be dredged from the channel between the bridges and President 
Roads and 2,280,000 cubic yards from Broad Sound, at the com- 
pletion of which, Dec. 31, 1907, it is expected that a channel 85 
feet deep, 540 feet wide, from Chelsea and Charles River bridges 
to President Roads, and 675 feet wide from President Roads 
through Broad Sound to the ocean, will have been obtained. Un- 
der these contracts 2,318,568.5 cubic yards have been dredged, 
2,107,246.5 from the upper main ship channel and 211,322 cubic 
yards from the Broad Sound section. This work has been carried 
on disconnectedly in the four divisions, so that at the present time 
there is no continuous width of channel of 35 feet depth available 
for navigation. 

The new lighthouse of granite at the outer Graves, to 
mark the entrance to the harbor by way of Broad Sound, is 
built up to its full height of stonework 88 feet, and is 
awaiting the arrival of the lenses for installation of another 
light of the &st class. 

The Lighthouse board has recommended the erection of a 
lighthouse on State Ledge at the " Lower Middle," to cost 
$52,000. It is much needed as an aid to navigation at a 
point where there is a turn or angle in the channel, with 
nothing marking the change of direction sufSciently con- 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 



9 



spiciioas to be sighted in foggy weather. The place will be 
remembered as the ledge on which the " Venetian," an iron 
steamship of 4,195 tons, Avas wrecked in 1895, 

Anchorage. 

By chapter 476 of the Acts of 1901, the Board was au- 
thorized to dredge, and to build and maintain structures in 
Boston )iarbor northerly of the main ship channel, for the 
purpose of providing mooring facilities and additional 
anchorage ground. The expenditure of $1,000,000 was 
authorized by this act, not more than one-fourth part to be 
expended in any one year. 

In 1902 contracts were entered into for dredging an area 
lying along the northerly side of the main ship channel in 
the upper harbor, covering about 1 mile in length and 1,000 
feet in width, to a depth of 30 feet at mean low water, the 
whole area, with a view to carrvinsr on the work economi- 
cally and expeditiously, having been divided into four sec- 
tions of approximate areas and amounts of excavation (scow 
measurement), a« follows : — 



Approximate 

Area 
(Square Feet). 



Approximiitc 

Excavation 

(Cubic Yards) 



Section 1, 
Section 2, 
Section 3, 
Section 4, 



1,605,000 
1,200,000 
1,160,000 
1,680,000 



743,600 
749,300 
743,700 
752,400 



The above contracts provided for the completion of all 
the work in each section by July 1, 1904, but the time for 
the completion of section 2 was extended to April 1, 1905. 

It was concluded to defer the construction of the pile 
piers for mooring vessels and the solid filling on Bird Island 
shoal, which is apart of the approved project, until the 
dredging of the area nearest the ship channel has been nearly 
completed. 



10 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

Up to July 1, 1904, only about one-half of the work liad 
been completed, although considerably more than that pro- 
portion of the whole area had been dredged. The depth of 
material to be excavated is much greater on the area remain- 
ing to be done than on the portion completed. 

The contractors for the various sections also have con- 
tracts with the Federal government for excavating portions 
of the main ship channel of Boston harbor, and inasmuch as 
the government projects and their completion seemed to the 
Board of paramount importance, objection has not been 
made to the temporary transfer, on several occasions, of 
dredging machines from the anchorage basin to the govern- 
ment work; consequently all the work under contracts 
now in force cannot be completed before the fall of 1905, 
the available space for anchorage of deep-draft vessels, how- 
ever, has already been materially increased. 

The amount of material excavated (scow measurement) 
from each section during the year, and the total amount 
excavated up to Dec. 1, 1904, are as follows : — 





Amoant ezcavatod 

from Dec. 1 19Q8, 

to Dec. 1, 1904 

(Cubic Yards). 


Total Amount 

excavated 
to Dec. 1, 1901 
(Cable Tarda). 


Section 1, 

Section 2, 

Section 3, 

Section 4, 


70,884 

226,485 
34,425 
69,107 


474,882 
414,632 
440,788 
474,100 


Totals 


400,901 


1^08,847 



The total amount expended on this project up to Dec. 1, 
1904, is $247,760.26. 



Dredging in Boston Upper Harbor. 

In December, 1903, the Board wa« informed that a shoal 
existed in Boston harbor at the westerly end of Bird Island 

a/ 

flats, oS piers Nos. 6 and 7 of the Grand Junction wharves 
in East Boston, which interfered with steamers of the Ley- 
land line in approaching and leaving dock. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 11 

A survey was made in December, 1903, and it was found 
that to provide a depth of 27 feet at mean low water and 
sufficient area would necessitate the dredging of 11,500 
cubic yards, situ measurement, from an area of about 28,500 
square feet. This dredging would remove a shoal injurious 
to navigation generally, beside giving unimpeded passage to 
the steamships of that line. 

On Jan. 13, 1904, a contract was entered into with the 
Eastern Dredging Company to dredge the above area to 
27 feet at mean low water, the contract price being 23| 
cents per cubic yard, measured in scows. The work was 
completed March 31, 1904, 15,340 cubic yards having been 
dredged, at a cost of $3,604.90, paid from the income of 
the comi^ensation fund for Boston harbor. 

In addition to the above work, the contractors for section 1 
of the anchorage l)asin in Boston harbor have excavated the 
whole width of the westerly end of said section where it pre- 
lected in front of the dock between piers Nos. 6 and 7, thus 
removing all shoal spots between the dock and the main 
ship channel. 

DORCHESTEK BaY. 

Dredging operations necessary to provide anchorage basins 
in Dorchester Bay, off the southerly shore of South Boston, 
authorized by chapter 425 of the Acts of 1902, have been 
carried on during the year under a contract with the New 
England Dredging Company and Eastern Dredging Com- 
I^ny, jointly, made Oct. 29, 1902, the price being 21 cents 
per cubic yard, measured in scows. The act provides for 
an expenditure not exceeding $25,000 in each of the years 
1902-03-04-05. 

The work is divided into two sections, respectively known 
as the 9-foot area and the 6-foot area. The 9-foot area is 
the larger and is located near the public landing and the 
landings at the South Boston and Boston Yacht Club houses. 
The smaller area is located near the L Street bath house and 
the landing of the Moscjuito Fleet Yacht Club. The dredg- 
ing on the 9-foot area has been completed with the excep- 
tion of about 21 acres at the south-westerly corner. 

Only a small amount of work was done during the year 



12 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

on the 6-foot area, but it is proposed to have substantially 
all the work on both areas completed at the beginning of 
the next yachting season. 

During the year 108,626 cubic yards have been excavated, 
making a total of 339,248 cubic yards up to Dec. 1, 1904. 

The amount expended to the •same date is $60,500.75. 

Dredging Easterly Shore of Dorchester. 

On Jan. 28, 1904, the Board, acting under authority of 
chapter 439 of the Acts of 1903, which provided for dredg- 
ing a channel off the easterly shore of the Dorchester district 
of the city of Boston and appropriated $25,000 therefor, 
entered into a contract with the Bay State Dredging Com- 
pany for dredging an anchorage basin between Savin Hill 
and Commercial Point, Dorchester, in the flats adjoining 
the main channel of Neponset River, and for enlarging the 
channel leading from that main channel to the wharves on 
the northerly side of Commercial Point, the channel to be 
12 feet deep at mean low water, 75 feet wide on the bottom 
and about 700 feet long, and the anchorage basin 9 feet deep 
at mean low water, 350 feet wide and about 500 feet long, 
or about 4^ acres. The contract price was 23^^^ cents per 
cubic yard, measured in scows. 

This work was completed in August, 1904, at a cost of 
$24,334.02. The total amount expended for this improve- 
ment up to Dec. 1, 1904, is $25,363.66, the sum in excess 
of the appropriation, $363.66, having been paid from the 
appropriations of 1903 and 1904 for the survey and im- 
provement of harbors. 

In connection with the above work the Savin Hill Yacht 
Club has dredged a channel, at its own expense, leading from 
the anchorage basin to the landing in front of its club house, 
and the Boston Yacht Club has made excavations to extend 
the deep water up to its landing. These improvements 
permit the owners of larger boats to anchor their craft out 
of the channel, where they are pmctically safe from collision 
with vessels and barges navigating the river, whereas they 
formerly anchored in the channel. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 13 

Dredging Northerly Shore of Quincy. 

On April 4, 1904, the Board, acting under authority of 
chapter 366 of the Acts of 1903, which provided for dredg- 
ing a channel off the northerly shore of Quincy, between 
Wollaston and Squantum, and appropriated $7,500 therefor, 
entered into a contract with the Harries & Letteney Com- 
pany for dredging a channel in Quincy Bay, nearly opposite 
Sachem Brook, 2,300 feet long, 40 feet wide on the bottom 
and 3 feet deep at mean low water, and a branch channel 
370 feet long, of the same width and depth, in accordance 
with plans made the previous season, the contract price 
being $6,800. Subsequently the branch channel was ex-r 
tended 50 feet. The work was completed July 1, 1904, at 
a cost of $7,000, and these channels afford access at low tide 
to the two yacht club landings located at this place. The 
total cost of this improvement up to Dec. 1, 1904, is 

$7,329.75. 

Weymouth Fore River. 

By chapter 440 of. the Acts of 1903 an appropriation of 
$25,000 was made for dredging the channel in Weymouth 
Fore Elver to 24 feet at mean low water. For the reasons 
stated in the report of last year the project was curtailed to 
limited dimensions and carried out on those lines. 

On Oct. 16, 1903, a contract was entered into with the 
Harries & Letteney Company to dredge the channel of this 
river, extending from Quincy Point bridge down stream 
about 1,850 feet, the general width to be 200 feet on the 
bottom, and the depth 15 feet at mean low water, the amount 
of excavation being estimated at about 22,000 cubic yards, 
measured in situ. The contract price was 29| cents per 
cubic yard, scow measurement, and the work was completed 
Jan. 1, 1904. 

The channel thus excavated enables vessels drawing 23 
feet to navigate this portion of the river. 

The total amount expended up to Dec. 1, 1904, is 
$10,235.87. 



U HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [.Tan. 

Commonwealth Flats at South Boston. 

The Commonwealth owns a large tract of filled land at 
South Boston, commonly known as the South Boston flats ^ 
shown on the plan accompanying the annual report of tlie 
Board for 1903, and located both northerly and southerly of 
Summer Street, easterly of the railroad terminal, and having 
a long frontage on Boston upper harbor and the reserved 
channel. 

The area northerly of Summer Street is 4,317,234 square 
feet, or 99.1 acres, exclusive of piers, but including the 
filled portion of the Commonwealth pier, 4,662,234 square 
feet, or 107.2 acres; of this area 792,287 square feet, or 
18.2 acres, is under lease. The area southerly of Summer 
Street, exclusive of streets, is 1,917,347 square feet, or 
44.0 acres, of which 88,221 square feet, or 2.0 acres, is 
under lease, and 304,560 square feet, together with 47,000 
square feet in two cross streets, or 8.1 acres in all, is used 
temporarily as a public play ground, under authority of 
chapter 421 of the Acts of 1891. 

The filling of the area described in previous reports as the 
26-acre lot, lying easterly of land of the Commonwealth 
leased to the Metropolitan Coal Company, was completed in 
July, 1904, under contracts entered into on June 26, 1902, 
and Oct. 27, 1902, with the New England Dredging Com- 
pany and Eastern Dredging Company, jointly. 

On Feb. 2io^ 1904, a contract was entered into with 
Thomas E. Ruggles to build an extension of 100 feet to the 
pile wharf built by the Commonwealth in 1902, and leased 
in that year, together with about 249,287 square feet of land 
to the Boston Molasses Company. ^ The contract price was 
$4,300 and the work was completed in July, 1904. This 
extension was desired by the lessee to enable it to discharge 
molasses from tank steamers ; and for the greater wharf 
facilities an additional rent of $453.40 is paid. 

In order to provide a place of deposit for material taken 
from cellars and other excavations in various parts of the 
cit>% the Board has granted from time to time permits for 
depositing the same on the portion of the Commonwealth 
lands north of Summer Street, with a result of mising the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 15 

grade to the plane of 15 feet above low water, while a well- 
coiii|)acted surface is also obtained without cost to the State. 

On July 5, 1904, the Commission on Height of Buildings 
in the City of Boston, appointed under the provisions of 
chapter 333 of the Acts of 1904, made an order establishing 
the boandaries of the district designated as A in said act 
which includes the Commonwealth's land at South Boston. 

By section 3 of this act no building shall be erected to a 
height of more than 125 feet above the grade of the street 
in any district designated A, the restriction not to apply, 
however, to grain or coal elevators or sugar refineries in this 
district, nor to steeples, domes, towers or cupolas erected 
for strictly ornamental purposes, of fireproof material, on 
buildings of the above height or less in any district. 

Commonwealth Pier. 

The Commonwealth pier at South Boston, 1,200 feet long 
and 400 feet wide, with a dock on the westerly side 175 
feet wide at the outer end, 200 feet at the inner end and 30 
feet deep at mean low water, and a berth at the outer end 
of the pier with the same depth, was built by the Common- 
wealth and completed, in respect to the pier proper in 1901, 
and dredging in 1902. The total cost of this pier up to 
Dec. 1, 1904, is $381,877.09, paid from an appropriation 
of $400,000 made by chapter 513 of the Acts of 1897. 
The structure, dock and berths are in substantially the same 
condition as stated in the report of the Board for 1903. 

The use of this pier is largely dependent upon the con- 
struction of Northern Avenue and bridge elsewhere alluded 
to in this report. 

The sum of $249.50 has been collected and paid into the 
treasury of the Commonwealth during the year, to be 
credited to the Commonwealth's flats improvement fund, for 
the use by a steamer of the dock on the westerly side 
of the pier for the purpose of discharging its cargo into 
lighters alongside. 

In May, 1904, the Board approved payment of $11,250, 
being a balance due for work done on this pier under a con- 
tract with George A. Cahill dated March (), 1899. 



16 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

Northern Avenue and Bridge. 

By chapter 381 of the Acts of 1903, Northern Avenue 
was laid out across Fort Point channel, also a street con- 
necting this avenue with Congress Street, across the lands 
of the New England Railroad Company, the Boston Wharf 
Company and of the Commonwealth known as the Conmion- 
wealth flats at South Boston. 

The Board and the Boston Wharf Company complied witJi 
the provisions of sections 1 and 2 of the act, but the Bail- 
road company delayed the execution and delivery of its 
release called for, in order that legislation might be ob- 
tained for the payment to it of any claim which the New 
England Railroad Company might have against the Com- 
monwealth based on an agreement between the Common- 
wealth, the New^ York & New England Railroad Company 
and the Boston & Albany Railroad Company, made Aug. 1, 
1882, and w^hich provided, in brief, for the repayment to 
said New York & New England Railroad Company of the 
value of the land included within this avenue as laid out 
under chapter 381 of the Acts of 1903, when it should be 
taken for that purpose. The result of the application to the 
I-.egislature was the enactment of chapter 229 of the Acts of 
1904, which authorized the Board, with the approval of the 
Governor and Council, to make an equitable adjustment of 
anv such claim. 

The release by the railroad companies was made March 
15, 1904, and on June 3, 1904, the Board passed the fol- 
lowing vote : — 

Whereas^ On the eighth day of December, 1869, an agreement 
was made between the Commonwealth of Massachasetts and the 
Boston <& Albany Railroad Company, whereby the railroad com- 
pany agreed to purchase the 50-acre lot, so called, on the South 
Boston flats from the Commonwealth for the sum of 9435,600, 
payable in twenty years from Oct. 1, 1872, the Commonwealth 
reserving the right to locate across said territory Northern Avenue 
75 feet wide ; 

And Whereas^ On June 24, 1873, another agreement was made 
between the same parties modifying said agreement of Dec. 8, 



iy05.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 17 

1869, by providing that the soatherly portion of the area to be 
oonTejed sboald be released to the Commonwealth and another 
area should be granted to the railroad company in substitution 
therefor along the westerly side of the premises, of such extent as 
would equal the value of the area released, the released area being 
valued at 20 cents per square foot, and the area in substitution 
therefor being valued at 50 cents per square foot, and further pro- 
viding that in case Noithem Avenue should be laid out under the 
iodentare of four parts of fi greater width than is stipulated in the 
agreement of Dec. 8, 1869, then the railroad company shall not be 
required to pay the Commonwealth for said additional area ; 

And Whereas^ On June 24, 1873, an indenture of four parts was 
entered into between the Commonwealth, the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company, the Boston Wharf Company and the city of 
Boston, which provided that the city of Boston may lay out as a 
public street, without incurring any liability for land damages for 
so doing. Northern Avenue not more than 100 feet wide from Fort 
Point channel to the southerly boundary line of the 50-acre lot, as 
said avenue is shown on the plan annexed to the sixth annual 
report of the Harbor Commissioners, or as the same shall be located 
QDder this indenture, and the railroad company agreed to fill up 
said avenue to the grade of 16 feet above mean low water as fast 
as it filled its other land abutting on it ; and the railroad company 
further agreed that the city should be subject to no grade or other 
damages for land taken from it by the city in performing its obli- 
gations under the indenture ; 

And Whereas^ On the third day of April, 1878, the Boston & 
Albany Railroad Company paid the Commonwealth the sum of 
1330,000 in part payment for the 50-acre lot, at that time some- 
what reduced in area, to be thereafter conveyed ; 

And WhereaSj By an agreement dated July 15, 1880, the Boston 
& Albany Railroad Company agreed to convey the 50-acre lot to 
the New York & New England Railroad Company in consideration 
of the payment of $330,000 and other considerations ; 

And Whereas^ By an agreement dated Aug. 1, 1882, between 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road Company and the New York & New England Railroad Com- 
pany, in settlement of claims, controversies and suits then pending, 
the Commonwealth agreed to convey the 50-acre lot, including 
the area to be occupied by Northern Avenue, to the New York & 
New England Railroad Company upon the payment of the sum of 
tl00,000, with interest, with the proviso that whenever Northern 
Avenue was laid out in such manner either by the Commonwealth 



18 HAKBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

or the city of Boston, tbat the railroad compaDj coald not obtain 
compeDBatioD for the land so occupied, aod then the Commoii- 
wealth should repay to the railroad company the value of the land 
so taken at the rate of 20 cents per square foot for the portion 
crossing the original area of the 50-acre lot and 50 cents per square 
foot for the area added under the agreement of 1873, with interest 
at 5 per cent per annum from May 1, 1882 ; 

And Whereas^ On May 27, 1889, the Commonwealth, having re- 
ceived the said $100,000, with interest, in addition to the amount 
theretofore paid, did deed the 50-acre lot to the New York <& New- 
England Bailroad Company ; 

And Whereas^ By chapter 881 of the Acts of 1903 the Common- 
wealth laid out Northern Avenue 100 feet wide across the 50-acre 
lot and provided that no compensation for any land or flats of the 
railroad companies should be allowed or paid, and required the 
railroad companies to release to said city without compensation 
their land included within said avenue ; 

And Whereas^ The railroad companies have released to the city 
of Boston without compensation their lands as by chapter 381 
aforesaid required ; 

And Whereas^ By chapter 229 of the Acts of 1904 it is provided 
that the release by the railroad company to the city of Boston of 
land within Northern Avenue shall be without prejudice to the 
claim of said company for payment for said land under the agree- 
ment of Aug. 1, 1882, and that the Board of Harbor and Land 
Commissioners, with the approval of the Governor and Council, 
may make an equitable adjustment of any such claim ; 

And Whereas^ The Board of Harbor and Land Commissioners 
has duly considered the claim of the New England Railroad Com- 
pany and its lessee, the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road Company, for compensation for said land, with a view to an 
equitable adjustment thereof, and has concluded that the use of 
the land has been an equivalent to the yearly interest ; 

Now, Therefore, In consideration of the foregoing, it is voted 
that the payment of $22,545.60 for the 95,228 square feet of land 
at 20 cents per square foot, and the 7,000 square feet of land at 
50 cents per square foot, released to the city of Boston for the 
building of Northern Avenue, would be an equitable adjustment 
of the said claim, and should be made upon a receipt of full satis- 
faction and discharge therefor from the railroad companies. 

Woodward Emert, 
Chas. C. Dotkn, 
Geo. E. Smith, 
Harbor and Land Commissioners, 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 19 

The foregoing action of the Board was approved by the 
Governor and Council June 9, 1904, and on June 16, 1904, 
a bill for $22,545.60 was approved for payment of the 
claim. 

Plans for Northern Avenue bridge across Fort Point 
channel were prepared by the city engineer of Boston, who 
filed with this Board, on June 24, 1904, on behalf of the 
city, a petition for their approval. A public hearing was 
given on July 6, 1904, and it was decided that the plans 
should be so amended that the two draw openings in the 
proposed bridge should each be not less than 75 feet wide. 
The plans as amended were approved on July 18, 1904, and 
license issued. 

Subsequently the city submitted the same to the Secre- 
tary of War for approval. A public hearing was given on 
Sept. 26, 1904, by Col. W. S. Stanton, U. S. A., the en- 
gineer officer in charge of river and harbor work in this dis- 
trict, when various parties appeared in opposition., and this 
Board and others in favor* 

The attitude of the Commonwealth was stated by the 
chairman of the Board to be as follows : — 

• 

In 1873, the Commonwealth, the city of Boston, the Boston & 
Albany Railroad and the Boston Wharf Company, in pursnance of 
a scheme for improving the navigation of Boston harbor and of 
developing a large area of useless flats, to result in a common 
benefit, made an agreement in writing for filling fiats lying south- 
east of Fort Point channel for the purpose of improving the same, 
laying out streets and building bridges across the cbannel. Con- 
gress Street bridge, one of the bridges referred to in the agree- 
ment as Eastern Avenue bridge, was built soon thereafter. The 
boilding of Northern Avenue bridge has been delayed for various 
reasons until recently. Lately, however, the demands of trade 
have become such as to require its building, consequently, in 1908, 
the Legislature by chapter 381 of the Acts of that year enacted 
a statute, prepared by concurrent action of the counsel of all 
parties bound by said agreement, laying out Northern Avenue 
^^from Atlantic avenue near Oliver street easterly to Fort Point 
channel, thence across said channel by a bridge and thence across 
the land of the New England Railroad Company and its lessee, the 
New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company, and lands 
of the Commonwealth," as shown on the plan entitled ^^ Plan of 



20 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

the Location of Northern Avenue from Atlantic Avenue to and 
over the Lands and Flats of the Commonwealth at South Boston, 
and of Sleeper Street from Congress Street to Northern Avenue, 
March, 1903. Scale, 1 in. = 50 feet. Frank W. Hodgdon, Chief 
Engineer. Woodward Emery, Charles C. Doten, George E. Smith, 
Harbor and Land Commissioners." 

By section 3 of said act the city engineer of Boston was required 
to build said avenue and ^' to construct said bridge on masonry 
piers and abutments with a superstructure of iron or steel or both, 
having a draw or passageway not less than sixty feet wide for 
vessels." The railroads and the Boston Wharf Company were 
required to and have released their lands to be occupied by the 
avenue, and the Commonwealth, in addition to building the portion 
of the avenue over its lands, is to pay the city the sum of $260,000 
toward the cost of building the bridge. 

The city engineer has perfected the plans for the bridge and the 
same have been approved by the Harbor and Land Commission as 
required by the statute. These plans are now before the War 
Department for approval, and are submitted to you for recom- 
mendation. It is obvious that the interests of the Commonwealth, 
of the city of Boston, of the railroad companies and of the Boston 
Wharf Company are to be subserved by the building of this 
bridge. Public necessity and convenience demand it. The Com- 
monwealth has at great cost filled a large area of territory which 
needs for its full development this bridge to the heart of the city 
of Boston. The Commonwealth has built a large pier, the largest 
in this country, having a length of 1,200 feet, a width of 400 feet 
and a surface area of over 11 acres, which will lie idle until this 
avenue and bridge are assured. The railroad companies require 
this immediate access from their ' freight yards to the heart of 
the city and large commercial interests demand its construction. 
The chief objection that can be urged would be its obstruction 
to the navigation of Fort Point channel. This necessary obstrac- 
tion is mitigated as much as is possible by making a draw opening 
in the bridge at a suitable place, now planned to be 75 feet wide, 
and this is deemed adequate to meet all the requirements of navi- 
gation in that locality so far as it can at present be foreseen, and 
is satisfactory to the representatives of the largest steamers that 
navigate the channel. The objections against it are of the same 
character and can have no greater force than those raised against 
obstructing any navigable stream by a bridge with a suitable draw 
opening. The fact that there are eight bridges above this pro- 
posed one already on Fort Point channel is indubitable evidence 
of the necessity for navigable interests giving way to the neces- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 21 

sitiea of land travel and traffic. In this case I understand the 
objectors are largely wharf owners and not navigators. Private 
interests are asked to prevail over the public welfare. So far as 
the public is concerned it is another instance of one class of trans- 
portation facilities becoming slightly abridged for the purpose of 
largely increasing the accommodation of another equally if not 
more important class of transportation. The right and privi- 
leges of river navigation are again asked to yield exclusive en- 
joyment of a water section to enjoyment in common with land 
transportation . 

Further hearing was given by the engineer oflScer on Oct. 6, 
1904, when the chairman supplemented his previous state- 
ment by referring to decisions of the United States Supreme 
Court on the interi:)retation of the acts of Congress appli- 
cable to the question, as follows : — 

1 think it very important that the law on this question, involving 
the true scope of the hearing, which is fully established by decisions 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, should be brought to 
the attention of the department here and in Washington. 

In the first place it is to be observed that the location of the 
proposed structure over navigable waters is wholly within the 
territory of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

And I state this because you well know that the law differs when 
the location is wholly within one State and when it lies between 
two States. 

Second. — The grounds of the opposition are almost entirely 
based on injury to the business of individuals which would be 
caused by the erection of another bridge across Fort Point channel. 
While it is true that these objectors taken collectively form a part 
of the great public, and consequently are entitled to be heard on 
the question of whether the public convenience and necessity 
require their interests to give way to the greater good of the 
greater number, it is respectfully submitted that that-question was 
ultimately and finally decided by the local powers clothed with full 
authority to decide that question. 

Third, — While nothing said by me is to be interpreted as raising 
the question of the power of Congress over navigable waters, it is 
most respectfully submitted that the only question within the scope 
of proper inquiry by the War Department under existing acts of 
Congress is limited to the location and form of the proposed struc- 
ture. The reading of the various acts of Congress for the protec- 
tion and preservation of the navigable waters of the United States 



22 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [J 



admits of no other meaning under the interpretation given by t;lie 
United States Sapreme Court. 

The ease of the Lake Shore & Michigan Railroad Company v. 
Ohio, Vol. 165, U. S. Rep., p. 365 (1897), was a case where tlie 
railroad company, under its charter from the State, undertook to 
build a bridge without a draw over a navigable river, and that riglit 
was contested in the Supreme Court. The court decided that tiie 
provisions of the River and Harbor Act of Sept. 19, 1890, coo* 
f erring upon the Secretary of War authority concerning bridges 
over navigable water ways, do not deprive the States of authoritiy 
to bridge such streams but simply create an additional and cumu- 
lative remedy to prevent such structures, although lawfully author* 
ized, from interfering with commerce. 

It was contended that because they had the permission of the 
Secretary of War, the permission of the State was not necessary. 

In the opinion of the court, delivered by Mr. Justice White, 
page 366, he says : ^' The contention is that the statute in question 
manifests the purpose of Congress to deprive the several States of 
all authority to control and regulate any and every structure over 
all navigable streams, although they be wholly situated withia 
their territory. That full power resides in the States as to the 
erection of bridges and other works in navigable streams wholly 
within their jurisdiction, in the absence of the exercise by Con- 
gress of authority to the contrary, is conclusively determined." 

Again: '^The mere delegation of power to direct a change in 
lawful structures so as to cause them not to interfere with com- 
merce cannot be construed as conferring on the officer named the 
right to determine when and where a bridge may be built." 

Again : '^ The provision that it shall not be lawful to thereafter 
erect any bridge, ' in any navigable river or navigable waters of 
the United States, under any act of the legislative assembly of any 
State, until the location and plan of such bridge . . . have been 
submitted to and approved by the Secretary of War,' contemplated 
that the function of the Secretary should extend only to the form 
of future structures, since the act would not have provided for the 
future erection of bridges under State authority if its very purpose 
was to deny for the future all power in the States on the subject." 

Fourth, — While it is true that the act of Congress aforesaid 
has been amended, it is submitted that no subsequent amendment 
has materially enlarged the scope of the authority of the Secretary 
of War in the foregoing particular. On the contrary, section 9 of 
the River and Harbor Act, approved March 3, 1899, contains the 
following proviso: ^^ Provided^ that such structures may be built 
under the authority of the Legislature of a State across rivers and 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 23 

other water ways, the navigable portions of which lie wholly within 
the limits of a single State, provided the location and plans thereof 
are sobmitted to and approved by the Chief of Engineers and by 
the Secretary of War before construction is commenced." It can- 
not be ooDtended that the words ^* location" and ^^ form" will be 
interpreted as giving to the Secretary of War more than the power 
of regalation, certainly not the power of prohibition. A reference 
to the opinions of the Sapreme Court of the United States in the 
cases following clearly indicated that the scope of the power in- 
tended by Congress to be vested in the Secretary of War with 
reference to obstructions in and over the navigable waters of the 
United States should be limited as above stated: Willamette 
Bridge Co. v. Hatch, 125 United States Rep. 1 ; Cummings v. City 
of Chicago, 188 United States Rep. 410 ; Montgomery v. Portland, 
190 United States Rep. 89. 

These are interesting cases inasmuch as they show the necessity, 
as the court decide, for the concurrent action on the part of the 
Slate and the United States. The authority that is delegated by 
the act of Congress to the Secretary of War to act is a limited 
authority. I do not undertake to say what the powers of Con- 
gress are ; how far it could delegate its authority, because that 
qnestion is not before us. The question is how far have the acts 
of Congress delegated to the Secretary of War the power to act 
in this particular case. 

In Cummings against the city of Chicago, the Calumet River 
was, so far as its navigable rights went, ceded to the United 
States, and Cummings undertook to build a dock in that river 
under authority of the Secretary of War ; but the Commissioners 
of Public Works had power, under the ordinances of the city of 
Chicago, to regulate building of that kind, and the intercession 
of the court was asked on the ground that Cummings had not only 
not obtained but had been refused permission of the commissioners 
to baild into the river, although he had permission from the Secre- 
tary of War. The Supreme Court at Washington sustained the 
view of the plaintiffs that Cummings had no right to build in the 
Calumet River without the authority of the Board of Public Works 
of Chicago. The court says : ^' We may assume that Congress 
was not unaware of the decision of the above case in 1896 and 
of the interpretation placed upon existing legislative enactments. 
If it has intended by the act of 1899 to assert the power to take 
under national control, for every purpose, and to the fullest pos- 
sible extent, the erection of structures in the navigable waters of 
the United States that were wholly within the limits of the respec- 
tive States, and to supersede entirely tbe authority which the 



24 HARBOR AND LAND COMinSSIONERS. [Jan- 

States, in the absence of any action by Congress, have in such 
matters, such a radical departure from the previous policy of the 
government would have been manifested by clear and explicit 
language. In the absence of such language it should not be as- 
sumed that any such departure was intended." 

In Montgomery against Portland the harbor line had been fijced 
by the Port Commissioners under authority given them for that 
purpose. 

Montgomery wished to build out beyond the harbor line so fixed , 
and he went to the Secretary of War and got a United States 
harbor line put outside of the harbor line which was established 
by the State authorities, and then got permission to erect his 
wharf. The city objected. The Supreme Court, reviewing pre- 
vious decisions, decided that the Secretary of War's permission 
and the establishment of the line outside did not give the Secre- 
tary of War any authority to permit Montgomery to build beyond 
the harbor line established by the State. 

Fifth, — That this limitation of the scope of inquiry by the Sec- 
retary of War is the true intent of the acts of Congress and needs 
no enlargement, and accords with wisdom, cannot be questioned. 
It rests upon the fundamental principles of local self government. 
The very essence of the question is local. The vessels would not 
visit the locality unless to unload or ship a cargo for a local shipper 
or consignee. 

But apart from the principle involved, it would be impolitic and 
undesirable to impose on the Secretary of War, in addition to all 
his manifold duties, the burden and responsibility of revising the 
findings of local tribunals upon multitudinous facts of purely local 
interest, as to whether the public interest and welfare of a locality 
were to be benefited or injured by a proposed public improvement. 
It is submitted that not only the unnecessary increase of the bur- 
dens of that department would be a powerful argument against any 
other interpretation of the meaning of the act than the one con- 
tended, but that it is against the public policy of the country to 
transfer local questions wholly dependent upon local prejudices and 
interests to a department at Washington. 

Escanaba v. Chicago, 107 U. S. Rep. 678, 683, is commented 
on in the opinion in Cummings v» Chicago, as follows : The ques- 
tion was as to the validity of regulations made by the city of 
Chicago in reference to the closing, between certain hours of each 
day, of bridges across the Chicago River. Those regulations were 
alleged to be iuconsistent with the power of Congress over inter- 
state commerce. This court said: ^^The Chicago River and its 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 25 

branches must, therefore, be deemed navigable waters of the 
United States, over which Congress, under its commercial power, 
may exercise control to the extent necessary to protect, preserve, 
and inaprove their free navigation. But the States have full power 
to regulate within their limits matters of internal police, including 
in that general designation whatever will promote the peace, com- 
fort, convenience and prosperity of their people. This power 
embraces the construction of roads, canals and bridges, and the 
establishment of ferries, and it can generally be exercised more 
wisely by the States than by a distant authority. They are the 
first to see the importance of such means of internal communica- 
tion, and are more deeply concerned than others in their wise 
management. Illinois is more immediately affected by the bridges 
over the Chicago River and its branches than any other State, and 
is more directly concerned for the prosperity of the city of Chicago, 
for the convenience and comfort of its inhabitants, and the growth 
of its commerce. And nowhere could the power to control the 
bridges in that city, their construction, form and strength, and the 
size of their draws, and the manner and times of using them, be 
better vested than with the State, or with the authorities of the city 
upon whom it has devolved that duty." 

Here Boston might be substituted for Chicago, and that language 
oould be applied to the case at bar with controlling influence. 

Sixth, — In the case before 3'ou no objections have been heard 
against the location or the form of the proposed structure. The 
plans have been prepared by one of the most skilful bridge 
engineers in the Commonwealth, if not in the country, with minute 
and careful reference to the conditions and requirements of the 
structure and its surroundings, and after full hearing, at which 
everybody desiring had an opportunity to be heard, and after con- 
sideration of all public and private interests concerned, have been 
approved by the State and municipal authorities and by the local 
boards, chambers and associations who make it their business 
both to promote and guard the interests of commerce and navi- 
gation. 

The only question which should interest the Secretary of War 
is whether the proposed structure, in form and location, would 
unreasonably interfere with navigation, — and evidently the word 
location is limited in the view of the court to the location of things 
within the bridge itself, for instance, the piers relative to the tidal 
way through, or the height above the tidal way and the location 
and width of the draw opening. Those are all questions which 
properly, under the act of Congress, may be supervised by the 



26 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS- [Jan. 

Secretary of War and may be changed ; but beyond that X do not 
think it was the intention of Congress to go, and I think that the 
decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States have finally 
settled that limit. 

The Commonwealth's Flats at East Boston. 

The question involving the title of the East Boston Com- 
pany to certain of the flats at East Boston, taken by the 
Commonwealth under chapter 486 of the Acts of 1897, is 
still pending in the Land Court. 

The commission on the separation of grade crossings at 
East Boston has finally reported in favor of the plan advo- 
cated by the Boston & Albany Railroad Company, ^which 
permits its tracks to remain substantially in the location 
heretofore occupied through the centre of the island ; in 
consequence whereof the flats heretofore taken by the Com- 
monwealth from the East Boston Company fail to receive 
the benefit which a relocation of the railroad tracks on the 
east side of the island would have given. 

The total amount expended on account of this property, 
up to Dec. 1, 1904, is $24,988.79. 

South Bay. 

On April 8, 1904, the Board entered into a contract with 
the Roxbury Central Wharf Company to dredge a channel 
across the southerly end of South Bay, in extension of the 
channel dredged by the Commonwealth in 1902, about 375 
feet long, 110 feet wide on the bottom acid 12 feet deep at 
mean low water; the contract price being $8,000 and the 
date of completion June 1, 1905. No substantial amount 
of work has been done. 

In order to provide for the payment of a judgment ren- 
dered in February, 1904, against the Commonwealth in the 
case of Wm. H. Bent v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
for land taken in South Bay for the purpose of its improve- 
ment by dredging, chapter 63 of the Resolves of 1904 was 
passed, allowing the sum of $10,500 to be taken from " Im- 
provement of South Bay in the city of Boston fund," created 
by chapter 278 of the Acts of 1898. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 27 

The total amount expended from the above fund up to 
Dec. 1, 1904, is $48,503.70. The balance in this fund on 
Nov. 30, 1904, was $10,933.80. 

Mystic Rrv^Eu. 

In the report of the Board for 1901 it was stated that 
'' claims for displacement by filling on the west side of the 
river have been made up and put into the Attorney-Gen- 
eral's bands for collection. These claims are liable to be 
contested, on the ground that prior legislation has exempted 
the owners of flats on that side of the river, within a limited 
territory, from the payment of compensation for tide water 
displaced. These contentions raise questions of law which 
it will be necessary to take to the Supreme Judicial Court 
for decision, before the rights and obligations of the Com- 
monwealth and the contending parties can be ascertained 
and settled." 

The cases of the Commonwealth against Stone and Met- 
calf, relating to payment of certain assessments for tide 
water displaced by filling in Mystic River on a portion of 
the territory lying between Johnson's wharf and Elm Street, 
in Charlestown, and involving questions of law referred to 
in the above report, were decided adversely to the Com- 
monwealth by the Supreme Judicial Court in February last 
on the ground that St. 1893, chapter 334, was an extension 
of the right to fill the defendants' lands without paying for 
the displacement of tide water, which was originally granted 
to the Mystic River Corporation, and that this extension 
granted in terms to the defendants and others who were in 
possession inured to their benefit in such a way as to exempt 
them from the provisions of Public Statutes, chapter 19, 
section 14. 

Merrimac River Harbor Line. 

In July, 1904, the Board heard parties interested in a 
petition for license to build a wharf on the northerly shore 
of Merrimac River in Haverhill within that section of the 
city frontage on which no harbor line has been established. 
Tie question of permitting a structure to extend into the 
river beyond the bank as far as desired by the petitioner in 



28 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

this case, and the expediency of having a known limitation 
binding upon all adjacent estates, alike leads the Soard to 
recommend to the Legislature the advisability of extending 
the harbor line fixed by chapter 313 of the Acts of 1 902 in a 
general easterly and south-easterly direction to a point oppo- 
site Buttonwoods Avenue. 

Annisquam River. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 71 of the 
Resolves of 1903, a survey was made of Annisquam River 
in that year, also estimates of the cost of improving* the 
channel. 

The project provided for dredging a channel with a depth 
of not less. than 6 feet at mean low water from the head of 
the present 6-foot channel opposite Wolf Hill, through the 
cut into Gloucester harbor, this channel to be 100 feet wide 
on the bottom from the end of the present 6-foot channel 
up to the entrance of the cut, thence 60 feet wide on the 
bottom through the cut into the harbor. The Board re- 
ported that this improvement would involve the expenditure 
of $75,124. 

By chapter 88 of the Resolves of 1904 the project was 
approved in modified form, limiting the cost to $50,000, to 
be expended at the rate of not over $17,000 a year, and the 
dimensions of the channel between Gloucester harbor and 
Wolf Hill, or thereabout, according to the plan made by the 
Board under the provisions of chapter 71 of the Resolves of 
1903, to the width of not exceeding 50 feet, with a depth ot 
not exceeding 6 feet at mean low water. 

In furtherance of this project the Board prepared and for- 
warded for signature certain releases, and communicated 
with the city engineer of Gloucester in respect to the high- 
way bridge known as Cut bridge across this river, as the 
carrying out of the improvement involves the rebuilding of 
this bridge as well as the strengthening of the foundations 
of the Boston & Maine railroad bridge. Subsequently, con- 
ference was liad with the mayor of Gloucester and others 
interested, at which it appeared that no plans had been 
adopted by the city of Gloucester for rebuilding the high- 
way bridge. The railroad company has signified its willing- 



1905.] PUBLIC D0CUMJ:NT — No. 11. 29 

ness to make the desired changes in its bridge, but the Board 
is awaiting action by the city of Gloucester before coni- 
pletiDg its plans and advertising for proposals. 

The total amount expended on the project for the im- 
provement of this river, up to Dec. 1, 1904, is $1,399.28. 

Bass River, Beverly. 

By chapter 341 of the Acts of 1903 the Board was directed 

to dredge the channel of Bass River, in Beverly, from Isa- 

belle^s Island, near Elliott Street, to the mouth of that river 

at its junction with Danvers River, to a depth of 18 feet at 

mean high tide, the channel to be made 100 feet wide 

wherever in the judgment of the Board it is practicable, 

and at the end nearest Elliott Street may, in the discretion 

of the Board, be made of greater width. 

It was estimated in 1903 that the total cost of the work 
would be about $85,000. Section 4 of the act provides for 
the payment by the Commonwealth of $25,000 for dredging 
and damages that may be awarded under section 2 of the 
act. The excess above $25,000 is to be paid by the city of 
Beverly. 

On Feb. 2, 1904, a contract was entered into with Charles 
H. Souther and John H. Gerrish to dredge a channel about 
6,500 feet long, 100 feet wide on the bottom and 9 feet deep 
at mean low water, except that where ledge is encountered 
the channel through the rock is to be excavated 75 feet wide 
on the bottom and at least 9 feet deep at mean low water. 

The contract provided for the completion of the whole 
work by Oct. 30, 1904, the price for dredging the channel 
and disposing of the material being 33^ cents per cubic yard, 
scow measurement ; and for excavating ledge and disposing 
of the material $11.40 per cubic yard, measured m situ. 

Owing to delay, partially due to the reconstruction of 
the bridge over this river, the work will not be completed 
antil the summer of 1905. 

At the present time, with the exception of a small amoui)t' 
at the mouth of the river, the channel has been excavated, 
up to within about 1,000 feet of its terminus, but the rook 
removal has not been commenced. Up to Dec. 1, 1904, 
128,200 cubic yards of material have been dredged, of 



30 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

which 84,240 cubic yards have been deposited in deep water 
in the outer portions of Salem harbor and the balance used 
for filling the wharves on the banks of Bass River. 

The total amount expended up to Dec. 1, 1904, is 
$33,640.99, of which $24,203.27 has been paid by the 
Commonwealth and $9,437.72 by the city of Beverly. 

Connecticut River. 

By chapter 344 of the Acts of 1885 this Board was given 
the general care and supervision of the Connecticut Kiver 
and its banks, and of all structures therein, to prevent and 
remove unauthorized encroachments and causes of every kind 
which may in any way injure the river, and to protect and 
develop the rights and property of the public therein. 

Hadley. — In 1888 an appropriation of $15,000 was made 
for building protective works to prevent further inroads of 
the river upon the northerly side of Hadley. The work 
done under this appropriation was the grading of the bank 
above the water line to a uniform slope, the covering of the 
slope above and below the water line with mats constructed 
of willow, brush and poles, and the placing of rubble stone 
and riprap over the mats. Willows were also set in the 
slope above the low-water line, and have since grown into 
the banks, thus by the spread of their roots affording ad- 
ditional protection. The method of construction adopted 
by the Board has been fully described in preceding reports. 

Additional appropriations for protective works in Hadley 
have been made as follows : — 

Resolves of 1889, chapter 17, tl6>000 

Resolves of 1900, chapter 100 15,000 

Resolves of 1901, chapter 94, 16,000 

Total appropriations, 60,000 

In 1902 a dike was built where the river had broken 
through the bank, just below the bridges crossing the river 
between Northampton and Hadley, at a cost of $1,731.54. 
*. In 1903 and 1904 the riprapping on the bank was rein- 
forced where it had been undermined and displaced, and 
where it had settled, at a total cost of $4,159.83. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 31 

The total length of river bank which has been treated 
thus fiur is about 5,200 feet. 

The total amount expended at Hadley up to Dec. 1, 1904, 
is $60,8fi4.41, a portion of which has been paid from appro- 
priations for repairing damages along the coast line or river 
banks of the Commonwealth. 

West Springfield. — By chapter 90 of the Resolves of 
1891 an appropriation of $5,000 was made for protective 
work to prevent further inroads of the river upon the 
easterly side of the town of West Springfield and the de- 
struction of property. The bank of the river to the extent 
of about 210 feet was treated, on practically the same plan 
and by the same methods adopted at Hadley. 

The total amount expended at West Springfield up to 
Dec. 1, 1904, is $4,916.49. 

Agawam. — By chapter 101 of the Resolves of 1894 an 
appropriation of $2,000 was made for protective works 
along the western bank of the river in Agawam. Addi- 
tional appropriations for protective works at this place have 
been made as follows : — 

Resolves of 1895, chapter 67, #3,000 

Resolves of 1896, chapter 95, 1,500 

Resolves of 1897, chapter 68 1,500 

Total appropriations, 8,000 

This work was done in 1894-97, substantially on the 
same plan and by the same methods used at Hadley and 
West Springfield, resulting in the protection of about 2,400 
feet of the river bank. 

The total amount expended at Agawam up to Dec. 1, 
1904, is $8,006.76. 

Hatfield. — By chapter 82 of the Resolves of 1903 an 
appropriation of $7,500 was made for protective works at 
Hatfield to further prevent inroads and encroachments of 
the river along the western bank. The Board, as stated in 
its report of last year, after an inspection and study of the 
locality and existing conditions, concluded to build two 
connected earthen dikes 10 feet in width at the crest, with 



32 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [^Jan. 



side slopes of 2^ to 1, to prevent further encroachmen 
and on June 2, 1904, entered into a contract with KLi^ly 
& Gleason to build the same, also to furnish and lay pij>o3 
for drainage through or under the dikes, and to protect t;lie 
outlets with bulkheads of stone masonry and with paving. 
The work was completed in November, 1904. 

The total amount expended at Hatfield up to Dec. 1, 
1904, is $5,110.24. 

The total amount expended up to Dec. 1, 1904, in pro- 
tecting the Connecticut River banks in Hadley, West 
Springfield, Agawam and Hatfield, is $78,896.90. 

Green Harbor. 

By chapter 495 of the Acts of 1896 the Board of Harbor 
and Land Commissioners and the State Board of Healtli 
were constituted a joint board to investigate and report on 
Green Harbor in the town of Marshfield. 

In accordance with the recommendations of the joint board, 
made in its report to the Legislature in 1898, an appropria- 
tion of $67,000 Avas made in that year for the improvement 
of Green Harbor below the dike by excavating an anchorage 
basin within the point of Duxbury Beach, and opening a 
channel from the basin to the sea, the entrance to be pro- 
tected by stone jetties. 

A contract for the construction of two stone jetties, with 
an opening of about 200 feet between their outer ends, was 
entered into Sept. 27, 1898, with the Rockport Granite 
Company of Massachusetts, and they were completed in the 
fall of 1899 at a cost of $33,256.93. A timber wall to 
direct the current of Out River flowing into Green Harbor, 
and thus assist the main current in keeping the entrance 
clear, was completed in February, 1900. 

A contiuct with Augustus B. Martin to dredge the 
channel between the jetties to 5 feet at mean low water, 
with a width of 60 feet on the bottom, and to excavate an 
anchorage basin just inside the Narrows, about 350 feet by 
300 feet, to the same depth as the entrance channel, was 
made and completed in 1900 at an expense of $26,073.79. 
In this year the timber bulkhead previously built at the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 33 

inner end of the westerly jetty was extended alongside the 
jetty, to act as a sand catch and thus increase the height of 
the beach and prevent waves washing over the beach into 
the new channel. Bowlders were also removed at the 
entrance of the channel. 

By chapter 393 of the Acts of 1904 the Board was directed 
to dredge Green Harbor River, in its discretion, to such 
depth as it might determine to be needful, and authorized 
to expend therefor not exceeding $10,000. 

A survey aud examination of the harbor were 'made in 
June, 1904, showing that the location of the channel, which 
had been dredged to a width of 60 feet on the bottom and 
depth of 5 feet, had changed and the same had filled to a 
considerable extent, and that the channel from the anchor- 
age basin to the sea had a depth ranging from 4 feet at mean 
low water to IJ feet, and a width varying from 60 feet to 
110 feet between the low-water lines. The anchorage basin 
has shoaled considerably and the westerly jetty has settled. 
At the present time boats drawing 18 inches can pass in and 
out of the harbor at ordinary low water,* and this appears to 
be about the size of channel which the present tidal volume 
of the harbor will maintain with the jetties as now built. 

No contract for the dredging authorized by the act of 
1904 has been made, as it is considered inadvisable before 
the jetties are built up. 

The total amount expended for the improvement of Green 
Harbor since beginning work in 1898, up to Dec, 1, 1904, 

is $65,961.42. 

Stage Harbor. 

The Board, acting under authority of chapter 47 of the 
Resolves of 1903, prepared plans and specifications during 
that year for building a timber dike and structures in the 
breach at the eastern end of Stage harbor in Chatham, to 
protect the harbor from encroachments or damage by the 
sea, the appropriation therefor being $5,000. The only 
proposal received for this work was 50 per cent, greater 
than the amount appropriated, and was rejected. 

By chapter 90 of the Resolves of 1904 the Board was 
authorized to expend $1,000 for building the structures 



34 HARBOR AND LAND COM^HSSIONERS. [Jan. 

authorized by chapter 47 of the Resolves of 1903, in ad- 
dition to $5,000 appropriated by the latter resolve. 

On July 21, 1904, proposals were received for building 
a timber bulkhead or dike across the channel throug'h the 
marsh into the eastern end of the harbor, and for extending 
the structure across the marsh to the sand dunes on either 
side, together with timber fences supported by embank- 
ments of sand to close the valleys through the sand dunes to 
the south of the main dike. . 

Before the proposals were received some of the inhabit- 
ants of Chatham remonstrated to the Board on the ^ound 
that changes had recently taken place which rendered it in- 
advisable, in their opinion, to build the structures. The 
outer beach since the last season had built up and connected 
with the main land on the southerly side of the entrance to 
Pleasant Bay, thereby greatly reducing the flow of water 
through the breach into Stage harbor. 

After inspection the Board concluded that such changes 
had taken place in the movement of sand as to avoid imme- 
diate menace to th^ harbor, and that it would consequently 
defer action for the present and watch for such changes as 
may occur. 

The total amount expended up to Dec. 1, 1904, is 
$135.44. 

Red River, or Bucks Creek, Chatham. 

By chapter 102 of the Resolves of 1904 the Board was 
authorized and directed to construct a timber jetty at the 
mouth of Red River in Chatham, if in its opinion it is ex- 
pedient so to do. The expenditure of $1,000 was authorized 
by the resolve. 

An examination and survey of this locality were made in 
June, 1904, and it was subsequently concluded to invite 
proposals for the construction of a timber jetty about 150 
feet long on the westerly side of the mouth of Red River, 
otherwise known as Bucks Creek. 

A large fishing fleet harbors at this haven and the project 
is calculated to protect its interests and enhance its safety. 

On Aug. 2, 1904, the Board entered into a contract with 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 35 

Thomas & Connor .to build this jetty, the contract price 
being $5.50 per lineal foot. Upon the completion of the 
contract 156 lineal feet of jetty will have been built, at an 
expense of $858, making the total cost of this improvement 
$1,091.10, of which amount a portion will be paid fipom 
the appropriation for survey and improvement of harbors. 

The total amount expended up to Dec. 1, 1904, is 
$194.60. 

WiTCHMERE HaRBOK. 

The entrance to Witchmere harbor at Harwichport has 
\>een improved by the extension, under chapter 463 of the 
Acts of 1899, of the stone jetty which was in existence in 
1899, and by building a timber jetty, about 250 feet long, 
on the easterly side of the entrance parallel with and 100 
feet easterly of the stone jetty. 

The Board reported in 1902 that the channel had deepened 
slightly, but that there was not sufficient depth to enable 
large boats to enter the harbor. By chapter 91 of the Re- 
solves of 1904 the sum of $3,500 was appropriated for im- 
proving this harbor by dredging the channel and in such 
other manner as it may be deemed best, provided, however, 
that the town of Harwich or the citizens thereof should, 
before work was commenced, deposit not less than $500 
with the Treasurer of the Commonwealth to complete the 
same. A survey was made in June, 1904, and it was esti- 
mated that the cost of excavating and protecting the pro- 
posed channel would be not less than $4,000. 

The Board was informed by the State Treasurer on Sept. 
1, 1904, that $500 had been paid under the above resolve. 

Owing to the late date at which the deposit was made it 
was deemed inadvisable to do the work this year. Plans 
and Hpecifications, however, have been prepared and pro- 
poflals will shortly be advertised. 

The total amount expended on this harbor up to Dec. 
1, 1904, is $4,975.46. 



36 HAKBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

East Bay, Osterville. 

By chapter 376 of the Acts of 1903 the Board was author- 
ized, if deemed advisable, to cut a channel or opening from 
Nantucket Sound into East Bay, at Osterville, and construct 
jetties for the protection thereof. The sum of $6,500 was 
appropriated for this improvement. 

After examination a contract was entered into Dec. 29, 
1903, with Samuel N. Ames, Joseph P. Hallett and eTehiel 
R. Crosby, to excavate a channel through the beach into 
Nantucket Sound, to build two stone jetties, to riprap witli 
stone the banks of the cut through the beach, also to close 
by a temporary dam the existing outlet to the Sound ; the 
cut to be 175 feet wide on the bottom, with side slopes not 
steeper than 2 to 1 ; the jetties to be 250 feet apart between 
the centre lines, the easterly one to be 100 and the westerly 
one 250 feet long. 

This work was completed in May, 1904, and the current 
has since deepened the channel so that it is from 4 to 6 feet 
deep at mean low water between the jetties and extends 
with somewhat less depth out over the bar so that boats of 
2 feet draft can enter and leave the bay at all stages of the 
tide. Since the completion of the jetties the beach for a 
short distance to the eastward of the easterly jetty has been 
protected by riprap. The result of the whole work is a 
deeper and straighter entrance to the bay. Changes are 
occurring and it is expected that a better channel than the 
one through the old outlet of the bay will be scoured and 
maintained in the future. 

No material change has taken place inside the bay, but 
since the opening of the new cut the sand beach east of the 
new entrance has built out more than half way across the 
old outlet. The temporary sand bag dam which was built 
to close the old outlet and direct the current through the 
new one broke down and washed away, owing to the decay 
of the bags during the summer. 

At the outer end of the western jetty, which is exposed 
to the heaviest waves, the stones have been somewhat dis- 
placed but not sufficiently to affect the permanence of the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 37 

work ; but if any extension is built in the future it should 
be faced with larger stones. 

The total amount expended at East Bay up to Dec. 1, 
1904, is $6,618.10. 

West Bay, Ostervillb. 

In April, 1904, a survey was made of the channel through 
the West Bay at Osterville, which had been excavated in 
1903 under the authority of chapter 491 of the Acts of 1902. 
It was found that the channel remained substantially as 
dredged except at the inner end of the jetties, where a bar 
had formed nearly across the channel substantially in the 
same location as it had formed in previous years ; the chan- 
nel through the jetties had increased in depth somewhat, 
the jetties themselves had suffered by the washing out of a 
number of planks, which had been eaten off by the worms, 
and by the loosening of many others. The planks which 
were missing were replaced and an additional stringer bolted 
on to the piles just above the low-water stringer throughout 
the length of both jetties, and the planks securely spiked to 
it. With these repairs it is anticipated that the timber 
jetties will last for some time longer. The expense of this 
work up to Dec. 1, 1904, amounts to $426.74. 

The shoal which now extends nearly across the channel 
just inside the jetties is caused by the high velocity of the 
flood tide, due to the narrow opening between the jetties. 
If the jetties were placed farther apart, so that the velocity 
of the current was reduced, it would not scour out the sand 
from the bottom of the channel between the jetties on the 
flood tide and deposit it as it now does where the velocitj^ 
decreases as the water spreads out in the open bay. 

The sand which is thus scoured from the bottom of the 
channel between the jetties is supplied largely from the 
beach to the eastward of the jetties, and is sifted through 
breaks in the jetty where planks have been washed out. If 
the jetty is maintained intact this source of supply is cut off 
and the ebb current will tend to gradually wash away the 
shoal. From examinations made this fall and the testimony 
of boatmen who have used the cut it would appear that this 



38 HAEBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

is already taking place, owing to the repairs which were 
made last fall by replacing planks in the eastern jetty, and 
which have resulted in stopping the supply of sand. It is 
too early as yet to determine to what extent the ebb current 
will restore the channel, but from what has already occurred 
it is probable that if the jetties are kept in repair the channel 
in the bay will continue to improve. 

The total amount expended at West Bay up to Dec. 1, 
1904, is $29,053.44. 

CoTuiT Harbor. 

By chapter 368 of the Acts of 1904 the Board was directed 
to make a preliminary examination, and, if considered ex- 
pedient, to deepen and improve the entrance channel from 
Nantucket Sound into Ootuit harbor by removing rocks and 
excavating a channel, or in such other manner as deemed 
best, — the appropriation therefor being $5,000. 

In June, 1904, a survey and examination of the harbor 
were made. The channel across the bar at the entrance was 
obstructed by stones and bowlders dangerous to navigation 
in small boats. The limited appropriation was sufficient to 
remove the obstructions from the bar, but inadequate to ex- 
cavate a channel of the dimensions and depth commensurate 
with the use of this harbor by yachts. On July 29, 1904, 
a contract was entered into with Ruggles & Perkins to re- 
move the obstructions and make a fair way about 400 feet 
wide, the contract price being $11 per cubic yard. This 
work was completed Oct. 3, 1904, 167 cubic yards of rook 
having been removed, at a cost of $1,837. 

The Board was urged to dredge a narrow channel across 
the bar in addition to the removal of the rocks, but no satis- 
factory arrangements could be made with the balance of 
appropriation, and even if done it would be largely in the 
nature of an experiment and of doubtful permanenc3\ 

From the survey made a considerable change appears to 
have taken place in the outer channel of Cotuit harbor since 
1897. This channel, which has been used for a number of 
y^ars as the main entrance channel, has shoaled very mate- 
rially, and at the bend near the Rushy Marsh, so called, 
where it is very narrow, it has shifted a considerable dis- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 39 

tance nearer the shore. The channel whence the rocks have 
been removed, now being more generally used, has substan- 
tially the same depth of water across the bar as the Rushy 
Marsh channel and is much more direct. 

The harbor of Cotuit was formerly the home port of a 
considerable number of coasting vessels which wintered 
there, as they no longer do because the entrance is too 
shoal for the increased size of vessels. The main entrance, 
which formerly was between Dead Neck and Sampson's 
Island, has now been practically closed by the building out 
of Dead Neck Beach. Since then the main approach was 
for a time by way of the Rushy Marsh channel above de- 
scribed, but now that is nearly closed, so that before long 
the only remaining channel is likely to be across the wide 
sand flat from which the rocks were removed the past 
summer. 

This fiat and the channels between it and the harbor are 
exposed to all winds from south-west to south-east, which are 
continually shifting the sand and tending to level the shoals 
into the channels and anchorage basins. 

The improvement desired is the excavation of a channel, 
with a depth of 5 feet or more at low water, from the exist- 
ing deep water west of Sampson's Island to the deep water 
of Nantucket Sound. Such a channel if excavated would at 
once begin to receive deposits from the shoals on either 
side, and it in time would probably be filled in as the previ- 
ous channels have been, although for a number of years it 
would undoubtedly be better than the present one. 

The cost of excavating such a channel would be large, 
and the only way in which it could be made reasonably per- 
manent would be to construct long jetties extending from 
the shore on either side substantially out to the outer edge 
of the shoal so as to prevent the sand from being driven 
from the shoals into the channel and on the other hand to 
direct the current through the excavation, thereby main- 
taining it. The cost of such jetties would be more than 
the benefit to be derived would ^vaiTant, and the channel 
without them would probably be of but temporary value. 

The total amount expended up to Dec. 1, 1904, is 
$1,973.67. 



40 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS- fJan, 

Lake Anthony. 

The construction of a harbor at this place was authorized. 
by chapter 441 of the Acts of 1898, the appropriation 
therefor being $5,000. 

This amount was considered insufficient to carry out tiie 
project in a proper manner and the Board recommended a 
further appropriation. By chapter 155 of the Acts of 1899 
an additional amount of $15,000 was made available, and a 
channel was excavated through the beach into the lake, 100 
feet in width on the bottom and 5 feet deep at mean low 
water. The entrance was protected by the construction of 
two stone jetties, each extending about 200 feet beyond 
low-water line, the total cost of the work, including 
surveys and engineering, being $19,627.13. 

In 1900 additional stone was placed at the inner ends of. 
the jetties, under the provisions of chapter 309 of the Acts 
of that year. 

In 1901 an appropriation of $5,000 was made for dredg- 
ing and other necessary work, and during the sunuiier the 
approach to the principal landing was dredged to 5 feet at 
mean low water and moorings placed in the main portion of 
the harbor, the total cost of the improvements up to Dec. 1, 
1901, being $24,290.64. 

In 1902 the anchorage area was increased by dredging 
and the material used to cover the flats, which were consid- 
ered unsanitary. 

By chapter 416 of the Acts of 1904 the Board was 
authomed to continue the improvement of Lake Anthony 
by increasing the size and depth of the entrance and the 
anchorage basin, $10,000 being appropriated therefor. 

It was found upon examination that some shoaling had 
taken place in the entrance channel, due to the sand being 
driven through the spaces between the stones forming the 
jetties and riprap, and in order to prevent a recurrence the 
jetties have been made sand tight so far as possible by filling 
in the spaces with cement concrete. 

On July 29, 1904, a contract was entered into with John 
H. Gerrish to dredge the entrance and the anchorage basin, 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 41 

the contract price teing $8.50 for each full hour that the 
dredging machine is actually engaged in dredging. This 
work will be completed in December, 1904, and will result 
in the deepening of the entrance to 7 feet at mean low water 
for a ij^-idth of 75 feet through the centre, and in the ad- 
dition of 1^ acres to the area of the anchorage basin 
dredged substantially to 6 feet at mean low water. 

The riprap along the inner end of the northerly side of 
tiie entrance channel has been set back and the channel 
widened, to give more room for the passage of boats. 

The mooring buoys set by the Commonwealth are in good 
condition. The harbor is largely used as an anchorage basin 

for yachts and fishing craft, and also as a harbor of refuge. 

The expenditure for the season up to Dec. 1, 1904, was 

13,681.80. 

The total amount expended at Lake Anthony up to Dec. 

1, 1904, is $30,518.08. 

Vineyard Haven Harbor. 

By chapter 95 of the Resolves of 1904 the Board was 
directed to examine and in its discretion to make or cause 
to be made a survey and estimate of the cost, best method 
and advisability of constructing a stone breakwater on the 
westerly side o'f Vineyard Haven harbor, to protect the 
anchorage ground used by fishing boats and other small 
craft. 

A survey was made of this portion of the harbor in July 
and August, 1904, and on October 13 the Board inspected 
the premises and gave a hearing at Vineyard Haven. The 
testimony tended to show that some protection was needed 
for fishing boats and yachts, but the speakers did not agree 
as to the best method of furnishing it. 

It was the general opinion that a breakwater should be 
built in the most convenient locality. Most of the boatmen 
desired to have the breakwater extend from some point in 
the vicinity of Lord's wharf south-easterly toward the red 
buoy near the steamboat wharf, leaving a comparatively 
wide entrance at the northerly or shore end, and to build in 
addition a short spur jetty extending from the land a suf- 



42 HAEBOK AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan- 

ficient distan(;e to stop the drift of sand along the beaeb. 
A breakwater built in this location would enclose practically 
the whole of the shoal ground on the westerly side of the 
harbor, but being located almost wholly on the outer edge 
of the flat the structure would have throughout its lengt;li 
the maximum cross section, thereby making it the most 
expensive protection that could be erected ; and in addition 
the area inclosed would be, according to the evidence, very 
much greater than required to accommodate the largest 
number of boats likely to seek the harbor. 

Another proposition was to start near the end of Arnoux's 
wharf and extend south-easterly to a point about north-east 
of the end of the steamboat wharf. The axis of a break- 
water in this location would be practically at right angles to 
north-easterly gales, and an area suflSciently large to accom- 
modate all the boats which usually would make a harbor here 
would be well protected. This breakwater could also be 
built at much less than half the cost of one in the first loca- 
tion because of being more nearly at right angles to the 
shore, and for the reason that a lai^e part of the inner end 
would be located in comparatively shoal water. 

The cost of a breakwater 1,200 feet long off Arnoux's 
wharf would be about $20,000. One in the location first 
described, as it would be more than twice as long and of 
considerably greater cross section, would be more than 
double that sum. 

Some testimony tended to show that a better harbor for 
boats and smaller vessels could be made by opening the 
entrance to the Lagoon Pond, on the easterly side of the 
harbor. This pond has an area of about 296 acres, with 
ample depth at mean low water, but at the present time its 
entrance is crossed by a highway and bridge, and the depth 
on the bar across the entrance is less than 2 feet at mean 
low water. 

To make the pond available as a boat harbor it would be 
necessary to excavate the entrance to a depth of about 10 
feet at mean low water and a width of about 300 feet, and 
in addition to dredge away a considerable area of the sand 
flats now lying in front of the entrance. After excavating 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 43 

the entrance its banks should be riprapped with stone, and 
short jetties built on each side extending into the harbor. 
In order to prevent the shoal forming again it would be de- 
sirable to protect the beach for a considerable distance north- 
erly from the opening. The highway between Vineyard 
Haven and Cottage City, destroyed by cutting through the 
bea<-h, should be replaced by one crossing the lagoon at a 
point higher up, say about two-thirds of the way from the 
entrance to its head. By such a new hlirhway the distance 
between the two villages would be practically the same 
as at present. By the construction of a bridge without 
a draw across the lagoon about 132 acres of its upper or 
southerly end would be cut off and boats with masts would 
be barred from entering it, but below the bridge would be 
an area available as a harbor of about 164 acres with a depth 
ranging from 5 to 20 feet at mean low water. In addition 
to this the smaller boats could lie on the flats south of the 
beach and west of the deep water of the main portion of the 
pond- 

The existing highway from Cottage City to Lagoon 
Heights is already graded and paved with tar concrete ; 
that portion, however, from the heights across the lagoon 
would have to be laid out and constructed. From Lagoon 
Pond across the hill by the Marine Hospital to the village 
of Vineyard Haven a highway is already laid out and par- 
tially graded. The grading and surfacing of this highway 
would have to be completed. The cost of completing the 
highway, dredging the entrance to Lagoon Pond and con- 
structing the jetties at the entrance with protective works 
along the shore of Vineyard Haven harbor to the north of 
the proposed entrance, in a substantial manner, would be 
not less than $70,000. 

The boatmen at Vineyard Haven are pi-actically unani- 
mous in their feeling that the breakwater suggested by 
them is the only thing which would give them adequate 
protection, together with the convenience desired in prose- 
cuting their work. They argue that the anchorage in 
Lagoon Pond is too far away from the business portion 
of Vineyard Haven and their homes. They prefer to have 



44 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

the breakwater lobated as far down the harbor as possible, 
as many of them live in the northern portion of the village. 
Some of them said that if any other project is to be adopted 
instead of the proposed breakwater they would prefer to 
have Tashmoo Pond opened, as it is nearer the fishing- 
grounds than Vineyard Haven harbor and it is not a great 
distance to walk across from the pond to the village, but 
they prefer the breakwater to this. 

The people who are mainly interested in coastwise com- 
merce favor the opening of Lagoon Pond as a much better 
solution of the problem than a breakwater in the open harbor, 
arguing that in heavy north-easterly gales light draft vessels 
dragging anchors or breaking from moorings would be in 
danger of driving on to a stone breakwater where there 
would be greater risk of being dashed to pieces than if simply 
drifting on to the sand flats. They also argue that if the 
pond is opened to navigation it would bring into the market 
a large area of water front now practically cut off from access 
to the sea, which would be very valuable, and that owing to 
the depth and area of the pond it would be readily available 
for vessels of considerable size. 

The project was favorably mentioned as practicable and 
not very expensive by the late Prof. Henry Mitchell in his 
report to the superintendent of the United States Coast 
Survey, 1869. 

The protection needed at Vineyard Haven is from north- 
easterly gales. In all ordinary weather a breakwater would 
not be wanted. Its existence would by many be considered 
a menace to safe anchorage in bad weather. There would 
be danger that the growth of the sandy flat, or spit which 
lies between its projected easterly end and the shore, might 
be deflected into the channel, thus closing the approach to 
the steamboat wharf. The needed protection could be given 
by an opening into the lagoon. All small boats anchoring 
in the harbor would seek shelter by running free through 
the opening. According to the evidence there might be 
from 25 to 100 such craft at times needing shelter. Inside 
the lagoon there would ]>e anchorage also for a large number 
of coasting vessels drawing not more than 15 to 18 feet. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 45 

Under the circumstances and conditions existing the Board 
would not consider it advisable to build the proposed break- 
water, but suggests that Congress be asked to approve the 
project of making an entrance into the lagoon and an ap- 
propriation to cover the cost thereof. 

The total amount expended by authority of chapter 95 of 
the Resolves of 1904, up to Dec. 1, 1904, is $234.97. 

Menamsha Inlet. 

Menamsha Inlet is on Martha's Vineyard in the towns of 
Guy Head and Chilmark. By chapter 323 of the Acts of 
1897 the Board was directed to locate and mark the bound- 
ary line between the above-named towns as established by 
this act, and whenever one or more of the inhabitants of 
said towns should agree, with such sureties as would be 
satis&ctory to the Board, to close the existing outlet of 
Menamsha Pond and to excavate a new one through the 
beach on said boundary line, in a location and in a manner 
to be approved or prescribed by the Board ; then this Board 
was authorized and directed to build a suitable protection to 
the banks on each side of the new outlet and extending into 
Vineyard Sound for the purpose of fixing the location of said 
outlet and there marking said boundary lines. An expendi- 
ture of $2,000 was authorized. 

By chapter 357 of the Acts of 1898 a further appropria- 
tion of $2,000 was made for carrying out the provisions of 
the act of 1897, and in 1898 two pile and timber jetties 
were built to protect the banks of the inlet. 

One of the jetties having received injury by a violent 
storm, an additional appropriation of $5,000 was made by 
chapter 133 of the Acts of 1899, and in that year the jetties 
were strengthened by the placing of 2,110 tons of stone, at 
a total cost of $4,916.30. 

In 1900 a timber bulkhead was built across the beach to 
act as a sand-catch, and about 300 tons of stone placed in 
the westerly jetty, at an approximate cost of $978.95, paid 
from the appropriation for the survey and improvement of 
harbors under chapter 309 of the Acts of 1900. 
In 1902 the westerly jetty was repaired by closing with 



46 HARBOR AND LAND COMmSSIONERS. iJaii. 

concrete the holes between the large stones, and in addition 
a short wing wall of concrete was built, at a total cost of 
$478.49. 

By chapter 394 of the Acts of 1903, the improvements 
already made having increased the harbor facilities, a further 
appropriation of $10,000 was made for dredging the channel 
between the jetties and across the flats and for building 
such structures as might be necessary, the channel to be not 
less than 3 feet deep at mean low water and of such w^idth 
as the Board should determine. Under this authority a 
channel was dredged about 1,600 feet long, 75 feet wide on 
the bottom and 5 feet deep at mean low water, at a cost of 
$8,250. This work was completed in October, 1903. 

As a protection to the banks of the new channel about 700 
tons of stone riprap were placed thereon. A timber fence 
was also built along the crest of the beach. The total cost 
of this additional work was $1,673.42. 

In July, 1904, a survey was made of the channel which 
was excavated in 1903 under the provisions of chapter 394 
of the Acts of that year. It was found that the inner end of 
the channel had been partially filled by material washed 
down from the flats in the upper portion of the stream, and 
that the steep banks left by the dredge had also been flattened 
out to a certain extent, thus shoaling the channel. At the 
time of the survey there was a channel with a navigable 
depth of not less than 3 feet of water at mean low tide 
through the entrance and two-thirds of the way toward the 
upper end of the dredging. 

The timber work of the jetty on the westerly side of the 
entrance was very badly damaged by storms, most of the 
planks having been washed away. The stonework was in 
good condition but had settled so that it was practically 
covered at high tide for the outer half of the jetty. The 
timberwork on the easterly side was in fairly good condition. 
Considerable sand washed into the channel through the stone- 
work of the westerly jetty toward its upper end, but being 
carried out with the ebb tide had not materially decreased the 
navigable depth. The westerly jetty should be built up 
with stone in order to more effectually protect the entrance. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 11. 47 

The creek has been largely used throughout the year by 
fishing boats. During the heavy gale about the 1st of 
September a number of fishing boats which remained out- 
side the harbor over night were driven ashore on the beach, 
while those which ran into the harbor were uninjured. 

The total amount expended at Menamsha Inlet U]) to 
Dec. 1, 1904, is $20,498.78. 

Ba8s River at South Yarmouth. 

By chapter 113 of the Resolves of 1901 the Board was 
directed to improve the channel of Bass River, and an ap- 
propriation of $22,000 was made for the purpose. On 
^OT. 14, 1901, a contract was entered into with Augustus 
Bellevue & Co. for the construction of two timber jetties, 
one on either side of the river mouth, and for dredging a 
channel between them, across the flats, to the depth of 4 feet 
at mean low water. This work was completed Oct. 16, 1902, 
the westerly jetty being 950 and the easterly 2,423 feet long. 
The total cost of this improvement, including superintend- 
ence and engineering, was $22,800.50. 

By chapter 46 of the Resolves of 1 903 an appropriation 
of $15,000 was made to complete the improvement of the 
channel, and in that year a contract was entered into with 
John H. Gerrish to excavate the same and deposit the ma- 
terial on the banks back from the sides of the channel for 
the sum of $6,500. The total cost of this improvement 
up to Dec. 1, 1903, including surveys and repairs, was 
$31,292.86. 

In April, 1904, a survey was made of the channel at the 
mouth of the river and it was found that it had shifted con- 
siderablv from the location where it was excavated in 1903, 
under the provisions of chapter 46 of the Resolves of that 
year, but that the size and depth were fully equal to the 
channel as excavated, except at the outer end on the bar, 
where it had slightly shoaled. Just inside the angle in the 
eastern jetty the channel had shoaled somewhat, so that 
there was barely 3 feet at low tide. 

During the summer examinations have been made from 
time to time, and it appears that the channel is gradually 



48 HARBOR AXD LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

being enlarged and the shoals are working out to^vrard the 
sea. 

During the heavy gales in September, 1904, a portion of 
the sand bags placed against the outer portion of the eastern 
jetty were washed out, and it was found that the bank of 
sand bags which had been placed along nearly the whole 
length of the outer portion of the eastern jetty had settled 
and exposed the planks below the sheathing of creosoted 
boards ; also that the current was scouring and deepening^ 
the channel alongside this jetty. In order to more thoroughly 
protect it additional sand bags have been placed alongfside 
and plans and specifications prepared for still fiirther pro- 
tecting the jetty with stone riprap. At the inner end of the 
western jetty the sea had cut into the bank to such an ex- 
tent that it was necessary to protect it, and a small amount 
of stone riprap was placed there. 

The total cost of the work done during the year is $688.66. 
The total amount expended in improving the entrance to 
Bass River up to Dec. 1, 1904, is $32,045.13. 

Wrecks and Obstructions. 

Complaints regarding wrecks have been received by the 
Board as follows : — 

Two wrecks in Dorchester Bay off the southerly shore of 
South Boston; one of these, on the flats just outside the 
women's bath house at the foot of M Street, was removed 
by the Board at an expense of $50. The other, near the 
mouth of the bay between South Boston and the Calf Pas- 
ture, was not removed. 

Hulls of several old scows and schooners lying wholly or 
partly submerged on the beach between Cunningham and 
Banks wharf and Meridian Street bridge in Boston upper 
harbor. Xo action taken ; not interfering with navigation. 

A scow lying sunken in Boston upper harbor off Mar- 
quand's wharf in East Boston. Removed by the owner 
after notice from the Board. 

Hull of the '« Fawn," formerly used as a powder boat, on 
the beach at Apple Island in Boston harbor. Removed by 
the owner after notice. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 49 

Hull of the schooner "Casco" at Governor's Island 
wharf, Boston harbor. No action taken; not a menace to 
navigation. 

Sloop ** Galena" lying sunken in the north channel of 
Boston harbor, about 1,000 feet south-east of buoy No. 2. 
Referred to U. S. government officers. 

Dredging machine, lying sunken in Boston harbor near 
buoy No. 10. Removed by the owner. 

Hull of a vessel in South Bay. No action taken ; not an 
obstruction to navigation. 

The total amount expended from the appropriation of 

11,500 made by chapter 24 of the Acts of 1904, up to Dec. 

1, 1904, is $50. 

Province Lands. 

The general care and jurisdiction of the Province Lands 
in Provincetown, comprising about 3,290 acres, was com- 
mitted to this Board by the provisions of chapter 470 of the 
Acts of 1893. The bounds of these lands were fixed and 
marked and the territory shown on a plan annexed to the 
annual report of the Board for that year. A superintendent 
^wus appointed and the work of reclaiming the territory, con- 
sisting of three ranges of sand hills, running north-easterly 
and south-westerly, about one mile in extent each, and with 
the north-westerly exposure devoid of vegetation, was com- 
menced, with a view to restraining and preventing the 
drifting of loose sands towards the town of Provincetown 
and the harbor. The first appropriation was $2,000 and 
was applied to the construction of a road to render the ter- 
ritory reasonably accessible, and to the planting of Scotch 
broom, poplars, willow, larch, pines, maples, oak, birch, 
beech and berry bearing plants. In 1894 a further appro- 
priation of $3,000 was made. In 1895 a section comprising 
about 13 acres was planted with beach grass, to serve as 
a sand binder. Among the beach grass willow slips were 
planted, and willow trees of various kinds. Silver poplars 
and young pines were placed at the foot of the slope and 
parallel with the beach grass area. The appropriation in 
thatyearwas $3,500. In 1896 the work was carried forward 
iipon the same plan as in the previous year, the appropria- 



50 HARBOR AND LAND CO^IMISSIONERS . [Jan. 

• 

tion also being $3,500. The road was extended about 650 
feet, the total area covered since the beginning of operations 
in the spring of 1895 amounting to about 29 acres. 

The preceding three years determined the policy of the 
Board regarding the manner of improving the dunes for the 
purpose of preventing the blowing and drifting of sand. 
The beach grass proved to be an excellent binder, and the 
planting of shinibs and trees of the kinds found to thrive 
in sand without soil and withstand exposure to the 6erce 
winter winds will eventually raise windbreaks, under the 
protection of which other indigenous vegetation will spring 
up, and again the region will become covered with plant 
life. The growi;h must continue under peculiar hardships, 
for the heavy winter winds, usually from the north-east or 
north-west, blow with great velocity and often terrific force, 
with which the loose sand drifts like snow and vegetation 
has a hard chance for life. Gale velocities of 50 to 60 miles 
an hour are not infrequent, and sometimes rise as high bs 
72 miles an hour. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties to be overcome no doubt 
remains as to effecting such reclamation of the sand barrens 
as may ultimate in the reforestation of a large section and 
entire protection from the dangers threatening the town and 
the harbor from the sands of the public domain. 

Appropriations were continued from year to year, until 
in 1899 the sum of $10,000 was appropriated, to bo spread 
over a term of three years ; again in 1902 the Legislature 
sanctioned further improvement by another appropriation 
of $10,000 for continuing the work, which will be exhausted 
in June, 1905. 

During the period of ten years covered by these appro- 
priations 240 acres have been planted with beach grass, and 
within that area large tracts have been overspread with 
shrubs and trees of the kinds best adapted to thrive in this 
exposed situation. In the past season alone about 12,000 
young pines, taken from the nursery and the adjacent woods, 
and about 30,000 European alders, in addition to bayberry 
and other bushes, have been set out. 

About 75 acres of barren sand dunes remain to be pro- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 51 

tected. Among them are included the balance of the centre 
range and many small sections scattered throughout the 
reservation y which need attention before becoming enlarged 
into extensiye areas. 

It is estimated that another appropiiation of $10,000 will 
be sufficient to reclaim the whole extent of the sand liarrens 
belonging to the Commonwealth and put the same into con- 
dition to be held intact with a small annual outlay. 

The road across by Nigger Head to Race Point life-saving 

station, 10,200 feet in length, was built at an expense of 

$3,450, or a little less than 34 cents a running foot, and 

with small annual repairs may be made to last indefinitely. 

It has been thought advisable to permit parties who spent 

money in making cranberry bogs on the lands to cultivate 

and pick the same upon payment of a small annual license 

fee of one dollar an acre. Under this arrangement during 

the two years last past the sum of $268.56 has been paid 

into the State treasury, while the cultivation of the bogs 

under the supervision of the superintendent has been carried 

on without injury to the adjoining vegetation. This small 

income may be slightly increased as time goes on. 

The report * of the superintendent of these lands may be 
found in the appendix. 

The total expenditure on these lands up to Dec. 1, 1904, 
is $35,217.20. 

State Boundaries. 

Under the provisions of section 4 of chapter 1 of the 
Revised Laws it becomes the duty of the Board in the year 
1905 to examine and inspect all the monuments or other 
marks defining the location of the boundary lines of the 
Commonwealth. 

The boundaries between Massachusetts and the States of 
New York, Vermont, New Hampshire and Rhode Island 
luive recently been thoroughly gone over and permanent 
monuments set up, but the line between Massachusetts and 
Connecticut is insufficiently marked. This line was exam- 
ined by the Commission on the Topographical Survey and 

* See Appendix B. 



52 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

Map of Massachusetts in 1898, under the provisions of 
chapter 39 of the Resolves of that year, and it was found to 
be very unsatisfactory. In many towns the line liad not 
been perambulated for several years. The portion east of 
the Connecticut River was surveyed and bounds established 
by commissioners in 1828, and the portion west of the river 
was marked in 1803, It was estimated that in 181>8 there 
were about 130 bounds lacking, and about 45 old bounds 
then on the line which required resetting. The total cost 
of resurveying and setting new monuments on the line was 
then estimated at $14,000. The work of properly defining 
the line still remains to be done. The State of Connecticut 
should be invited to co-operate, and share the expense. It 
is estimated that the cost of inspecting and making minor 
repairs to the monuments marking the lines other than the 
Connecticut line will be about $1,500. 

Town Boundary Survey. 

The work of determining tlje location of town boundaries 
has continued with the same organization as for the past few 
years. From the first of April, 1904, to the last of Novem- 
ber, two field parties were employed. During the remainder 
of the year the heads of these parties have plotted the results 
of their field work in preparation for the next season. 

One of the field parties has made the necessary surveys 
and brought up to date the information required in the towns 
within Barnstable and Dukes counties, together with a few 
local surveys in portions of Norfolk and Essex counties. 

Another party has been engaged in extending the trian- 
gulation for a group of towns lying north and west of 
Worcester, making local surveys and acquiring necessary 
information in relation to the adjoining towns at the 
east. 

Surveys have been made over fifty miles of streams and 
shore lines of ponds, and the location of 103 bounds marking 
town lines has been determined by triangulation. In the 
prosecution of the work a number of the boundary lines were 
found to be very crooked, and in certain cases the town 
officers expressed a wish that they might be straightened, con- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 53 

sequently during the year, after consultation with the town 
authorities, the Board submitted to 14 different cities and 
towns for their concurrence plans for changing and straight- 
ening portions of the boundary lines between them. They 
are as follows : Boylston, West Boylston, Berlin, Clinton, 
Lancaster, Sterling, Marlborough, Hudson, Northborough, 
Stow, Shrewsbury, Leominster, Lynnfield and Reading. 
If action in relation to the proposed changes is favorable, 
the proposals will be submitted to the Legislature in accord- 
ance with the provisions of section 7 of chapter 25 of the 
Revised Laws. 

In the new boundary lines established by the Legislature 
of 1904, stakes were set at the corners by the engineers of 
the Board, and later the necessary stone monuments for 
permanently marking the bounds were set by the town 
authorities. 

The office force has continued the work of calculating 
from the . notes of the field parties the positions of town 
corners, making abstracts from statutes relating to the estab- 
lishment of town boundaries and preparing the results of 
the survey for permanent record. Examinations of the early 
court records have not progressed as rapidly as during the 
previous year, owing to the time devoted to the preparation 
of indices to the note books. 

Three new atlases, describing the boundary lines of the 
2rt cities and towns following, viz,, Belmont, Burlington, 
Cambridge, Lexington, Somerville, Waltham, Watertown, 
Acton, Bedford, Concord, Lincoln, Maynard, Sudbury, 
Wayland, Weston, Acushnet, Berkley, Dai-tmouth, Dighton, 
Fairhaven, Fall River, Freetown, New Bedford, Somerset, 
Swansea and Westport, have been distributed during the 
year. Another atlas, describing the boundaries of 11 cities 
and towns, viz., Dedham, Dover, Foxborough, Medfield, 
Needham, Newton, Norwood, Sharon, Walpole, Wellesley 
and Westwood, is nearly ready for delivery. Still another 
atlas, describing the boundaries of 11 other towns, viz., Ash- 
land, Bellingham, Framingham, Franklin, HoUiston, Med- 
waj, Millis, Natick, Norfolk, Sherborn and Wrentham, is 
in course of preparation. 



54 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

On the first of December, 1904, atlases covering the 
boundaries of 99 cities and towns out of a total of 353 in the 
Conunon wealth had been completed and distributed, as pro- 
vided by statute, and an atlas containing 11 additional ones 
was in the hands of the printer. 

In the preparation of the atlases some few changes have 
been made by which the cost has been slightly reduced. 

Sale and Disposition of Massachusetts Atlas Shejbts 

AND Town Boundary Atlases. 

There has been paid into the treasury of the Common- 
wealth during the year, under authority of chapter 57 of the 
Resolves of 1890 and chapter 360 of the Acts of 1900, the 
sum of $226.70, received from the sale of Massachusetts 
atlas sheets and town boundary atlases. Under chapter 360 
of the Acts of 1900 two hundred and twelve town boundary 
atlases have been distributed among the officers of the 
various cities and towns and others. Under chapter 95 of 
the Resolves of 1891 one topographical atlas was given to 
Mount Holyoke College. 

Inspections made during the Year. 

The following inspections have been made by the Board 
and under its direction : — 

Jan. 18. Sites suggested for location of new drawbridge over 

Taunton Great River authorized by chapter 462 

of the Acts of 1903. 
Mar. 10. East Bay at Osterville ; jetties and chanuel at Bass 

River, South Yarmouth. 
Mar. 29-3 1 . Cotuit ; Osterville ; Hyannis ; Bass River, Soutb 

Yarmouth ; Witchmere ; Harwichport ; Red River 

and Stage harbor, Chatham, — in company with 

legislative committee. 
Apr. 18-20. East Bay at Osterville; jetties and channel at Bass 

River, South Yarmouth. 
Apr. 27-28. Jetties at East Bay, Osterville. 
May 4-9. Jetties and channel at Bass River, South Yarmouth ; 

East and West bays, Ostei'ville. 
May 10. Work in progress at Bass River, Beverly. 



1JM)5.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Mo. 11. 



55 



May 


11 


May 

Jane 


16 
4 


Jane 


10 


June 


14 


Jane 


21 



3ane 


23. 


June 


24. 


JoDe 


24-25. 


June 


29. 


July 


9. 



July 



11. 



July 
July 



12. 



25. 



July 29. 

Joly SO-^1. 



Aog. 22-24. 

Aug. 27. 
Aug. '29. 

Aag. SO. 
Sept. 1 . 

Sept. 2-3. 



Work in progress on the Commonwealth flats at 

South Boston, — in company with legislative 

committee. 
Work in progress at Bass River, Beverly. 
Site of alleged dumping in Nantucket harbor. 
Premises of Marblehead Transportation Company 

in Marblehead, relative to floats of said company. 
Work in progress at Bass River, Beverly. 
Premises of the Sylvester Company on Waters 

River, in Danvers, relative to proposed structure ; 

work in pn^ress at Bass River, Beverly ; dump- 
ing ground at Hardy's Rocks, Salem harbor. 
Jetties and channel at Green Harbor, Marshfield. 
Wharf under construction at Squantum, without 

license therefor. 
Work in pn^ress on survey of entrance to Cotuit 

harbor ; East Bay, Osterville. 
Work in progress at Bass River, Beverly. 
Work done by the Commonwealth on the Province 

Lands in Provincetown. 
Protective work in progress, under the direction of 

the Board, at Hadley, and dike at Hatfield, on 

the Connecticut River. 
Sea wall built by the Commonwealth at Stony 

Beach, Hull. 
Protective work in progress at Hatfield ; also bank 

of the Connecticut River at Hadley. 
Site of proposed work at Stage harbor, Chatham. 
Town boundary survey work at Bass River, Yar- 
mouth, and jetties and channel at mouth of the 

river. 
Work in progress at the entrance to Cotuit harbor ; 

jetties at East Bay, Osterville. 
Work in prepress at Bass River, Beverly. 
Weir River, in Hull, relative to alleged dumping of 

material. 
Davis Neck at Bay View, Gloucester. 
Boston harbor frontage from Rowes wharf to Lewis 

wharf, relative to alleged dumping of material. 
Town boundary survey work at Harwich; jetties 

and channel at Bass River, South Yarmouth. 



56 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

1904. 

Sept. 8-10. Protective work on Connecticut River at Hatfield 

and Hadley; town boundaiy survey -work at 
Rutland. 

Sept. 13. Frontage on Fort Point channel below Oougress 

Street bridge, relative to structure erected beyond 
the harbor line. 

Sept. 20-22. Work in progress at Lake Anthony, Cottage City ; 

work done under the direction of the Board at 
Menamsha Inlet. 

Sept. 27-28. Work in progress at the entrance to Cotuit harbor; 

jetties at East Bay, Osterville. 

Sept. 30. Bank of Merrimac River along the Haverhill front- 
age and location of line limiting structures. 

Oct. 8. Work in progress at Lake Anthony, Cottage City; 

Vineyard Haven harbor ; town boundary survey 
work at West Tisbury. 

Oct. 6. Jetties and channel at Bass River, South Yarmouth. 

Oct. 10. Wharves and terminal facilities in Boston harbor. 

Oct. 13-14. Vineyard Haven harbor, relative to proposed break- 
water. 

Oct. 14. Work done by the Commonwealth at Lake Anthony, 

Cottage City. 

Oct. 15. Protective work on Connecticut River bank at 

Hadley. 

Oct. 22. East and West bays, Osterville. 

Oct. 24. Site of proposed work at Red River, Chatham. 

Oct. 25. Site of alleged removal of material at Davis Beach, 

Nahant. 

« 
Licenses granted during the Year. 

N08. 

2809. Petition of the city of Boston for license to dump snow and 

ice into tide water. Granted Dec. 1, 1903. 

2810. Petition of Peter T. Fallon and others for license to build 

a sea wall and fill solid on Town River, in Quincy. 
Granted Dec. 23, 1903. 

2811. Petition of the town of Dartmouth for license to widen the 

causeway across Apponagansett River, in Dartmouth. 
Granted Jan. 5, 1904. 

2812. Petition of Emma Alexanderson for license to build a bulk- 

head and other structures, and to dredge a channel, on 
Weymouth Fore River, in Weymouth. Granted Jan. 6, 
1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 57 

Nofl. 

2813. Petition of the Boston & Maine Railroad for license to 

widen its pile platform on the south channel of Mystic 
River, at Mystic wharf, in Boston. Granted Jan. 19, 
1904, 

2814. Petition of the city of Northampton for license to extend a 

sewer into Connecticut River, in Northampton. Granted 
Jan. 26, 1904. 

2815. Petition of James N. Thompson, trustee, for license to 

drive piles at his wharf on South Bay, in Boston. 
Gmnted Feb. 15, 1904. 

2816. Petition of Alice B. Bond for license to build a wharf, 

partly solid and partly on piles, in Lewis Bay at Hyannis, 
in the town of Barnstable. Granted Feb. 15, 1904. 

2817. Petition of William B. Stearns for license to build bulk- 

beads and marine railway, and to fill solid, in Little 
harbor, in Marblehead. Granted Feb. 18, 1904. 

2818. Petition of the town of Westport for license to reconstruct 

the bridge across the Acoaksett River at Westport Point, 
in the town of Westport. Granted Feb. 24, 1904. 

2819. Petition of the Rockport Granite Company of Massachusetts 

for license to maintain a pier and to extend the same 
in Hodgkins Cove, in Gloucester. Granted Feb. 24, 
1904. 

2820. Petition of the town of Northfield for approval of plans for 

building a highway bridge across Connecticut River, 
under authority of chapter 530 of the Acts of 1901. 
Granted Feb. 29, 1904. 

2821. Petition of Charles Albion Clark and others for license to 

build a sea wall and fill solid on South River, in Salem. 
Granted March 1, 1904. 

2822. Petition of the Massachusetts Highway Commission for 

approval of plans for building a State highway in and 
over tide water between Saugus River and Commercial 
Street, in Lynn, under authority of Chapter 384 of the 
Acts of 1903. Granted March 10, 1904. 

2823. Petition of the Nantasket Beach Steamboat Company for 

license to extend its wharf, on piles, in Hingham Bay at 
Crow Point, in Hinghaui. Granted March 10, 1904. 

2824. Petition of the Wollaston Yacht Club for license to build a 

pile wharf, drive piles for the support of a club house, 
and locate and maintain two floats in Quincy Bay, in 
Quincy. Granted March 14, 1904. 



58 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

2825. Petition of the County CommiBBioners of Plymouth Coontj 

for approval of planB for building a bridge over ^orth 
River, between Hanover and Pembroke, under authorily 
of chapter 441 of the Acts of 1903. Granted March 16, 
1904. 

2826. Petition of the Winthrop Yacht Club for license to build a 

pile structure in Crystal Cove, in Winthrop. Granted 
March 21, 1904. 

2827. Petition of the Edison Electric * Illuminating Company of 

Boston for license to drive piles in its wharf in Boston 
harbor near the Resei*ved channel at South Boston, and 
to dredge. Granted March 22, 1904. 

2828. Petition of the Beverly Gas and Electric Company for 

license to build a bulkhead and pile wharf, and to fill 
solid, on Bass River, in Beverly. Granted April 5, 
1904. 

2829. Petition of the Nantasket Beach Steamboat Company for 

' license to drive piles in Plymouth harbor, at Long Wharf, 
in Plymouth. Granted April 18, 1904. 

2830. Petition of H. Frances Dunning, for license to drive piles, 

build a bulkhead and fill solid on Mystic River, in 
Somerville. Granted April 18, 1904. 

2831. Petition of the National Dock and Warehouse Company 

for license to build a sea wall and pile platform, and to 
fill solid a portion of its dock, in Boston harbor, at East 
Boston. Granted April 21, 1904. 

2832. Petition of the city of Salem for license to rebuild the 

bridge at North Street across North River, in Salem. 
Granted April 25, 1904. 

2833. Petition of Anna R. Pope for license to maintain a drain 

pipe in Massachusetts Bay, in Cohasset. Granted April 

25, 1904. 

2834. Petition of Bessie Goldberg for license to drive piles for 

the support of a building on South River, in Salem. 
Granted April 25, 1904. 

2835. Petition of J. E. Lewis & Co. for license to extend a wharf, 

on piles, on Chelsea Creek, in Chelsea. Granted April 

26, 1904. 

2836. Petition of Freeman M. Crosby for license to build a pile 

wharf on Centreville River, in Barnstable. Granted 
April 26, 1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 59 

2837. Petition of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, the Board 

of Harbor and Land Commissioners and the County Com- 
missioners of Bristol County, constituted a joint board 
by chapter 462 of the Acts of 1908, for approval of plans 
for building a new drawbridge across Taunton Great 
River, between Fall River and Somerset. Granted May 
2, 1904. 

2838. Petition of the city of Boston for approval of plans for the 

construction and maintenance of a water pipe box and a 
tunnel for a water pipe across Fort Point channel, near 
Congress Street bridge, under authority of chapter 278 
of the Acts of 1904. Granted May 9, 1904. 

2839. Petition of the American Printing Company for license 

to build a wharf, construct a sea wall and fill solid 
on Taunton River, in Fall River. Granted May 10, 
1904. 

2840. Petition of Charles A. King for license to maintain a wharf 

as now built and to extend the same in Mattapoisett 
harbor, in Mattapoisett. Granted May 12, 1904. 

2841. Petition of William Siaunwhit for license to build and main- 

tain a temporary pier and floats in Hingham Bay, at 
Hough's Neck, in Quincy. Granted May 12, 1904. 

2842. Petition of the Quincy Yacht Club for license to extend 

and widen its club house, on piles, in Hingham Bay, at 
Hough's Neck, in Quincy. Granted May 12, 1904. 

2843. Petition of Arthur M. Phillips for license to extend a pier, 

on piles, and locate and maintain a float stage, in Onset 
Bay, in Wareham. Granted May 12, 1904. 

2844. Petition of Florence O. Shepard for license to build and 

maintain a solid filled wharf and a float in Marion harbor, 
in Marion. Granted May 17, 1904. 

2845. Petition of Daniel H. Flanders for license to build a pile 

wharf on Meuamsha Creek, in Gay Head. Granted 
May 17, 1904. 

2846. Petition of Charles L. GiflPord for approval of plans for 

building a bridge across the mouth of Santuit River in 
Barnstable, under authority of chapter 218 of the Acts 
of 1904. Granted May 17, 1904. 
2846a. Petition of Charles L. Gifford for license to fill solid in 
Popponesset Bay, in Mashpee and Sandwich. Granted 
May 17, 1904. 



60 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

Kofl. 

2847. Petition of the Windermere Association for license to build 

and maintain a pile pier and floats in Hull Bay, in Hull. 
Granted May 20, 1904. 

2848. Petition of the Chadwick-Boston Lead Company for license 

to fill solid on Forrest River, in Salem. Granted 'M.&y 
20, 1904. 

2849. Petition of the New Bedford Gas and Edison Light Com- 

pany for license to build a solid filled wharf on Acushnet 
River, in New Bedford. Granted May 20, 1904. 

2850. Petition of the Old Colony Yacht Club for license to build 

and maintain pile structures and to locate and maintain 
floats in Dorchester Bay, at Savin Hill, in the city of 
Boston. Granted May 24, 1904. 

2851. Petition of George B. Wilbur for license to build a marine 

railway in Woods Hole Great harbor, at Woods Hole, in 
Falmouth. Granted June 1, 1904. 

2852. Petition of the Plymouth Cordage Company for license fo 

extend its wharf, on piles, to drive additional piles and 
construct four pile dolphins, in Plymouth harbor, in 
Plymouth. Granted June 7, 1904. 

2853. Petition of Cannon & Hasty for license to build a pile and 

timber landing in Lake Quinsigamond, in Worcester. 
Granted June 7, 1904. 

2854. Petition of the United Shoe Machinery Company for license 

to build a bulkhead and pile wharf, and to fill solid, on 
Bass River, in Beverly. Granted June 7, 1904. 

2855. Petition of the County Commissioners of Essex County for 

approval of plans for rebuilding the highway bridge 
across Bass River, at Bridge Street, in Beverly, under 
authority of chapter 341 of the Acts of 1903. Granted 
June 9, 1904. 

2856. Petition of the city of Cambridge for license to build a tem- 

porary boat landing in Charles River basin, westerly 
^ of and near Harvard bridge, in Cambridge. Granted 

June 9, 1904. 

2857. Petition of the Marblehead Associates for license to build 

and maintain a stone and timber pier and a float in 
Marblehead harbor, in Marblehead. Granted June 14, 
1904. 

2858. Petition of the Beverly Gas and Electric Company for 

license to build a bulkhead and fill solid, on Bass River, 
in Beverly. Granted June 20, 1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 61 



2859. Petition of J. F. Pope & Son for license to build bulkheads 

&nd pile wharves, and to fill solid, on Bass River, in 
Beverly. Granted June 20, 1904. 

2860. Petition of John A. Dedcovich for license to build a sea 

wall and fill solid, in Gloucester harbor, at Smith's Cove, 
in Gloucester. Granted June 20, 1904. 

2861. Petition of the Tamers Falls Lumber Company for license 

to hang and maintain two booms in Connecticut River, in 
Gill and Montague. Granted June 20, 1904. 

2862. Petition of Bessie Goldberg for license to drive piles for 

the support of a building on South River, in Salem. 
Granted June 22, 1904. 
2^63. Petition of the Metropolitan Park Commission for license 
to build a sea wall and timber groyne, and fill solid, in 
Massachusetts Bay, at Red Rock, in Lynn. Granted 
June 23, 1904. 

2864. Petition of the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board 

for approval of plans for driving piles in the wharf at 
Deer Island, in Boston harbor, and building a pile struc- 
ture in connection with said wharf, under authority of 
chapter 439 of the Acts of 1889. Granted July 5, 1904. 

2865. Petition of the town of Manchester for license to locate and 

maintain a float for landing purposes in Manchester har- 
bor, in Manchester. Granted July 5, 1904. 

2866. Petition of the Edison £lectric Illuminating Company of 

Boston for approval of plans for laying two submarine 
cables across the draw ways in Charlestown bridge, in 
Boston, under authority of chapter 249 of the Acts of 
1898. Granted July 7, 1904. 

2867. Petition of the Sylvester Company for license to build a 

pile wharf, bulkhead and crib work, and to fill solid, on 
Waters River, in Dan vers. Granted July 8, 1904. 

2868. Petition of the Lynn Gas and Electric Company for license 

to build a sea wall and bulkhead, and fill solid, in Lynn 
harbor, in Lynn. Granted July 8, 1904. 

2869. Petition of the city of Boston for approval of plans for 

building a highway bridge across Fort Point channel, in 
Boston, being a part of Northern Avenue as laid out by 
chapter 381 of the Acts of 1908. Granted July 18, 1904. 
^^10. Petition of Sarah E. Newhall and others for license to build 
a bulkhead and pile platform, and to fill solid, in Lynn 
harbor, in Lynn. Granted July 18, 1904. 



62 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

Not. 

2871. Petition of the Boston <& Albany Railroad, the New Tork 

Central & Hudson River Railroad Company, lessee, for 
license to reconstruct its pier No. 3, in Boston harbor, at 
East Boston. Granted July 27, 1904. 

2872. Petition of the Old Colony Street Railway Company for 

license to build a pile dolphin and pile structure leading 
thereto, in Weymouth Fore River, at Quincy Point, in 
Quincy. Granted July 27, 1904. 

2873. Petition of the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board for 

approval of plans for placing riprap at the siphon struc- 
ture across Maiden River, in Everett and Medford, under 
authority of chapter 439 of the Acts of 1889. Granted 
July 27, 1904. 

2874. Petition of the Plymouth Cordage Company for license to 

build a sea wall and fill solid, in Plymouth harbor, in 
Plymouth. Granted July 28, 1904. 

2875. Petition of Levi L. H. Taylor for license to build a solid 

filled wharf on Merrimac River, in Haverhill. Granted 
July 29, 1904. 

2876. Petition of the Beachcomber Club for license to locate and 

maintain a float in Marblehead harbor, in Marblehead. 
Granted Aug. 2, 1904. 

2877. Petition of the Tudor Company for license to rebuild a 

portion of Tudor wharf on piles, on Charles River, in 
Boston. Granted Sept. 22, 1904. 

2878. Petition of Marian C. Upton for license to build and main- 

tain a pier and float in Marblehead harbor, in Marblehead. 
Granted Sept. 26, 1904. 

2879. Petition of the United States for license to dredge and lay 

a water pipe in Boston harbor, from Nut Island to Ped* 
docks Island. Granted Oct. 5, 1904. 

2880. Petition of the Metropolitan Steamship Company for license 

to build a sea wall and pile platform, and to dredge, in 
Boston harbor, at Union wharf, in Boston. Granted 
Oct. 5, 1904. 

2881. Petition of William M. Butler for license to build an addi- 

tion to his wharf in Edgartown harbor, in Edgartown* 
Granted Oct. 5, 1904. 

2882. Petition of the Horse Neck Beach Street Railway Company 

for license to widen its wharf in Westport harbor, at 
Westport Point, in the town of Westport. Granted 
Oct. 6, 1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 63 

2883. Petition of the Boston & Maine Railroad for approval of 

plans for rebuilding ttie bridge known as the Boston & 
Lowell freight bridge, on piles, across Charles River in 
Boston and Cambridge, under authority of chapter 465 
of the Acts of 1903. Granted Oct. 7, 1904. 

2884. Petition of Allen P. Eagleston and Edward L. Eagleston 

for license to build a pile pier in Vineyard Haven harbor, 
in Tisbury. Granted Oct. 11, 1904. 

2885. Petition of Albert E. Angier for license to build and main- 

tain a solid filled wharf and a float in Marion harbor, in 
Marion. Granted Oct. 11, 1904. 

2886. Petition of the Boston & Maine Railroad for license to re- 

build its pile platform on Mystic River, at Mystic wharf, 
in Boston. Granted Oct. 11, 1904. 

2887. Petition of the County Commissioners of Hampden County 

for approval of plans for building a bridge over Con- 
necticut River, between Chicopee and West Springfield, 
under authority of chapter 898 of the Acts of 1904. 
Granted Oct. 11, 1904. 

2888. Petition of the Murray & Tregurtha Company for license 

to build a bulkhead and launching ways, and to fill solid, 
in Boston harbor, near the Reserved channel, at South 
Boston. Granted Oct. 21, 1904. 

2889. Petition of the Cambridge Bridge Commission for approval 

of plans for building a highway bridge across Charles 
River between Boston and Cambridge, to be known as 
Brookiine Street bridge, under authority of chapter 391 
of the Acts of 1904. Granted Oct. 21, 1904. 

2890. Petition of Cunningham and Thompson for license to ex- 

tend their wharf, on piles, in Gloucester harbor, in 
Gloucester. Granted Oct. 21, 1904. 

2891. Petition of the Boston & Albany Railroad, the New York 

Central and Hudson River Railroad Company, lessee, 
for license to rebuild its bridge, on piles, on its Grand 
Junction branch, across Charles River, in Boston and 
Cambridge. Granted Oct. 27, 1904. 

2892. Petition of Nellie B. Cumner for license to lay and main- 

tain a drain pipe in Massachusetts Bay, in Cohasset. 
Granted Oct. 28, 1904. 

2893. Petition of Mary A. Dubois for license to build a solid filled 

pier in Mount Hope Bay, in Fall River. Granted 
Oct. 28, 1904. 



64 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONTEES . [Jan. 

Noi. 

2894. Petition of the Maiden and Melrose Gas Light Company to 
lay and maintain a 24-ineh cast iron gas pipe under 
Maiden River, in Maiden. Granted Nov. 1, 1904. 

2896. Petition of Arthur W. Peterson for license to build and 
maintain an ice run in Vaughan's Pond in Carver. 
Granted Nov. 8, 1904. 

2896. Petition of the city of Haverhill for license to construct a 

sewer outlet in Merrimac River, in Haverhill. Granted 
Nov. 14, 1904. 

2897. Petition of Florence W. Fish and Josephine W. Fish for 

license to build and maintain a pile wharf in Little har- 
bor, at Woods Hole, in the town of Falmouth. Gi*anted 
Nov. 14, 1904. 

2898. Petition of the city of Boston for license to dump snow 

and ice into tide waters. Granted Nov. 15, 1904. 

2899. Petition of the Boston Elevated Railway Company for 

license to dump snow and ice into tide waters. Granted 
Nov. 17, 1904. 

2900. Petition of the Union Freight Railroad Company for license 

to dump snow and ice into Charles River, in Boston. 
Granted Nov. 17, 1904. 

2901. Petition of the city of Gloucester for license to build and 

maintain a pipe way for water and gas mains, also con- 
duits for electric wires, across the canal near Cut bridge, 
in Gloucester. Granted Nov. 18, 1904. 

2902. Petition of the Beverly Gas and Electric Company for 

license to construct a pipe way for a gas main and con- 
duits for electric wires across Bass River, at Bridge 
Street, in Beverly. Granted Nov. 18, 1904. 

2903. Petition of the city of Boston for license to extend its 

wharf, on piles, in jioston harbor, on the northwesterly 
side of Long Island. Granted Nov. 18, 1904. 

2904. Petition of the Old Colony Railroad, the New York, New 

Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, lessee, for license 
to extend the abutments and fill solid back of the same 
at its bridge across Jones River, in Kingston. Granted 
Nov. 22, 1904. 

2905. Petition of Joshua Crane for license to build and maintain 

a pile wharf, marine railway and float stage in Pocasset 
harbor, at Cataumet, in the town of Bourne. Granted 
Nov. 22, 1904. 

2906. Petition of Bessie Goldberg for license to build a pile struc- 

ture on South River, in Salem. Granted Nov. 22, 1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 65 

Petitions denied and withdrawn. 

On April 7, 1904, the Old Colony Street Bail way Com- 
pany, petitioner for a deed of tide water land of the Com- 
monwealth in Mount Hope Bay, Fall River, covered by 
license No. 2773, was given leave to withdraw, it appearing 
from an opinion of the Attorney-General, to whom the 
matter was referred, that this Board is not authorized to 
convey to said company the land in question. 

On April 28, 1904, the Okahahwis Canoe Club, petitioner 
for license to build and maintain a pier and float in Salem 
harbor, was given leave to withdraw, at its request. 

On May 16, 1904, the Boston Yacht Club, petitioner for 
license to locate and maintain floats in Marblehead harbor 
adjoining its wharf, was given leave to withdraw, as it ap- 
peared that the proposed location of these floats would be 
an interference with general navigation in that portion of 
the harbor. 

On May 18, 1904, the petition of the superintendent of 
streets of Boston for license to build structures in Charles 
River basin was dismissed, the Board being of opinion that 
the passage of the Charles River dam act, St. 1903, chapter 
465, rendered it unnecessary to issue a license for the pro- 
posed work. 

On May 25, 1904, the petition of Cannon & Hastey for 
license to build and maintain a boat landing in Lake Quin- 
sigamond, in Worcester, was dismissed, it appearing that 
the petitioners were not owners of the land in front of which 
the structure was to be built. 

On June 8, 1904, the trustees of the New England Real 
Estate Trust, petitioners for license to build a bulkhead and 
fill solid in Boston harbor at South Boston, were given leave 
to withdraw the petition, at their request. 

On Sept. 6, 1904, parties who had previously requested 
the Board to recall license No. 2867, authorizing the build- 
ing of a structure on "Waters River, in Danvers, and to re- 
open the hearing, were notified of the adverse decision of 
the Board, based upon an opinion of the Attorney-General, 
stating that this commission lacked authority to revoke or 
fecall the license in question. 



66 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

On Sept. 14, 1904, George N. Talbot and others, peti- 
tioners for modification of a structure built in Phlnney JBay 
in the town of Barnstable, under license from the Soajrd, 
were given leave to withdraw the petition, at their request. 

On Nov. 28, 1904, the East Boston Company, petitioner 
for license to rebuild and extend a wharf in Boston Iiarbor 
at East Boston, was given leave to withdraw the petition, 
at its request. 

Miscellaneous Permits granted during the Year. 

Isaac Blair & Co., to dump snow from Dover Street bridge into 

tide water, in Boston. Granted Jan. 13, 1904. 
Union Freight Railroad Company, to dump snow from Cra/g/e 

bridge into Charles River, in Boston. Granted Feb. 4, 1904. 
Fred E. Ellis, to dredge material from Lynn harbor. Grranted 

Feb. 12, 1904. 
Proctor & Drummey, to dump snow from Dover Street bridge 

into tide water, in Boston. Granted Feb. 18, 1904. 
Charles Duncan, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at Soath 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Granted Feb. 29, 1904. 
Frank J. Hannon, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Gi-anted Feb. 29, 1904. 
Joseph L. Boardman, to remove gravel from Salter's beach, in 

Plymouth. Granted March 10, 1904. 
Jeremiah P. O'Riorden, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at 

South Boston material taken from excavations in the city of 

Boston. Granted March 15, 1904. 
Harry E. Converse, to dump material dredged near his wharf in 

Marion harbor on an area located southerly of Charles Neck 

Point and lying between said point and the buoy on " The 

Bow Bells." Granted March 29, 1904. 
James F. Dooley, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at Soath 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Granted March 29, 1904. 
Trustees of the Main Street Land Trust, to dredge material 

* from their flats in Charles River, on the Cambridge side of 

the channel, near Cambridge bridge. Granted March 81, 

1904. 
WoLLASTON Yacht Club, to remove portion of shoal at the outer 

end of its wharf, in Quincy Bay. Granted April 5, 1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 67 

Ou> Coix>NT Street Ra^ilwat Company, to dredge in Weymouth 
Fore River, near Quincy Point, in Qaincy. Granted April 6, 
1904. 
Harries & LiEttenet Co., to dump material dredged from near 
WollastOD beach on the shore between Moon Island and 
Squantam and along the easterly shore of Squantum. 
Granted April 8, 1904. 
Bay Stat£ Dredging Company, to dump material dredged from 
Dorchester Bay near Savin Hill and Commercial Point, on 
flats of the Bay State Gas Company at the outer end of the 
Calf Pasture. Granted April 8, 1904. 
Nantaskxt Beach Steamboat Company, to remove accumulations 
of material from the basin around Long wharf, in Plymouth 
harbor. Granted April 13, 1904. 
New England Telephone and Telegraph Company op Massa- 
chusetts, to set and maintain one pole in Anchor Street, on 
the Commonwealth flats at South Boston. Granted May 5, 
1904. 
Squantum Yacht Club, to dredge a basin off the outer end of its 

wharf, in Quincy Bay. Granted May 5, 1904. 
Boston Harbor Steamboat Company, to remove accumulations of 
material in the channel leading from Weir River to its wharf 
in Hull. Granted May 23, 1904. 
Town of Hull, to take materia] from the beach easterly of Beach 
Avenue and near its junction with B Street, for the pur- 
pose of building a portion of said avenue. Granted May 24, 
1904. 
Cnr OF Beverly, to lower the water pipe laid across Bass River 

at Bass River bridge, in Beverly. Granted June 27, 1904. 
Milton da Costa, to use and occupy Quarantine Rock, in Boston 

harbor. Granted July 8, 1904. 
Jaxks Fieldek, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 
Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 
Granted July 18, 1904. 
^antasket Beach Steamboat Company, to remove accumulations 
of sand in the berths and around Pemberton pier, iu Hull. 
Granted July 22, 1904. 
Boston & Maine Railroad, to build a temporary structure over 
Charles River, connecting the draw piers of the bridges on 
itsFitchburg division. Granted July 28, 1904. 
William Bakrett, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 
Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 
Granted July 29, 1904. 



68 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

Boston & Maine Railroad, to publish notice, in the name of the 

Board, of the closing of Millers River to the pa.ssag'^ of 

vessels through the draw in its Western division bridge, for 

the purpose of making repairs to said bridge. Gra.nted 

Aug. 12, 1904. 
Thomas Butler & Co., to use a berth in the channel or depress/on 

easterly of the Commonwealth pier, at South Boston, for the 

purpose of mooring the ship ** Hotspur." Granted A.ug. 24^ 

1904. 
John T. Scully, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations in^the city of Boston. 

Granted Sept. 19, 1904. 
City of Boston, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material excavated from A Street, South Boston. 

Granted Oct. 12, 1904. 
James F. Nyhan, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations. in the city of Boston. 

Granted Oct. 12, 1904. 
Coleman Brothers, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Granted Oct. 13, 1904. 
Patrick Hughes, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Granted Oct. 21, 1904. 
Thomas White, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Granted Oct. 21, 1904. 
James P. McSorley, to dump on the Commonwealth flats at South 

Boston material taken from excavations in the city of Boston. 

Granted Oct. 25, 1904. 
Hutchinson Lumber Company, to dredge a channel and dock on 

its land and flats in Lynn harbor. Granted Oct. 28, 1904. 
Metropolitan Park Commissioners, to excavate material from 

Mystic River, in Medford and Somerville. Granted Nov. 1, 

1904. 

Work of the United States in Rivers and Harbors 

OF the Commonwealth. 

The Board is indebted to Col. W. S. Stanton, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A., who is in charge of river and harbor 
improvements in eastern Massachusetts, and Lieut.-Col. J. 
H. Willard, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., who is in charge 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 69 

of similar "work in southern Massachusetts, for the following 
statements, which show the work accomplished in the rivers 
and harbors of this 'Commonwealth during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1904 : — 

STATE3ftEl<T OF COL. W. S. StANTON, CoRPS OP ENGINEERS, U. S. A. 

Boston, Mass. , Deo. 9, 1904. 
Hearbor and Land Commissioners, Commonwealth of MassofihuseUs^ 

State House^ Boston, Mass, 

Sirs: — In accordance with your request of Nov. 17, 1904, I 
have the booor to furnish the following summary of work done by 
the United States during the fiscal year that closed June 30, 1904, 
in the rivers and harbors in Massachusetts under my charge. 

Merrimae River. 

Under a contract for dredging the channel 7 feet deep at mean 

low water and 150 feet wide through all shoals below Haverhill, 

12,567 cubic yards of mud, sand, gravel, clay and bowlders were 

dredged from the section above Rocks bridge, and 4,862 cubic 

yards from the section below that bridge, obtaining a channel 150 

feet wide up to the highway bridge at Haverhill, except at a shoal 

about 3,000 feet above Rocks bridge, where, for about 800 feet, 

the channel width is reduced to 100 feet. 

A survey of the river was made during the year, of which a re- 
port, together with estimate, for deepening the channel to 9 feet 
at mean low water, was submitted in November, 1903, and pub- 
lished in House Document No. 311, 58th Congress, second session. 

Newburyport Harbor, 

Od June 21, 1904, bids were opened, and contract was author- 
ized for repairing both the north and south jetties, and for extend- 
ing the south jetty as far as the available funds would permit. 
No work under this contract had been performed at the close of 
the fiscal year. 

Breakwater for Harbor of Refuge^ Sandy Bay^ Cape Ann. 

Under the contract for continuing the construction of this break- 
water, 112,411.5 tons of rubble stone were placed in the western 
and 3,929 tons in the southern arm of the breakwater, completing 
the substructure of the western arm for a length of 605 feet to a 
height of 12 feet below mean low water, and a core of the super- 
Btnicture for the same length up to mean low water, with a width 



70 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

of 80 feet on top. The stone deposited in the southern arm was 
placed on the seaward face to fill it out to the prescribed slope. 

At the close of the fiscal year work was in progress^ and 3,530 
linear feet of the substructure of the southern arm and 1,430 feet 
ot the substructure of the western arm had been practically com- 
pleted. 

Rockport Harbor. 

Under the contract for rebuilding the breakwaters, 9,721.5 tons 
of rubble stone were deposited during the year, and the rebuilding 
of the breakwaters was completed, making the Bearskin Neck 
breakwater 900 feet long and Norwoods Head breakwater 200 feet 
long. 

Gloucester Harbor. 

Under the contract for completing the breakwater on or before 
Sept. 30, 1906, 16,236.5 tons of dimension stone and 4,082 tons 
of rubble stone were placed in 845 linear feet of the superstructure ; 
89,496 tons of rubble stone were placed in the substructure and 
850 tons of riprap stone were placed in the apron along the base 
of the superstructure on the seaward side. 

At the close of the year the substructure was entirely completed 
for 2,250 feet and the superstructure for 1,122 feet from shore. 
Work was in progress on the superstructure. 

Manchester Harbor. 

Under contract for dredging from the channel of this harbor, 
10,499.6 cubic yards of mud and sand were dredged, continuing 
the channel 100 feet wide at the turns and 75 feet wide elsewhere 
to the depth of 6 feet at mean low water, 1,100 feet up stream to 
a point 220 feet below the south-west corner of Read's wharf. 

Beverly Harbor. 

Under the contract for dredging in this harbor, 18,206.6 cubic 
yards of mud, sand and gravel were dredged between Tucks Point 
and Salem Neck, widening to 200 feet the entrance channel 18 feet 
deep at mean low water, excepting over obstructing ledges, on 
which the least depth is 12 feet, and which reduce the available 
width at two points to 150 feet. 

Lynn Harbor. 

Under a contract for dredging from the channel of this harbor, 
49,449 cubic yards of material were dredged from the outer main 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 71 



channel, deepening it to 15 feet for a width of 100 feet on 
e^^raight and 125 feet on carved aections, extending from the deep 
Imsin opposite Little Nahant, a distance of 4,600 feet, to the sea. 

Maiden River, 

Five thousand six hundred fifty-four cubic yards of material were 
dredged from the channel of this river in restoring the prescribed 
depth of the channel at two localities where shoals obstructed the 
ascent of barges with coal to Maiden. 

Boston Harbor. 

To secure a channel 27 feet deep at mean low water and 1,000 
feet wide, in the lower main ship channel, under a contract for 
the excavation of 19,008 cubic yards of ledge, in the removal of 
21 ledges, drilling and blasting were continued during the year ; 
11,503 cubic yards, scow measurement, of blasted material were 
removed. The removal of one ledge was completed. 

Under a contract to remove 223 cubic yards, in 3 ledges, from 
the lower main ship channel, and 2,066 cubic yards, in 11 ledges, 
in the upper main ship channel, the breaking up of the rock 
(without drilling or blasting) has extended over 2 ledges in the 
lower main ship channel and over 4 ledges in the upper main ship 
channel, and 490 cubic yards, scow measurement, of broken rock 
have been removed. None of the 14 ledges has been removed to 
the depth of 27 feet. 

In maintenance of the 27-foot channel, 23,147 cubic yards of 
gravel, cobblestones, clay and mud were dredged by hired plant 
from the lower main ship channel in removal of numerous shoals 
from President Roads to Boston Light. 

Id Broad Sound, under a contract for dredging a channel 30 feet 
at mean low water and 1,200 feet wide, 61,359.4 cubic yards of 
stone, gravel and clay, and 66,048 cubic yards of bowlders over 
6 tons in weight each, were dredged, completing, on May 6, 1904, 
the original contract for dredging this channel. 

To avoid the costly removal of 5 ledges uncovered by the 
dredging in the easterly side of the outer arm of this channel, a 
supplemental contract was entered into for dredging 75,292 cubic 
yards of material from the westerly side of that arm in a strip 
55 feet wide. Dredging under this supplemental contract had not 
been commenced at the close of the fiscal year. 

Under the project authorized by act of Congress, approved 
Jane 13, 1902, to obtain a channel 35 feet deep at mean low 



72 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

water, 1,200 feet in width in the upper main ship channel from 
Boston to President Roads, and 1,500 feet in width from President 
Roads to the sea at Broad Sound, four contracts were in force at 
the beginning of the fiscal year, embracing the removal in the 
aggregate of 9,780,000 cubic yards of material, of which 7,500,000 
cubic yards will be dredged from the upper main ship channel and 
2,280,000 cubic yards from President Roads to Broad Sound. 
During the fiscal year under these contracts 1,129,405.5 cubic 
yards were dredged from the upper main ship channel and 73,943.5 
cubic yards from the channel extending from President Roads to 
the sea. 

In maintenance * of sea walls protecting the islands and head- 
lands of the harbor, the rebuilding of the south head sea ^^all on 
Deer Island was completed; walls on Long Island and Loveli's 
Island were repointed, and minor repairs were made to these two 
latter walls and to the wall on Great Brewster Island. 

Cohasset Harbor. 

Ten thousand two hundred ninety-nine cubic yards of mud, 
sand, gravel and clay and 105 cubic yards of rock were removed 
from this harbor during the fiscal year under contracts, the comple- 
tion of which obtained a channel 4 feet deep at mean low water, 60 
to 75 feet wide, extending from the entrance to the inner harbor, 
to and along the wharf front, to a point about 100 feet west of 

Tower's wharf. 

Plymouth Harbor. 

During the fiscal year. Eel River was returned to its former 
course, discharging into the harbor. In this operation 2,085 cubic 
yards of earth were excavated from its original bed and a dam of 
earth and sand bags was built across its new bed. 

To prevent it from being again turned into the sea, 536 linear 
feet of stone dike were built in front of it, in the vicinity of its 
closed passage to the sea. 

Provincetown Harbor. 

Six groynes of pile and timber, .300 feet apart, aggregating 
995 feet in length, were built on the beach near Abel Hill dike. 

Very respectfully, 

W. S. Stanton, 
Colonel, Corps of Engineers. 

Statement of Lieut.-Col. J. H. Willard, Corps of En- 
gineers, U. S. A., showing the work done by the United 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 73 

States on the rivers and harbors of Massachusetts under the 
Newport, R. I., engineer office, during the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1904 : — 

Hyannis Harbor. 

The contract for dredging this harbor, entered into Dec. 8, 1902, 
was annulled Sept. 5, 1903, and a new contract entered into under 
date of NoTcmher 25. Dredging under this contract was com- 
menced May 27, 1904, and up to the close of the fiscal year 25,346 
cubic yards were excavated, adding 3.6 acres to the 15.5-foot 
anchorage area protected by the breakwater. This completed 
about one- third of the contract. 

Nantucket Harbor. 

After an examination of the effect of the breach in the Haulover 
Beach on the jetty channel, the contract of Jan. 19, 1903, for 
}etty construction, was modified by supplemental articles of agree- 
ment, and the amount of the contract was increased to $10,000, 
the stone to be deposited along the centre line of the jetty and 
allowed to stand at as steep a slope as it would assume, across the 
gap near the shore end of the jetty. Work under this contract 
was commenced May 31, 1904, and up to the end of the fiscal 
year 2,653 tons of stone were so placed, completing about two- 
thirds of the contract. 

Vineyard Haven, 

No works of improvement have been in progress during the 
fiscal year. Further work at this harbor is dependent upon the 
resalt of the examination of tbe Board of Engineers, convened in 
accordance with the river and harbor act of Jane 13, 1902, to con- 
sider the general subject of harbors in this locality. 

Woods Hole, 

Work under the contract for dredging and removing bowlders 
from the strait was completed July 8, 1903. The total amount 
removed was 5,339 cubic yards of clay, gravel and small bowlders 
and 50.3 cubic yards of bowlders exceeding one cubic yard each. 

The main channel has been cleared of all obstructing shoals to a 
depth of 13 feet at mean low tide for its full width of 300 feet, 
excepting two small shoals on its northern edge near Devil's Foot 
Island, and the main shoal at its eastern end, through which the 
13-foot channel has a width of 225 feet. 



74 HAEBOR AND LAND OOMMISSIONEBS. fJan. 



New Bedford Harbor. 

The work of dredging, in the anchorage area in this b arbor, 
under the contract in force at the close of the last fiscal yeaj-, ^i^as 
resumed July 14, 1908, and completed December 12. A totAl of 
178,372 cubic yards of mud and sand were removed, completing; 
the contract and all approved projects for this harbor. 

Taunton River. 

No work of improvement has been in operation during the past 
fiscal year beyond a few days' work at the beginning of the year 
in completing the contract for dredging near Dighton wharf and 
Wickamount, which was completed July 3, 1903. 

Fall River Harbor. 

Work was continued through the greater part of the year under 
the continuing contract for dredging a channel 25 feet deep at 
mean low water and 300 feet wide through Fall River harbor and 
across Mount Hope Bay. Up to the close of the fiscal year, 
948,233 cubic yards of mud and sand had been removed, com- 
pleting about 87 per cent, of the contract. The unusually severe 
winter compelled a discontinuance of the work during January, 
February and the greater part of March. 

Removal of Wrecks. 

The following wrecks were removed so as no longer to form 
obstructions to navigation : Schooner ' ' Sarah Potter," off the 
Handkerchief Shoal; schooner "Dora Mathews," 3^ miles north- 
east of Sankaty Head, Nantucket; schooner "Agnes £. Manson," 
6^ miles east ^ mile north from Sankaty Head; schooner "Mar- 
riott," 10 miles west south-west from Vineyard Sound lightship; 
barge "Fidelia," from 3 miles west of Hen and Chickens light- 
ship; schooner "Albert F. Stearns," from Rogers shoal, near 
Monomoy Point; schooner "Levi Hart" and an unknown wreck, 
from Pollock Rip slough. 



Preliminary Examinations and Surveys. 

Preliminary examinations with a view to improvements were 
made at the following localities : Little Harbor, Woods Hole ; 
Onset harbor ; Weepecket rock, in Buzzards Bay ; also by a board 
of engineers constituted by the river and harbor act of June 13, 
1902, to make an examination of Vineyard and Nantucket sounds 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 11. 75 

and the east shore of Cape Cod, with a view to reporting upon the 
relative merits of said localities for harbors of refuge. 

Onset harbor was deemed unworthy of improvement by the 
general government, and surveys were ordered at Little Harbor, 
WoodB Hole, and Weepecket rock. 

The report of the board of engineers considering the subject of 
harhors of refuge was printed in House Document No. 60, fifty- 
eighth Congress, second session. 

Proposed Bridge over Taunton Great River, between 
THE City of Fall River and Town of Somerset. 

A Joint Board, consisting of the Railroad Commissioners, 
the Harbor and Land Commissioners and the County Com- 
missioners of the county of Bristol, was constituted by 
chapter 462 of the Acts of 1903, and directed to locate and 
construct a new drawbridge over Taunton Great River, be- 
tween the city of Fall River and the town of Somerset, with 
the necessary approaches and ways thereto, at a cost not to 
exceed $1,000,000. 

The Joint Board, after a study of the project and public 
hearings, with the aid of expert engineers, determined that 
it is inexpedient to build a bridge adapted for the purposes 
of railroad, street railway and ordinary public travel ; and 
that a separate bridge for public travel, sufficiently strong 
to carry a street railway if hereafter needed, would best 
meet the requirements of the community. 

The question of site became of prime importance, and no 
less than four different locations were advocated by different 
interests. The Board finally fixed on one about 1,200 feet 
north of the existing Slade's Ferry bridge, with the easterly 
terminus at Brightman Street and the westerly terminus at 
the old ferry slip, where the river is about 1,000 feet wide, 
as combining the greatest convenience to the greatest num- 
ber of the public travelling by land, while creating the least 
possible ol)struction to navigation, and at the same time 
avoiding any curtailment of the harbor. At the point 
selected the distance between the abutments would be less 
than at any other site considered, thereby materially reduc- 
ing the cost. A greater elevation also could be maintained 
above the level of the water, with easy grades in approach- 



76 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

ing and less cost of constxaction. After selecting the site 
and adopting the plans, the Joint Board, under the require- 
ments of the statute, submitted these plans to the Board of 
Harbor and Land Commissioners for its approval. JsTofcices 
were issued and a hearing was given on the plans presented, 
relative to the location of the draw span, the width of its 
opening, the height of the bridge above the water level, 
and the location of the piers with reference to the flow of 
the tides and the accommodation of passing vessels. ^Witb 
some slight variations from the plans presented, those finally 
approved provided for a deck bridge 60 feet wide, includizig' 
sidewalks, and about 960 feet long between abutments, with 
a lift draw having a clear passageway of 70 feet, located over 
the mean of mid-currents, yet not without due regard to 
the flow of the river through the present bridge and the 
position of the draw therein. The clear height at the centre 
line of the draw span is to be 28 feet above mean high water, 
and at no place is there to be less than 14 feet between mean 
high water and the bottom of the trusses of the fixed spans. 
The bridge is to be supported by five piers between the 
abutments. The height of the draw span is fixed to allow 
the passage under the bridge, without opening the draw, of 
a large majority of the sail boats and mastless barges fre- 
quenting the river. The distance between the bridges is 
ample to admit of manoeuvring or anchoring vessels or tows 
of reasonable length, which after passing one bridge may be 
delayed to await the opening of the draw in the next. 

In May, 1904, the plans were approved and a license 
issued by this Board, which was thereafter forwarded by 
the Joint Board to the War Department for approval. In 
October, 1904, a public hearing was given by Lieut. Col. 
J. H. Willard, U. S. A., engineer in charge of the district 
in which the bridge is to be located, on the question of 
whether the proposed bridge would unreasonably interfere 
with the navigation of the river. The chaimian of the Joint 
Board and the chairman of this Board, among others, were 
heard in support of the license. 

The decision of the War Department has not as yet been 
rendered. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 11. 77 

Dry Dock, 

At the last session of the Legislature a resolution was 
passed relating to this subject, being chapter 103 of the 
Kesolves of 1904, and reading as follows : — 

Hesolved^ That the board of harbor and land commissioners is 
hereby instracted to investigate the advisability of constructing at 
the expense of the Commonwealth a dry dock in Boston harbor, 
and to report thereon to the next general court not later than the 
fifteenth day of January in the year nineteen hundred and five, 
including in the report, if the board deems it expedient, sugges- 
tions as to the nature of the dock that should be erected, its loca- 
tion, and an estimate of its probable cost, and any other matters 
which the board may deem desirable. 

The advisability of constructing at the expense of the 
Commonwealth a drj^ dock in Boston harbor involves many 
considerations, of which the primary question is the finan- 
cial one, and that becomes no less important when consider- 
ing the public demand, most vigorously expressed at the 
present time, in favor of economy. There are, however, 
other considerations of great force, and which are entitled 
to be weighed most seriously, as relating to the proper 
equipment and further success of the great port of New 
England, to which the Federal government is generously 
contributing for the purpose of making' it second to none in 
ofiering facilities for a great commerce. 

In pursuing its investigations the Board has collected and 
tabulated the existing facilities for docking at the port, has 
extended its inquiries wherever in this country and abroad 
data of value were to be obtained, and has given a public 
hearing in order to get a full expression of the views of the 
merchants of Boston and all local interests. 

In October, 1902, the retiring president of the Boston 
Associated Board of Trade in an address said: *'We can 
see but one thing lacking necessary to give the great vessels 
of to-day and the near future all the accommodation of a first- 
class port, and that is a dry dock of the most approved and 
modem type, and not less than 800 feet in length. Private 
capital cannot be invested for such a purpose, for it may 



78 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

not pay for many years ; but the State should also provide 
this important instrument of commerce. It is not a fad, it 
is not a luxury, but an actual necessity; and we shall have 
no right to call our port a first-class one until it is done." 

On Feb. 1, 1904, there was presented to the Legislature 
a petition in behalf of the merchants of Boston for legisla- 
tion to provide for the construction by the Commonwealth 
of a dry dock on the Commonwealth flats at South Soston. 
In support of this petition, at the hearing before the com- 
mittee on harbors and public lands, the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce, the Merchants' Association and other mercantile 
bodies were represented. They stated that the existing 
Simpson dry docks at East Boston were ample for the size 
of vessels for which they were built, but that they were not 
large enough to accommodate the larger vessels now fre- 
quenting the port ; that foreign steamship managers had 
called attention most emphatically to the need of a large dry 
dock in Boston harbor, for use in case of accident happening 
to one or more of the larger vessels. These views were 
repeated at the hearing before the Harbor and Land Com- 
missioners, on Dec. 8, 1904. 

From the records of the Boston Chamber of Commerce we 
learn that in 1903 there entered Boston harbor 37 vessels, 
and in 1904 22 vessels, too large to be docked in the 
Simpson dock. These were all foreign-owned steamships, 
most of which were sailing to and from their home ports, 
and would dock in Boston only in case of serious accident, 
docking for periodical cleaning and painting ordinarily 
being done at the home port. A few, probably not more 
than 8 or 10, of these vessels sailing from other than their 
home ports might, however, dock in Boston, providing the 
rates were not more than those at the Mediterranean ports 
from which they were sailing. 

In order to learn to what extent other ports are provided 
with dry docks, tables have been prepared, from information 
obtained in Lloyds Register and the Register of United 
States vessels, the first showing the number of dry docks 
and marine railways or slips of various sizes throughout the 
world, — this list includes naval docks as well as commercial 
docks ; the second showing the number of commercial dry 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 



79 



docks and marine railways or slips in the principal ports of 
the world. The following table shows the present facilities 
for docking vessels at Boston : — 



Drt Docks and Marine Railways in Boston Harbor. 

[All dlmensloiiB In feet.] 



OF Dock. 



d 
o 
O 






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go I 

III 



O 9 « 

2 



a 

H 

a 

o 



o 
o 



d 
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I 



3 
it 



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13 

So 



2 



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9 



Nsry Yard, old dock, . 
Nary Tard, new dock, j 
Stmpeon*e dock No. 1, . 
SlnpeoB'e dock No. 2, . 
Simpeon'e dock No. 3, . 



Stone, 


3»» 


864 


80 


ao 


60 


44 


80 


25 


Stone and 
concrete, 


t 760 


729 


114 


72 


101.5 


76 


85 


80 


Wood, 


477 


456 


81 


40 


66 


41 


24 


18 


Wood, 


256 


260 


68 


84 


46 


80 


22 


18 


Wood, 


165 


155 


44 


28 


88 


22 


18 


13 



0.6 
0.6 
0.6 
0.6 
0.6 



Dnitng the neap and spring tldee the depth of water over the bUIs of the varlone dock 
'Win vary from 1 to 2 feet more or 1ms from the depths given In the table. 

In ease of necessitj, 18 feet additional length on floor can be ntllized in Simpson** 
Dock No. 1. 

The Navy Tard new dock is nearly completed. 

Plsns and estimates have been prepared at Washington for a third graving dock at the 
Navy Tard, about 650 feet long. 

It is proposed to reoonstmct Green's wooden dry dock, which will take vessels of 165 feet 
length aod 12 feet drafU 



Marine Railways at East Boston. 

Atlantic Works marine railways : — 

No. 1 has cradle 244 feet long, 70 feet wide ; can take vessels 
drawing 11^ feet forward, 14^ feet aft, and not exceeding 1,800 
tons net weight. 

No. 2 has cradle 200 feet long, 58 feet wide ; can take vessels 
drawing 12^ feet- forward, 15^ feet aft, and not exceeding 800 tons 
net weight. 

No. 3 has cradle 135 feet long, 43 feet wide ; can take vessels 
drawing 14 feet, and not exceeding 500 tons in weight. 

Lockwood's marine railway has cradle 150 feet long; can take 
vessel drawing 8 feet forward and 13 feet aft, and not exceeding 
600 tons register. 



The Simpson patent dry dock No. 1, which will accommo- 
date vessels up to 450 feet in length, 60 feet in width and 



80 



HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan 



18 feet draft, is the only dock in Boston outside the Navy 
Yard which could take vessels of any considerable size. 
The recent records of this dock are as follows : — 



Number of TlmM 

VMselt placed 

In Dock. 



Number of Days 

X>oclc in 

Ume. 



1902, 
190S, 
1904, 




153 
147 
141 



showing that the dock has been in use but little more than 
half the time. No commercial vessels are placed in the 
Navy Yard dock except when the Simpson dock is occu- 
pied, as that dock for the last fourteen years has been longer 
than the one at the Navy Yard. 

From the records of the Simpson docks it would appear 
that the No. 1 dock, 455 feet long on bottom, can accommo- 
date all the vessels which are too large to enter either the 
No. 2 or No. 3 docks ; in fact, it has been used to dock 
many of the smaller vessels which could not be seasonably 
accommodated in the smaller docks. 

Four times during the past seven years vessels could not 
wait until the Simpson dock was available, and so were 
docked at the Navy Yard. It is a fair inference, from the 
records of the last tliree years, that no material increase in 
the demand is likely. 

Inquiries fail to develop instances of the larger class of 
steamships seeking a port elsewhere than at home for sub- 
stantial repairs, because of insufficient dry docks at Boston ; 
at the same time, it might be unwise to rely on the contin- 
uance of such exemption. 

A complete list of steamships docked for repairs at Simp- 
son's, for the past three years, is as follows : — 



Jan. 



Steamship ^^ Isle of Kent," 3,088 tons. Had been in 
colliBion with a Spanish steamship, which was sunk. 
Extensive repairs to stem, new frame, and plates. 
Paid for 19^ days' dockage. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 81 



AyriL Steamship '^ Wilster/' 2,101 tons. Had been ashore* 
Remained in dock a long time for surveys, and finally 
patched, and went to New York for repairs. Went 
in a second time, surveyor not being satisfied with 
the patching. Paid for 18 days' dockage. 
Steamship ^^Timandra," 1,500 tons. Ran on rocks, 
outward bound. Paid for 8 days' d^ockage. 
May. Steamship ^^ Prince George," 2,140 tons. General 

work. Paid for 4 days' dockage. 
June. Steamship ^^ Indian," of Philadelphia line, 2,110 tons. 
Had been ashore in Vineyard Sound. Being bound 
to Boston, she was brought here, discharged and 
docked. New York bid being less than Boston, she 
was patched, and taken to Erie Basin, New York, for 
repairs. Paid for 11 days' dockage. 
Oct. and Steamship ^^Aldany," 8,090 tons. Had been ashore. 
Nov. Put on 57 new plates, and treated 58 others. Paid 

for 30 days' dockage. 



Jan. Steamship ^^Priestfield," 8,980 tons. Had been ashore. 

Put on 12 plates, and again had been in the ice, put 
on 15 plates. Paid for 6 days' dockage. 

April. Steamship *' Peter Jebson," 3,535 tons, collier. Had 
been ashore on Nix's Mate, outward bound, light. 
Had new plates, and old ones taken out and straight- 
ened. Paid for 14 days' dockage. 

July. Steamship ^'Grayfield," 2,121 tons. Could not ascer- 
tain cause. Paid for 4J days' dockage. 
Sept. Steamship ^^ Admiral Sampson," 2,104 tons. Had new 
• shaft. Had to wait for it, and docked a second time. 
Paid for 9 days' dockage in all. 

ItM. 

June and Steamship '' Boston," 1,692 tons. Dominion line. Was 
July. ashore twice on the Nova Scotia coast. Paid for 4 
days' dockage in June and for 14 days in July. 

The following tables show the facilities elsewhere : — 



82 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 



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Q 
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lyOo.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 93 

The most recent graving dock planned for the port of 
Liverpool is to be 800 feet long, with an entrance width of 
135 feet; another dock, leading out of the Herculaneum 
dock, is building, 745 feet long. The extra width of en- 
trance of the first^mentioned dock is due to the difficult 
approach rather than to the width of the vessels. It should 
l>e borne in mind that Liverpool already has the Canada 
dock, with a length of 925 feet, a width of entrance of 94 
feet and depth on sill of 32 feet. 

The most recent floating dock planned is one now under 
construction by the Maryland Steel Company for the United 
States naval station at Cavite in the Philippines. It is 
to be 500 feet long, 100 feet wide in clear between side 
walls, 30 to 35 feet deep over keel blocks, and lifting 
cajiacity of 16,000 tons, with free board of 2 feet. 

Size of Stemnships. 

Letters of inquiry were sent to the owners of all steam- 
ship lines coming to Boston, asking for a statement of the 
size of their vessels, the probability of their requiring dock 
fiicilities in Boston harbor other than those already existing, 
the frequency and length of time vessels were usually in 
dock for painting and ordinary repairs, and the desirability 
of having repair shops and railways near to or alongside the 
dock. 

Other letters were sent to ship-building concerns both in 
the United States and Europe, asking for similar informa- 
tion. Twelve replies were received to the first set of letters 
and twenty replies to the last. 

The owners of the steamships frequenting the port which 
are too large to use the Simpson dock stated in answer to 
our inquiries that except in emergencies, such as injuries 
which could not be otherwise repaired, none of these would 
be docked in Boston even if there were a dock large enough 
to accommodate them, except in the case of steamships 
plying between Boston and Mediterranean ports which now 
dock there ; and the only reason for making a change would 
be lower dock rates and repair charges. The above are all 
foreign-owned vessels. 



94 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan 



Name, Length and Tonnage of Steamships over 450 Febx IiON<j 



AKKlVinVr AX inc. X \JMi 


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Name. 


Knmber of 

Timet 

entered 


Length 
(Fe«t). 


Orotf* 

Tonnage. 


1. Oxonian, 


4 


459.0 


6,306 


2. Toronto, . 










4 


456.0 


6,035 


S. Consuelo, 










3 


461.5 


6.025 


4. Kingstonian, . 










5 


467.0 


6^64 


5. Bosnia, . 










3 


485.0 


7,436 


6. Bengalia, 










2 


485.0 


7,659 


7. Belgia, . 










1 


485.0 


7,507 


8. Bethania, 










3 


485.0 


7,492 


9. Michigan, 










9 


490.5 


8,000 


10. Utopia, . 










2 


500.0 


10,402 


11. Bohemian, 










9 


512.0 


8,548 


12. Cestrian, . 










7 


512.5 


8,823 


13. Canadian, 










7 


530.0 


9,301 


14. Winnifredian, 










9 


552.5 


10,405 


15. Devonian, 










7 


552.5 


10,418 


16. Romanic, 










7 


550.0 


11,394 


17. Republic, 










8 


570.0 


15,878 


18. Cretic, . 










10 


582.0 


13,518 


19. Saxon ia, . 










10 


582.0 


14,281 


20. Ivernia, . 










10 


582.0 


14,058 


21. Canopic, 










7 


578.8 


12,097 


22. Cymric, . 










10 


585.0 


18,096 












137 





None of the foregoing vessels would dock here for clean- 
ing and painting, unless they might be trading between 



1905.2 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 1)5 

-Doston and some foreign port other than the home port, and 
Oiese instances would be rare. 

-I lie Canard steamships now building with turbine engines 
*^ to be 780 feet over all, 760 feet on the water line, 88 
^ beam, 60 feet deep, and will require a depth over the 
. *^^ ®^U of about 30 feet. The largest steamship in service 
*f ^^ '* Baltic" of the White Star line, 708.3 feet long, 75.5 
feet wide and 49 feet deep. 

^ae following is a list of some of the largest steamships 

«^iU since 1893, of which the *' Cymric," *' Saxonia" and 

^ ^'^^^^ " have been quite constantly in the Boston ser- 



96 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [.Tan 



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1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMi^NT — No. 11. 97 

Hrnc Maixy of the Large Vessels coming to Boston would 

tise the Proposed Dock? 

Vessels dock away from home only in emergencies. In 
the case of a damaged vessel brought into the port of Bos- 
ton, usually a survey is first made, for which purpose she 
may be docked, and then tenders asked for making repairs. 
Owing to the siurplus dock accommodations at New York, 
and to the fact that at Philadelphia, Baltimore and Newport 
News the docks are owned by the ship-building companies, 
the lowest bids are usually received from one of these places. 
After the contract for making repairs has been let, the ship 
may be held dry-docked at Boston while being patched or 
baying temporary repairs made, and then allowed to proceed 
to New York or elsewhere for the permanent repairs. While 
this may result in delay and consequent loss to the ship 
owner, it enables the underwriters to effect the repairs at 
the least cost to the insurance company. 

As a rule, the cost of repairs in foreign ports is much less 
than in the United States; in addition thereto, all steamship 
lines have at their home port a superintendent who has 
charge of the repairs and maintenance of vessels, which 
^ts enable them to be repaired at the home port much 
cheaper and better than at a foreign port ; wherefore, almost 
invariably if the damage to a vessel is such that she can 
reach her home port with temporary patching or repairs, she 
proceeds there for permanent repairs. 

This, however, is not always true ; as, for instance, one 
of the American line steamships built at Philadelphia was 
recently sent to Belfast, Ire., for a thorough overhauling, 
the cost of labor and the facilities being such that it could 
be done more cheaply there than at the yard where she was 
constructed. 

The question, then, has the lack of a large dock kept or 
will it keep any vessels from coming here, is one to be con- 
sidered. 

The reasons for new lines or single vessels coming to a 
port are primarily the amount of merchandise to be received 
or shipped. No ship would go to a port simply because a 
dry dock existed there, except through necessity. If re- 



98 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

munerative business were to be found at a port, vessels 
would go there whether the port had docking facilities or 
not. The only case in which they would have any t>earing 
would be at places where the amount of business and rates 
were practically the same ; for instance, if one port had no 
docking fiEkcilities, and another very good ones, preference 
would undoubtedly be given (other things being equal) to 
the well-equipped port. 

It follows that the business of a large dry dock would b^ 
very limited in Boston, and practically it would only be 
called upon to dock vessels over 450 feet long that had met 
with some accident which rendered an inspection or examina- 
tion below the water line absolutely necessary ; and then in 
all probability it would be used simply for making saeh ex- 
amination and temporary repairs as would enable the ship to 
reach some other port, where permanent repairs could be 
made at less cost. The number of ships of this length i^hich 
entered Boston during the year 1903 was 37, and in 1904 
was 22 * ; and not one of these on any passage was injured 
in such a way as to require the use of a dry dock. 

What Type of Dock is Preferable. 

From all the information which the Board has been able 
to obtain, it would appear that either a graving or floating 
dock would accommodate vessels in a satisfactory manner. 
Many ship owners and builders prefer one, and many the 
other. In some locations proper foundations cannot be 
readily secured for a graving dock, while in other places it 
would be difficult to obtain the necessary depth of water in 
which to locate a floating dock. The class and amount of 
business to be done have a material bearing in deciding 
which is better adapted to a particular locality. 

A Floating Dock. 

Wherever firm foundations cannot be readily obtained for 
a fixed dock, it is almost always practicable, by reason of 
soft bottom, to obtain the necessary depth of water for a 

* See table opposite. 



TaWe Showing Number ond Length of 
Different Steamers Arriving at the 
Port of Boston from Foreign and 
Domestic Ports during 1 904 



Note — X Foreign • Domestic 



L 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 11. 99 

floating dock. When a vessel is raised on a floating dock, 
she is above the level of the water, so that light and air 
have free access to her bottom, thus facilitating drying. 
Should a floating dock be built in sections, it could be 
so oi)erated as to give an equal bearing to all portions 
of an old vessel, and thus avoid straining, however much 
her lines may have become distorted. Inasmuch as such a 
dock possesses less longitudinal stiffness than a graving dock, 
should the damage to be repaired extend over a considerable 
length of the vessel, it would be more difficult to keep her 
properly supported at all points than in a masonry dock. 

A floating dock also could be moved about a harbor, or 
from one harbor to another, if necessary ; it also could be 
c^Lreened so as to dock a vessel having a considerable list ; 
but such an operation would be performed at some risk of 
injuring the dock. 

A floating dock could, if required, partially raise a larger 
ship than it is designed to handle, so that repairs might be 
effected, as, for instance, around the propeller shafts, even 
if the whole vessel should not be raised out of the water. 
Further, it could lift a vessel much longer than itself, pro- 
viding the vessel should have the necessary strength to 
stand the strain due to the non-support of an overhanging 
bow and stern. 

While generally the first cost is less than a masonry dock, 
still, it wants more constant care and must be out of com- 
mission a longer time than a masonry dock, for the purpose 
of making these periodical inspections and repairs, and the 
cost of maintenance is greater. In fact, it must be borne in 
mind that a floating dock needs practically the same care as 
a ship, must be cleaned, painted and docked as frequently, 
and at all times requires a crew to look after it. The berth 
or basin in which the dock is operated also would periodi- 
cally require dredging for its maintenance. 

A Masonry Graving Dock, 

Masonry graving docks require a solid foundation, and 
should be located, if possible, in rock or hard-pan forma- 
^on. In such places it would be difficult to secure by arti- 



100 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

ficial means the necessary depth of water for a floating dock 
of the same capacity. 

A masonry dock, owing to its nature, when properlj'- built 
should require very slight repau*s, there being practically 
nothing to get out of order excepting the machinery and the 
gates or caissons closing the entrance. The maintenance of 
the machinery and its operation is less expensive than that 
of a floating dock, owing to its being installed and operated 
in large units in a single house. The same machinery also, 
where the docks are near together, is available for operating 
more than one dock, and, housed in masonry buildings, 
could be more readily taken care of and left with less im- 
mediate supervision than would be the case \vith floating 
docks. The amount of water to be pumped is greater with 
a graving dock ; but if the pumps are properly proportioned, 
it need not take longer to dock a ship in a masonry than in 
a floating dock. The dock itself being fixed, and there being 
ample space around the vessel, she can be as easily, if not 
more readily, adjusted in place than in a floating dock. In 
case of infrequent use, the maintenance charges for the 
masonry dock would be very much leSvS than for the floating 
dock. 

In docking vessels for extensive repairs the masonry dock 
offers the best facilities for shoring up the vessel, and pre- 
venting her becoming strained or fui-ther injured. Where 
the range of tide is considerable, a large portion of the water 
in the dock could be allowed to drain out with the falling 
tide without the cost of pumping, unless it were desirable 
to clear the dock more rapidly. 

In studying the tables showing the location of the various 
dry docks throughout the world, it will be seen that floating 
docks are erenerallv in use where it is difficult to obtain 
proper foundations for masonry docks. In some ports very 
great expense has been incurred to secure such foundations. 
The opinions of ship owners, ship builders and expeiis, 
learned through letters of inquiry and from papers presented 
"to the last National Navigation Congress, held at Dussel- 
dorf in 1902, are herewith given somewhat at length, as 
testimony of the highest. authority. 



li>05.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 101 



Answers reckiyed from Ship Builders and Ship Owners. 

From the point of view of the vessel owner, what are the advan- 
tages or disadvantages between fixed masonry dry docks and float- 
ing dry docks ? 

Morse Dry Dock and Repair Company^ Brooklyn, N, T. — 
There is a difference of opinion, but the majority of steamship 
owners believe that the sectional floating dock is easier on the 
ship, as it conforms to ber shape, while in the graving dock the 
ship is forced to the shape of the dock. Then, again, the cost of 
coQBtrnction and operation of a floating dock is less. A ship can 
be docked in half the time it requires in a graving dock. 

Maryland Steel Company , Boston. — The floating dock has the 
advantage over graving docks in being capable of adjustment to 
injured ships having any list or change of trim, and carries the 
ship easier than the rigid graving dock. In support of this I 
might call attention to the successful government tests in docking 
the battleship ^'Illinois" in the New Orleans floating dock, when 
there was neither cracking of the cement nor cutting of the blocks ; 
proving that the tender bottom of even a battleship can be carried 
on a well-designed floating dock with an evenly distributed pres- 
sure and without a tendency to strain. The floating dock gener- 
sAly lifts a vessel in about half the time required by a graving 
dock, and, in lifting the vessel above water, permits the hull and 
paint to dry quicker ; also, gives better light for carrying on re- 
pairs to the bottom of a ship. 

The NeaJU & Levy Ship and Engine Company , Philadelphia^ Pa, 
— Owners have no objection to first-class floating docks, and they 
ue cheaper. Workmen can see better in floating docks than in a 
deep masonry dock. Faint dries better on floating docks than in 
deep masonry docks. Simpson type fixed docks of timber are 
good for light and air. Many large steel pontoon floating docks 
&re now used in all parts of the world. 

Moran Bros, Company, Seattle, Wash, — The question as to 
whether a floating dock or a stone one permanently built in the 
RfOQDd is the best depends largely on the local conditions ; as you 
probably know there are many places where the formation of the 
ground is such that it is an extremely expensive proposition to 
build a stone or concrete dock ; and there are other places where 
&doek can be practically blasted out of the solid rock, and of 
course under those conditions the stone or concrete dock would be 
unquestionably the best. A floating dock is a very convenient 
Wfty of handling vessels for repairs and painting; the vessel is 
above the surface of the water, which makes it convenient for 



102 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

handling machinery to and from her, and it also briars her up 
where the wind and sun can have the best chance to dry her off in 
the quickest possible time for painting. But this whole proposi- 
tion as to which would be the best for local conditions depends 
altogether on the conditions that exist; and it would be impossible 
for us to advise you in an intelligent way on this subject. 

The Townsend'Downey Shipbuilding Company^ New 'Fork. — 
Either type is satisfactory if properly constructed, equipped and 
operated. Trade and site should decide type of dock. 

Union Iron WorkSy San Francisco, — Consider floating docks 
more desirable as repairs can be made more cheaply than on a 
graving dock. 

Merchants and Miners Transportation Company^ Boston. — The 
advantages of a floating dock over the graving dock are : the 
accessibility of the vessel, and, when the vessel is docked for 
painting, quicker drying on account of freer circulation of air. 

Dominion Atlantic Railway^ Boston. — ^Trom the ship owner's 
point of view, I should say none ; from the dock owner's point of 
view, a great deal. 

The Atlantic Works^ East Boston. — We consider that this is 
largely a question of opinion. Painting and repairs can be done 
more advantageously in a floating dock. More skill and care are, 
however, required to safely place a vessel in a floating dock than 
are required in a flxed masonry dock. 

Leven Ship Yard, Dumbarton, Scot,, Wm. Denny & Bros, — Our 
answer to this entirely depends upon circumstances. Every place 
is not suitable for a floating dock, which requires a large water 
surface and plenty of water; but if these two conditions be 
granted, we are in favor of the floating dock : first, because the 
ground is not always suitable for constructing a dry dock, except 
at great expense, and also the length of the vessel is absolutely 
restricted by the length of the dock ; whereas, in a floating dock, 
a certain additional length can be allowed to project over the ends. 

Robert Stephenson & Co,, Limited, Hebbum-upon-Tyne, Eng. — 
(a) The construction of a floating doqk is considerably cheaper 
than one built of masonry. 

(&) A floating dock can be so arranged that vessels can be 
docked on the side ways, saving considerable area of land; 
whereas in dry docks it is necessary that the dock must extend 
inland instead of parallel with the river bank, as in the case of 
pontoon docks. 

Workman, Clark & Co,, Limited, Belfas^t, Ire, — As to the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages between masonry and pontoon docks, 
opinions are very varied ; but we should say that, from an 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 103 

owner's point of view, the pontoon is preferable, as it enables the 
i^easel to be docked and undocked with greater speed, owing to 
the pamplog being more rapid, and the fact that it is immaterial 
what the state of the tide is when the vessel is taken on or off. 

Ftf loan Sted Warksy Stettin-Bredow^ Oer. — For long passenger 
and freight steamers it is preferable to have a floating dock, 
diTided into several sections ; becaase the keel of these ships, 
especially of old ones, is no longer straight, and a floating dock 
accommodates itself to the form of the keel. For short, heavy 
sMps, war ships, for instance, a dry dock is preferable. 

3urmehter & Wains Machine and Shipbuilders^ Copenhagen^ Den, 
— Floating docks have the advantage of the air getting about the 
vessel. Graving docks have a rigid base for keel and bilge blocks, 
and are considered better for the larger class of steamers and 
battleships. 

William Beardmore & Go. , Limited^ Glasgow^ Scot. — Fixed 
masonry dock preferable. 

Fumessy Withy & Co.y Limited^ West Hartlepool^ Eng, — (a) 
Floating dock : a floating dock is an economical dock to boild, to 
start with, bat you require ( 1 ) a very heavy draught of water ; (2) 
also repairing quays in connection with the dock. These docks 
are very handy for doing ordinary painting Jobs, but for large per- 
manent repairs a masonry dock is the best. 

(6) Masonry dock : a masonry dock is very much superior to a 
floating dock, always providing you have good foundations on 
which to build the dock. The up-keep of a masonry dock is very 
low indeed, providing the dock is well built, the foundations good, 
and the dock is in a good position. 

AUan Line Royal Mail Steamships^ Boston. — We have had no 
experience in floating dry docks, but they are generally considered 
as a good deal more risky, and serious accidents have happened 
with floating docks. 

The Ounard Steamship Company^ Boston. — For painting and 
ordinary repairs the floating dry dock is preferable, as affording 
mach better circulation of air for drying the bottom, much better 
facilities for reaching your work, and much less loss of time in 
labor and expense of getting materials to the bottom or floor of 
the dock ; as the floating dock is practically on level with the pier, 
while the masonry dock is many feet below the pier level. 

For extensive repairs (such as having the keel removed or a 
large number of plates in the bottom renewed, — work requiring 
the steamer to be shored to keep her from straining) the fixed 
masonry dock is preferable for large steamers, as it has greater 
rigidity, and is less liable to strain the vessel. 



104 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. ^Ja^- 

Such work may be done on a floating dock ; but, as tbe dififerent 
sections of a floating dock are sure to be affected more or Jbbb by 
the movement of water under it, there is danger of straining "where 
the steamer is large and the damage overlaps two or three sectiozifi. 
There is a lack of stability about it; and, if called upon to sup- 
port a very heavy steamer for a period of weeks, it might recede a 
little in one or two sections from its original position , and this 
would almost surely result in straining to the steamer in the dock. 

White Star Line^ BoHon. — We prefer fixed masonry dry dockB, 
as being more reliable and efficient.. We believe that & Boating 
dry dock in this harbor could not afford the same depth of water 
as a masonry dry dock, and neither would it offer the same t&cili" 
ties for repair work. 

The Clyde Steamship Company, New York. — All floating* dry 
docks exert an irregular strain on ships, because it is impossible to 
keep the upward pressure at all sections uniform. Masonry or 
graving docks are free from this objection, and safer in every way. 

The Metropolitan Steamship Company, Boston. — I am not aivare 
that it makes much difference to the owner of steamships whether 
the docks are floating or masonry. 

Eastern Steamship Company, Boston, — Don't know that there 
is a great advantage (from an owner's stand-point) in a fixed 
masonry over a floating dock ; but my preference would be for the 
masonry dock. 

Boston Tow Boat Company^ Boston, — We favor fixed madonry 
dock. 

The William Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, Fa, — Our preference is for fixed docks. 

Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Newport 
News, Va. — Most vessel owners prefer to dock in graving docks. 

Fore River Ship Building Company, Q^incy, Mass. — From the 
point of view of the vessel owner, a fixed masonry dock involves 
less risk in docking and handling vessels to and from dock, and 
a greater convenience and despatch in handling heavy weights ; 
whereas a floating dock offers some advantages in carrying on 
painting and light repairs, from the advantages of greater light 
and better air for drying, accessibility for men and light materials. 

F, Verbeet, of Wm. H, Muller & Co., Rotterdam, Holland.— 
Graving docks or floating docks give both the same satisfaction, 
same risk or danger, and ship owners have no preference for either 
of these dry docks. 

If the ground consist of rock or any other hard substance, 
which is proved not to allow penetration of water, and if rise and 
fall of the tides make a large difference in the water level, graving 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 11. 105 

docks are preferred on accoant of being able to get rid of a great 
amoQDt of water wlthoat the assistance of pumps. In cases of soft 
bottom and little rise and fall of the tide (like in this port), float- 
ing dry docks are preferred. 

Amsterdavnsche Droogdok-MaaUchappy^ Amsterdam^ Holland. — 
The advantage in a floating dock is, yon can lay this dock wherever 
it is convenient ; secondly, for painting or repairing purposes the 
ship stands dry and is round about well aired, as the ends of a 
floating dock are open ; in the third place, a smaller cost. 

The disadvantages of a graving dock are : it has to be made in- 
land, with a canal leading to this dock, which is in many cases 
very expensive ; secondly, it is always damp and unhealthy for the 
men to work in ; thirdly, the ship's bottom is not so well visible 
and not so handy, especially for repairs. 

Here in Europe ship owners and navigators rather dock in a 
floating dock than in a graving dock ; in fact, we have of late had 
ships from English owners to dock with us, in preference over 
England. 

A floating dry dock is certainly a useful instrument, especially 
with a repair shop near it ; and, however this is not absolutely 
necessary, it is certainly an enormous advantage. 
Our steel dock can be lengthened if necessary. 
The way you have put the question induces me to make the fol- 
lowing clear to you for a better judgment : — 

A floating dock can be lengthened to almost any length ; but 
please mind, that, although lengthened, the floating power per /bot 
length does not increase. If you have a floating dock 400 feet 
loDg, able to lift 4,000 tons, and you would dock a steamer of say 
4,000 tons and 200 feet long, then you could not do this, because, 
to enable you to apply the full capacity of this dock, it must then 
also be loaded over the full length. This, of course, applies only 
to floating docks, and not to graving docks. 

-4. Rodger & Co.y Port Olasgow^ Scot, — Think quite immaterial 
to ship owner whether vessel in dry dock or floating dock. 

Vickers^ Sons & Maxim^ Limited^ Barrow-in-Furness, England, 
^A dry dock of masonry is no doubt better and more lasting 
than a floating dock. The cost of the former is much greater, but 
the up-keep of the floating dock is more expensive. The -floating 
dock has the advantage of more light and air under the vessel ; 
also, if necessary, it could be taken to another port. From an 
owner's point of view, it is immaterial, provided the dues are the 
same. 

Harland & Wolffe^ Belfast^ Ire, — If the floating dock is placed 
in a position where it is easy of access, there is not much difference 



106 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. IJsLn. 

to the owner of a vessel ; but the repairs to a floating clock are 
much more frequent and costly, and for a harbor trnst the masonry 
dock is looked upon as the more desirable in this conntry. 

Opinions in Regard to Floating and Graying Docks. 

Mr, Howard G. Holmes^ Consulting Engineery San Francisco, — 
The principal and only real advantage in floating over graving 
docks is that the vessel using the same is above the surface of the 
surrounding water, and open to the free circulation of air, which 
greatly facilitates the rapid drying of the bottom and paintings ; 
the other advantage, which applies only to docks not exceeding 
2,500 tons capacity, is the first cost, or that of construction. The 
disadvantages are, first, cost of maintenance. In case of a wooden 
dock, the interior as well as the exterior must be protected from 
the ravages of the marine worms, — the Teredo and Limnoria. 
While this would not apply to a steel dock, the cost woald be 
offset in the latter by the expense of protecting the various parts, 
braces, girders, bulkheads, piping, etc. (and their name is legion 
in a dock of any magnitude), against destructive oxidation fi-om 
the action of salt water both inside and out. From data I hare 
gathered from marine surveyors, it would be necessary to repaint 
every year for the first four years, and then at least every two 
years. This is especially true where there is any structural work, 
such as riveting and bolting. You can readily understand that 
any large structure composed of structural steel, riveted and 
fastened, exposed to the constant strain of the swells and strains 
brought upon it from lifting inert bodies, must require constant 
examination as to the condition of the various connections, and 
necessarily some repairs. 

Herr Hoioaldt^ Kommerzienrath^ Kiel, Ger, (Report Int. Navi- 
gation Cong., Dusseldorf, 1902). — From all I have said we may 
come to the following conclusions : it is advisable to build floating 
docks in all those places where the soil is not especially well suited 
for building dry docks, as the former require the least building as 
well as working expenses ; the composite docks combine the great- 
est profit with a safety equal to other systems ; the floating dock 
has the greater advantage in comparison with a dry dock, the more 
the building ground renders it diflficult to build the latter ; the 
floating dock requires less working expenses than the dry dock in 
those places where there are vessels of all sizes to be docked ; 
repairs are more advantageously and more easily executed in float- 
ing docks, and it will take less time for the bottom of a vessel to 
dry in a floating dock ; and, lastly, there is no limit as to the 
length of vessels in the floating dock. 



190.>.] PUBLIC DOCLTMENT — No. 11. 107 



R. Rudloff^ Baurath, Bremerhaven, Oer. (Report Int. 

^avi^atioD Cong., DusBeldorf, 1902). — It follows from the fore- 

goiog argnment that the opinion prevalent among shipbuilders, 

that dry docks have had their day and will soon be a thing of the 

past, cannot be upheld by the faintest show of reasoning. The 

fallacy of their verdict is further proved by the numerous large 

graving docks which have been built within recent years, or are 

being built at present in England, Germany and many other parts 

of the world ; otherwise, we should be unable to account for the 

decision of their builders and owners in any other way than that 

they must have personal motives against floating docks. 

A strictly objective investigation of the question whether a dry 
dock or a floating dock is the more suitable dock for a certain 
locality will, by the light of the fact disclosed in this report, lead 
to the general conclusion we are about to enunciate. Of course 
there may be exceptional conditions to be considered ; each indi- 
vidaal case in practice will have to be dealt with and decide<l on 
its own merits, and certain local conditions may be such that they 
will outweigh all other considerations. 

Private shipbuilding firms, who wish to possess a repairing dock 
of their own, will preferably choose a floating dock. As a rule, 
such a firm will be in a position to build a dock in their own yard, 
employ their own men* and appliances, and save money thereby. 
They will be able to construct such a dock in much less time than 
a dry dock, and will therefore be sooner in a position to use the 
dock and earn money with it. Moreover, a floating dock can be 
moored off the shore, and will not occupy any site which can be 
Qtilized for other purposes. This is often a great advantage, be- 
cause land may be very dear in the neighborhood of the ship yard, 
and the room may be cramped already. The consideration that a 
floating dock does not require a site on dry land, like a graving 
dock, may outweigh those of greater cost and shorter life of the 
former. 

Private companies, on the other hand, who own a fleet of large 
Bteamers, will do better if they build a dry dock for their own use, 
&s the construction of a floating dock will not offer to them the 
same advantages as to a shipbuilding firm. 

Likewise, preference will always be given to dry docks every- 
where they are wanted as an integral part of an expensive system 
of docks of a first-class harbor, unless the ground is exception- 
ally bad for the construction of a graving dock, or there is no 
land to be had for such purpose, or the configuration of the 
%hoTe and adjoining land is such that dry docks cannot be built 
m a convenient position without interfering with the general 



108 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

arrangement of the harbor. In every case where dry docks are 
to be built these should be made of ample size, even at the risk 
of somewhat increasing the working expenses. The fact deserves 
to be mentioned here, that the most recent practice in England is 
to construct, instead of two dry docks side by side, a single one 
of twice the length of a medium-sized dock, and to divide it into 
suitable sections, so that ships of various lengths can be docked in 
them without much extra pumping. Such a dock will no doabt 
fulfil all requirements of the port and neighborhood for a time, as 
regards the steadily growing tendency of making ships longer and 
longer every day; and yet it will also be able to accommodate 
shorter vessels without any undue increase in the volume of water 
to be pumped. 

For harbors in newly opened up colonies, floating docks vrill of 
course be chosen in preference, as already stated, and dry docks 
only under exceptional circumstances constructed in these places, 
especially nowadays, when it is no longer considered a risky ex- 
periment to have floating docks finished complete in the faome 
country, and to tow them with tug boats for thousands of miles 
across the ocean. 

In a discussion at the International Engineering CongvesSy 
at Glasgow, in 1901, Admiral Sir Gerald No well remarked 
that undoubtedly the Admiralty preferred graving docks to 
floating docks ; but that did not mean that floating docks 
had not a sphere of utility in places where graving docks 
Avere not possible. That he was at the Admiralty at the 
time that the new dock for Bermuda was projected. They 
tried to find a location for a graving dock, made borings 
everywhere, but could find no suitable place, and so liad to 
fall back on the floating dock. 

OnJf/ a Dock of the Largest Size would he justified Here, 

As there now exists in Boston a dock capable of receiv- 
ing vessels up to 450 feet in length, which is used but little 
more than one-half the time, there would seem to be limited 
need for the construction of another dock, unless it were 
capable of accommodating the largest vessel now coming or 
likely to come here in the future. 

The new dock at the Navy Yard, 750 feet long, could 
accommodate any such vessel ; and, unless it should be 
shown that the government dock would absolutely not be 



1905. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 109 

£L\'^iIable in cases of emergency, reasons for constructing 
f^nother dock are not readily apparent. Should, however, 
another be built, it should be large enough, whether float- 
ing or graving, for the largest class of prospective steam- 
ships. 

There is a prevalent opinion that no dock should be built 
by the Commonwealth to compete with local companies. 
Private enterprise should be given every inducement to 
carry on all classes of business, leaving to the Common- 
wealth the duties only of government. 

If it is, as the merchants have testified, necessary to have 
a dry dock in the harbor, and private capital cannot see its 
way clear to construct it \yith a reasonable prospect of 
return, and the Commonwealth should decide to constnict 
one, it should be so conducted as to furnish every possible 
facility for the repair of vessels, regardless of any expecta- 
tion of a profit on the investment ; and it should not be 
allowed to compete in any way with the business which 
existing private docks are capable of handling. 

In former years, when the dock at the Navy Yard was the 
largest in the harbor, it was used a number of times for 
docking injured vessels which could not be taken into other 
docks ; but in each case the permission for such use was 
granted only after the government was assured by the 
owners of the private docks that they could not dock the 
vessel. 

Both for the protection of the vessel owner and the private 
dock owner, the rates at a Commonwealth dock should be 
substantially the same as those at the private dock in so far 
as these are based on a fair return for the cost of service and 
interest on the investment. It is probable that for many 
years the receipts would not pay the actual expenses of 
operation, and the interest and sinking fund requirements 
on the cost of construction would undoubtedly be an annual 
charge on the tax payers. 

Inquiries were made by letter of the various dry dock 
companies as to the rates charged for docking vessels in 
different ports. From the replies received it was learned 
that the actual cost had very little to do with the rates 



110 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

charged. In most places the docks are more or less in- 
timately connected with the shops doing repair work, or are 
owned by the parties owning the wharves or wet docks, and 
are operated merely as an incident to the repair and gBuenl 
business. Thus the charge for the use of the dock is regu- 
lated to a greater or less extent by the amount of repair 
work to be done, or by special arrangement in connection 
with the use of wharves or wet docks occupied by vessels. 

In New York, owing to the competition caused by there 
being more docks than are required for the business avail- 
able, the charges are pi*actically nominal, being in jnsLDV 
cases as low as 3 or 4 cents per ton per day. The result of 
this has been that a number of the dry dock companies 
have become more or less financially embarrassed. 

In general, the evidence goes to show that there is no 
regular fixed charge, but that each vessel is charged what 
the owner of the dock believes to be obtainable. 

The published rates in some instances state the price for a 
moderate-sized vessel, and above that whatever the dock 
owner chooses to charge. The highest rate is 30 cents per 
ton per day for vessels under 3,000 tons, at San Francisco ; 
and the lowest about 3 cents per ton, at New York. In 
England the published rates vary between 3 or 4 cents per 
ton per day, or from* 12 to 15 cents for the first twenty- 
four hours and less for longer periods. 

JjOcatio7i, 

In deciding upon the best location for a dock, various 
conditions are to be considered. The foundation for a 
masonry dock should be rock or hard-pan ; for a floating 
dock, clay or other material easily dredged, and in which a 
basin can be most easily maintained. The location should 
also be convenient of access to the vessel and to theC work- 
men to be employed. 

A floating dock should be in a sheltered locality, where 
it would not be liable to injury from storms, and where it 
could be readily moored without interfering with navigation. 
In either case the location should be conveniently connected 
with a plant for the repair of vessels and machinery. If 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo, 11. HI 

practicable also it should be such that tracks can be readily 
extended to it from a general railroad system. 

If it be determined to construct a dry dock surveys and 
examinations should be made of different sites, including 
borings to ascertain the character of the foundation or ma- 
terial to be excavated. Accessibility to repair shops, rail- 
road facilities and conveniences should also be considered, 
and a careful estimate made to fix upon the place where the 
dock could be constructed most economically ; its initial 

* 

cost, annual expense of maintenance and operation, as well 
as cost of making repairs to vessels, being important factors 
in the decision. 

At Boston favorable foundations could be obtained at a 

number of different points for masonry docks, and a basin 

could readily be excavated on the Commonwealth flats at 

South Boston or elsewhere for a floating dock, so that it 

seems as if the decision as to which is better should rest on 

other reasons, viz. : the proximity of the location to repair 

plant and railroad accommodations ; the frequency with 

which the proposed dock is liable to be used ; the probable 

cost, and the possibility of obtaining favorable terms for its 

operation and maintenance ; the opportunity for fiulher 

enlargement; its relation to the wharves and channels of 

the harbor ; and its accessibility from the business section 

of the city. At the same time, if, as seems probable at 

present, there should be but little demand for the use of a 

large dry dock at this port, the elements of annual charges, 

repairs and comparative indestructibility would be in favor 

of a graving dock rather than a floating dock. 

Cost. 

A masonry dock for Boston should be not less than 800 
feet long, and a floating dock should be capable of lifting a 
load of 20,000 tons and have a length of not less than 600 
feet. The cost of graving docks depends largely upon loca- 
tion and character of foundation, so that it is practically 
impossible to make a reliable estimate of the cost of a 
proposed dock simply by comparison Avith those already 
built. Docks of this character, as is shown by the tables 



112 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [Jan. 

following, have cost from $632 to nearly $5,000 a foot; 
some of the more recent of the large-sized ones, built under 
average conditions, vary from $1,500 to $2,000 per foot. 
It has been impossible in many cases to separate the cost of 
the dock proper from the cost of the accessories, which, were 
often included in the contract for its construction. 

The cost of a steel floating dock is also a variable quan- 
tity ; the larger ones, all of quite recent construction, vary 
from about $52 to $100 per ton of lifting power. A con- 
siderable part of the cost of some of these docks, however, 
was the expense of transporting them from the place where 
they were built to the port for which they were constructed. 
The cost of the three largest floating docks as given does 
not include the cost of preparing their berths. 

For the above reasons, it is practically impossible to 
determine the cost of a dock for Boston until the location 
and type have been decided upon and the necessary exam- 
inations made ; but in either case it would probably be not 
less than $1,000,000, in addition to the cost of the site and 
its preparation. 



liHI.).] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 



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1905.] PUBLIC DOCUJVIENT — No. 11. 115 

There la unquestionably a strong feeling abroad in the 
community that the port of Boston should be provided with 
docking facilities for the largest class of vessels of commerce ; 
and that, if the dry docks at the Navy Yard are to be .so 
fully occupied by war vessels as in all probability not to be 
t>pen to use by merchant vessels, then one outside the Navy 
Yard should be built. And, further, that if the proliability 
of earning interest money on the cost of building is insuf- 
ficient to attract private capital, then the Commonwealth 
ought to defray the cost, with the hope that the indirect ben- 
efit will be sufficiently large to justify the outlay. The 
argument is based on the claim that the business of a great 
port is largely dependent on the accommodations and facilities 
afforded for its transaction, and that a large dry dock is one 
of the essentials of an up-to-date equipment. As a general 
proposition this must be admitted to be true, and a large dry 
dock would be a very desirable acquisition to the port. 

Whether a transportation company, if it could do its busi- 
ness here with greater economy and despatch by means of 
larger vessels than those in use, would be deterred from 
sending such vessels here for fear of meeting with disaster 
T^hich could not be repaired for lack of adequate facilities, 
is extremely doubtful, if not incredible ; and yet we realize 
that no port can be said to be fully and adequately equipped 
for business that lacks docking facilities for injured vessels, 
and that it tells in a way against a port if a damaged vessel 
is obliged to seek her repairing elsewhere. 

It cannot be called a necessity in this instance, but rather 
a great convenience, such as pertains to a perfectly appointed 
household, and the lack of which would in all but extreme 
occasions pass unnoticed. It is analogous to the need of an 
emergency hospital in a small town, which might not be 
wanted in a year, whereas in a large city it would meet with 
a daily or hourly call. Its need has also been likened to the 
payment of an insurance premium to a casualty insurance 
company, so that in case of accident provision for care and 
repair would be at hand. All the arguments go to show 
that it would be in itself a desirable acquisition. 
It is true that 22 different steamships, all too large for 



116 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. ^Jan. 

Simpson's dock, came to Boston in the aggregate 137 tiuies 
in 1904 without meeting with an accident which made it\ 
necessary to dock for repairs ; and yet the risk was con- 
stantly with them on every voyage, and will be with them 
on every voyage they may hereafter make to this port. 

It comes, therefore, to the question of whether it is wise 
to spend the people's money for this purpose. To build a 
graving dock 800 feet long would cost from a million to a 
million and a half dollars. A masonry dock of that clas^s 
would have a long life. The old one at the Charlestown 
Navy Yard, after sixty-seven years, is in good conditioo, 
and but small repairs have been needed. If fifty-year bonds 
were issued for the larger sum, with interest coupons at 3 
per cent., and about 1 per cent, for sinking fund, an annual 
sum of 4 per cent., or $60,000, would be required to be 
raised by taxation, less such net income as the dock might 
earn. Any estimate of such net income would be purely 
guess-work, and it would therefore be ^fe to assume there 
would be none for the present, at least. The final question 
then is, can the Commonwealth afford to pay $40,000 to 
$60,000 a year for some part or the whole of the next fifty 
years, with the hope of stimulating activity in the foreign 
commerce of the port of Boston by supplying an adequate 
depot for repairing the largest steamships so injured as to 
be unable to return to the home port without making sub- 
stantial repairs ? 

While the investigation has evolved the issue into one 
purely of ways and means, it has not satisfied this Board that 
the probable use of a dry dock in the near future, or fcho 
general advantages in the way of attracting additional foreign 
commerce to this port, or the reduction of freight rates, 
would warrant so large an expenditure of public money. 

The appropriation under the resolve was $5,000 ; ex- 
pended $435.50. 

Appropriation for Survey and Improvement of 

Harbors. 

By chapter 2S of the Acts of 1903, an appropriation of 
$10,000 was made for surveys of harbors and for improving 
and preserving the same, and for repairing damages occa- 



11^05.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 



117 



sioned by storms along the coast line or river banks of the 
Commonwealth. 

The following expenditures from this appropriation were 
made in December, 1903, under the authority of section 9 
of chapter 96 of the Revised Laws : — 

Easlerlj- shore of Dorchester, fill 22 

Connecticut River, Iladley, 442 87 



Total $564 09 

In 1904 the appropriation for the same purpose was 
$5,000, from which sum expenditures have been made 
during the year in the localities and to the amounts follow- 
ing, viz. : — 



Bass River, South Yarmouth, 
Connecticut River, Agawam, 
Connecticut River, Hadley, 
Cotuit harbor, . . , , 
Easterly shore of Dorchester, 
Oreen Harbor, ... 
Lake Anthony, . . . , 
Menamsha Inlet, . 
Red River, Chathana, , 
Vineyard Haven harbor, . 
West Bay, Osterville, . 
Weymouth Fore River, Quincy, 
Witch mere harbor, 



1148 09 


11 86 


2,611 74 


188 78 


82 42 


71 66 


11 35 


119 56 


81 42 


234 97 


426 74 


11 20 


63 25 



Total, 



$3,913 02 



Harbor Compensation Fund. 

There was paid into the treasury of the Commonwealth 
daring the year, under chapter 146 of ^the Acts of 1897 and 
chapter 96 of the Revised Laws, for tide water displaced by 
^ork done under licenses granted by the Board and for 
nghtsand privileges granted in tide waters and great ponds, 
the sum of $8,125.86, which was credited to the harbor 
compensation fund for Boston harbor. The amount in this 
M on Nov. 30, 1904, was $424,749.39; the balance of 
income from this fund in the treasury on the same date was 
^^'^JT2.41 ; the total income for the year was $15,409.33. 



118 HARBOR AND LAND COM'RS. [^Jan. 190/). 

Commonavealth's Flats Improvement Fuwjy. 

The balance in the Commonwealth's flats innprovement 
fund on the first day of December, 1903, was $1,366,243.55. 
To this has been added during the year $46,545.33 from the 
income of the fund and $26,857.85 from sales and rents of 
lands and other sources, making a total of $1,439,646.7^. 
Of this sum there has been expended during the year $124,- 
()32.06, leaving a balance on Nov. 30, 1904, of $1,313,- 
014.67, subject to reduction for existing liabilities by reason 
of the anchorage basin contracts under chapter 476 of the 
Acts of 1901, and for contribution toward buildins: Xorthern 
Avenue and bridge under section 4 of chapter 381 of the 
Acts of 1903. 

The foregoing report is respectfully submitted. 

WOODWARD EMERY, 
CHARLES C. DOTEN, 
GEORGE E. SMITH, 

Commissioners. 
Dkc. 1, 1904. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 

[See page 4 of this report, ante,] 

CONTRACTS. 
The contracts entered into during the year are as follows 



Dec. 29. ^Witli Samuel N. Ames, Joseph P. Hallett and 

Jehiel R. Crosby, for oonstructing a new en- 
trance to £ast Bay, in Osterville, — amounting 
to 16,674 10 



Jan. 13. ¥Vith the Eastern Dredging Company, for dredg- 
ing the westerly end of Bird Island shoal, nearly 
opposite Pier 7, Grand Junction Wharves, East 

Boston, — amounting to 8,604 90 

Jan. 28. TVith the Bay State Dredging Company, for dredg- 
ing a channel and anchorage basin in Dorchester 
Bay, between Savin Hill and Commercial Point, 

•^ amounting to 24,3d4;02 

Feb. 2. With Charles H. Souther and John H. Gerrish, for 
dredging channel at Bass River, in Beverly, in- 
volving the expenditure by the Commonwealth 
of 26,000 00 

Feb. 26. With Thomas E. Ruggles, for building an exten- 
sion to a pile wharf belonging to the Common- 
wealth and leased to the Boston Molasses Com- 
pany, on the South Boston flats, — amounting to . 4,800 00 

April 4. With the Harries & Letteney Company, for dredg- 
ing a channel at Wollaston Beach, in Quincy 
Bay, — amounting to 7,000 00 

April 8. With the Roxbury Central Wharf Company, for 
dredging a channel across the southerly end of 
South Bay, — amounting to .... 8,00000 

Jane 2. With Kiely and Gleason, for building dikes on the 

Connecticut River, at Hatfield, — amounting to . 4,302 60 



122 HARBOR AND LAND COMMISSIONERS. [^Jan. 

1004. 

July 29. With Ruggles & Perkins, for removing rocks from 

the entrance to Cotuit harbor, — amounting to . $1,837 OO 

July 29. With John H. Gerrish, for dredging in Lake 

Anthony, at Cottage City, — amounting to 8,3^1 87 

Aug. 2. With Thomas & Connor, for building a timber 
jetty at Bucks Creek, in Chatham, — amount- 
ing to 858 00 



Total. $93,272 39 



IflOo.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 11. 123 



[B.] 

[See page 51 of this report, ante.] 

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT, PROVINCE 

LANDS. 

Fbotincktowm, Mass., Nov. 30, 1904. 
To the Board of Harbor and Land Commissioners. 

Gentlemen : — As superintendent of the Province Lands, I 
respeclfally submit the following report for the year ending Nov. 
30, 1904. 

The work on these lands has been prosecuted substantially as in 
former years, by the transplanting of beach grass and the planting 
of young trees and shrubs. 

The season's work began about the first of April, by transplant- 
ing bay berry and other shrubs on those areas covered in former 
years by the transplanting of beach grass. In addition to bay- 
berry and other shrubs, about 12,000 young pines taken from the 
nursery and adjacent woods, and about 30,000 European alders 
imported for this work, have been placed. The latter, judging 
from experiments made with it, will doubtless prove of value. 
The above work was continued until about the middle of June, 
when it was suspended until about the middle of September and 
then resumed. The transplanting of beach grass and bayberry 
was carried on until the 15th of November, covering during the 
whole period about 80 acres, and extending the work eastward 
from Grand View toward the eastern boundary line of the lands. 

Id addition to the above work, necessary repairs have been made 
CD the road, which extends across the lands a distance of 2 miles, 
and, as it is built of sod and is much used by the public, especially 
during the summer months, requires close watching and careful 
attention. Its present condition is very satisfactory. 

There is marked improvement from year to year in the condition 
of the territory covered during the several seasons since the com- 
mencement of operations, the various kinds of shrubs and trees 
making very satisfactory growth, considering the barren condition 
of the soil and the nature of the work. Since reclamation and 
improvement was commenced, about 240 acres have been covered 



124 HARBOE AXD LAND COM'RS. [Jan. 1905. 

with beach grass ; and wherever this has been done it has stopped 
the drifting of the sands, which were rapidly advancing upon the 
wooded sections of the reservation lying between the sand dunes 
and the town of Provincetown. Within the above area there hare 
been introduced quite extensively various kinds of shrobs and 
trees, which with careful attention and small expense ^will Bhow 
gradual improvement from year to year until the area becomes per- 
manently fixed. 

About 75 acres of barren sand dunes still remain unreclaimed, 
including the balance of the centre range and the many smalJ sec- 
tions scattered throughout the reservation. This shoald receive 
immediate attention, to stop the drift of sand thereon, as\he longer 
these sections remain uncovered, the more extensive the area be- 
comes and the faster the drift. 

It is estimated that about three years from June, 1905, will be 
sufficient time within which to reclaim the remaining area, and thus 
place it in condition to withstand the effects of severe storms. 

Much interest in the work is still manifested by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and J. M. Westgate of that depart- 
ment, author of Bulletin No. 65 on ^^ Reclamation of Cape Cod 
sand dunes," has spent much time in examining the plans and 
methods adopted by the Commonwealth, and the results obtainea. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES A. SMALL, 
Superintendent of the Province Lands. 



INDEX. 



CoMMrssiONEKs' Report. 

Anchotaget - 

AnDiaqoam Biver, ... oo 

AppTopriation for Survey and Improvement o£ Harbors 116 

Bass Biver at Beverly, 

Baas Biver at Sonth Yarmouth 47 

Boston Harbor, 

Boston Upper Harbor, dredging in, 10 

Boston Terminal Company, 

Commonwealth Flats at East Boston, • .... 26 

Commonwealth Flats at South Boston, .14 

Commonwealth Pier 

C<Hnmonwealth's Flats Improvement Fund Hg 

Connecticut Biver, un 

Cotuit Harbor, % 

Dorchester, dredging Easterly Shore of , • • . . ! ! ^ 12 

I>orchester Bay 

I>iyDock ^J 

••••■. 77 

^Mt Bay at Osterville, ^ 

Fall BiTer^omerset Bridge, 75 

GweuHarbor, 

Harbor Compensation Fund 117 

Sections, M 

^Ake Anthony. 40 

Uoeuaes granted during the Year, q» 

Massachusette Atlafl Sheets and Town Boundary Atlases, . ! . 64 

Meetings. Hearings, etc., \ . 3 

Menamaha Inlet, . . . ^ ! 4B 

Metrimac Biver Harbor Line .27 

Miscellaneous Permits granted during the Year, 66 

Mystic River, . -27 

Northern Avenue and Bridge, •....*!. ig 

I^etitions denied and withdrawn, «« 

ftoTince Lands, ... 

o„. , ' 49 

'<»J^cy, dredging Northerly Shore of, j3 

or Bucks Creek, Chatham. ..... . . 34 



126 INDEX. 

PAOB 

South Bay, .26 

Stage Harbor, • .33 

State Boundaries, .51 

Town Boundary Survey, .52 

United States, Work of, in Rivers and Harbors of the Commonwealth, . 68 

Statement of Col. W. S. Stanton, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A..» . 69 
Statement of Lieut.-Col. J. H. Willard, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., 72 

Vineyard Haven Harbor, ,41 

West Bay at Osterville, .37 

Weymouth Fore River, .13 

Witchmeie Harbor, • .35 

Wrecks and Obstructions, .48 

Appendix. 

Contracts entered into during the Year, 121 

Report of the Superintendent of the Province Lands, .... 123 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . 



REPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



FISHEEIES AND GAME 



Year ending December 31, 1904. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Ofhce Squark. 

1905. 



appbotbd bt 
Thb State Board of Publicatxom. 



CON^TENTS. 



Report. 

FAOB 

General considerations, 5 

Appropriations, 5 

What the State receives, 6 

Salient features of the yearns work, 9 

Ocean fisheries, 13 

Notable features of the jear 18 

Work of the United States Fisheries Bureau, .... 16 

Shore weir and net fisheries, 20 

Mackerel, 21 

Pollock and whiting 21 

Blnefish, herring, etc., 22 

Canning, alewives, ete., 23 

Capture of lant, 24 

Weakfish 25 

Horse mackerel, .......... 25 

Dogfish, 26 

Shore fisheir, 29 

Pollock fishing, 30 

Beam trawling 31 

Otter trawling, 32 

An epidemic among menhaden, 38 

Shellfish or moHusk fisheries, ....*... 41 

Injury to the shellfish industry by sewage pollution, ... 44 

Lobster culture and lobster fishing, 45 

The launch " Effret," 52 

Work of the •' Egret," 54 

Deep-sea fisheries, 58 

Importance, 58 

Disasters 60 

Sobordination, etc., 64 

Mackerel fishery 64 

The bank cod fishery, 72 

Shack fishing 77 

Georges fishery, 80 

The market fishery, 81 

Inspection of fish, 82 

Thehatching, rearing and distribution of game fish, .... 82 

Appropriations, 82 

Expansion 84 

Oatpui of fish, 86 

Frog rearing 88 

The work of distribution, 89 

Work at the hatcheries, 90 

List of ponds stocked 101 

^bat ponds shall be stocked, 102 

^Wers stocked 109 

Examination of ponds 109 

Massapoag Lake, Sharon, 110 

Upper Shawme Pond, Sandwich, 110 



4 CONTENTS. 

The hatching, rearing and distribution of game fish — Canehided. 

Examination of ponds — Concluded. fagc 

Long Pond, Plymouth, .110 

Great South Pond, Plymouth, .111 

Ponkapog Pond, Milton, 112 

Turtle Pond, Hyde Park, 112 

Hoosicwhisick Pond, Milton, .112 

Sheep Pond, Brewster, .113 

Baker^s Pond, Orleans, .113 

Goose Pond, Chatham, . lU 

Dean town Pond, Attleborough, .114 

Farmers and Mechanics Pond, Attleborough, . . .114 

Crystal Lake, Haverhill, . . : lU 

Gr^t Pond, North Andover, 115 

Pearl Lake, or Whiting Pond, Wrentham, 115 

Archers Pond, Wrentham, 116 

Baddacook Pond, Groton, 117 

Crystal Lake, Gardner, 117 

Lake Quannapowitt, Wakefield, 118 

Packard Pond, Orange, 119 

Pottapaug Pond, Dana, ...... . .119 

Neck Pond, Barnstable, 120 

Michaels Pond, Barnstable, . . . ~ . . -. . .121 

Grigsons Pond, Barnstable, . ' ,121 

Mortality of fish in ponds, 121 

Fishwa^s 123 

Prevention of Aream pollution by sawdust, 126 

Pollution by acids, 126 

Pond and brook fishing, . 126 

Birds and mammals, game birds, 127 

Breeding: game birds and mammals, 131 

Ruffed grouse, 131 

At Winchester . . .134 

Pheasants, 134 

Belgian hares, 1S5 

At Sutton 186 

Pheasants, 186 

Belgian hares, 1S8 

The fish and game laws and their enforcement, 141 

Report of chief deputy, 146 

Trout fishing, 147 

Game birds 147 

Small game, W^ 

Deer, 147 

Summary of arrests and convictions, ' 150 

New legislation, 1'50 

Courtesies, 156 

Obituary, — Capt Joseph W. Collins, 161 

Personnel of the commission, . ' 168 



Appendix. 

A. List of commissioners of the various States, 171 

B. Distribution of food fish, 177 

C. Distribution of pheasants, 1^*^ 

D. Distribution of Belgian hares, ^^^ 

E. Arrests and convictions, 187 

F. Legislation, Acts of 1904, 199 

G. Statistics, 210 



Comnuinfoedt^ of W^BButl^mtttn* 



To H%» Bxeeliency the Qovemor and ihe Honorable Council, 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit their thirty-ninth annual report. 

General Considerations. 

Appropriations. — The amount appropriated for the conduct 
of the various branches of the commission's work during the 
current year was $39,635. Beference is made to the report of 
the Auditor of the Commonwealth for details relating to the 
disbursement of the money appropriated. 

The assignment of funds for different purposes was desig- 
nated by law as follows : $5,630 for compensation of the com- 
missioners; $2,050 for travel and incidental expenses of the 
commissioners, including the printing of the annual report, 
office supplies, etc. ; $780 for clerical services ; $23,375 for 
enforcement of laws, the propagation and distribution of fish, 
birds and animals, and for running expenses, rent and main- 
tenance of hatcheries ; $500 for stocking ponds ; $300 for 
stocking brooks under special act ; and $7,000 for the protec- 
tion of lobsters with eggs attached. 

The increase from last year in the larger item of the appro- 
priation of $4,930 is due to a recognition of the growing 
demands of the public upon the commission for work com- 
ing under this particular classification. The appropriation of 
17,000 to enable the commission to procure a launch and take 
other necessary measures for the protection, by purchase or 
otherwise, of egg-bearing lobsters, was wholly due to a popular 
demand for such an effoi*t to be made by the State. With 
these exceptions, and a slight increase in the allowance for 
printing the annual report, which was insufficient, the other 
items of the appropriations remain the same as they have been 
for several years past. 



8 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

appropriation made for the commission. The adoption of some 
of the other suggestions has abeady led to important improve- 
ments in actual earnings. Ohanges that are liable to occur 
shortly will probably add millions of dollars annually to the 
income from the sea fisheries of the State. 

This statement may not appear visionary, when it is now 
history that the recent remarkable improvement in our ocean- 
going fishing vessels, whereby life has been made safer to a 
wonderful degree, and the earnings have increased to an extent 
that seems little short of marvellous, was due to the sug'gestion 
and example of a member of the commission. The fact that 
Massachusetts has been able, in recent years, to maintain her 
position as the premier State in the sea fisheries, is in no small 
paii; due to tiie improved condition of her fishing fleet. If« 
instead of dreading disaster from foundering in gales, as was 
often the case in former days, the fishermen of the present have 
no occasion for anxiety in the open sea, and make their way 
safely against fierce gales ; if, instead of a maximum yearly 
earning of $10,000 or $12,000 twenty or thirty years ago, it is 
now common for the high-line fishing schooners to make annua/ 
stocks ranging from $25,000 to $50,000; if the numbers of 
widowed women and fatherless children, due to losses of men 
in our fisheries, have been materially decreased, — then there 
is reason for satisfaction in what has been done to improve our 
fishing craft. It is likewise a fact that the profitable and im- 
portant halibut fishery now prosecuted from this State in the 
Pacific ocean — a fishery that yields an annual return exceeding 
$1,000,000, and which is increasing — was established largely 
because of a suggestion by the same member of the commission. 
The suggestion is part of the written history of the fisheries. 

All this and much more that might be added suggests the 
possibilities open to a properly conducted department of this 
kind. It may have the opportunity to return to the public ia 
value many fold what it receives. 

There is also reason why we should not be oblivious to mat- 
ters that are not perhaps so intimately and clearly related to 
finance. It surely cannot be a valueless service to a State like 
this, the renown of which is world-wide, that her majesty f^nd 
honor gain additional lustre because of the better enforcement 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 9 

of her laws ; that the administration of her government is in 
this regard more highly respected than ever before ; and that 
information resi)ecting matters we have to deal with has been 
distributed liberally, promptly and widely. 

It is, however, for others to determine if the annual saving 
of millions, the earning of other additional thousands or mil- 
lions by our citizens, or other results from our work, supply 
satisfactory evidence that it pays. 

Salient Features of the Year's Work. — There has been no 

halting in the effort to enlarge our work in every direction 

where improvement or expansion appeared necessary. In rare 

eases — we believe in only one particular — obstacles that were 

m<urmountable prevented material advance. In every other 

undertaking gratifying success has been obtained, although it 

must be confessed that it was secured only because of personal 

consecration to the work on the part of the commissioners, that 

admitted of no relaxation for one of them and only one week 

for the other for the entire year. In other chapters the results 

will be set forth in greater detail ; here it is intended to make 

only a brief allusion to them. 

A new record has been made in breeding and distributing 
&ti, including fingerlings. 

We have been less successful than last year in breeding 
pheasants, due to causes that were unpreventable. 

Additional attempts to breed game birds have been made. 
In one important instance success was attained in a direction 
heretofore deemed impossible. The rearing in confinement of 
well-developed, mature ruffed grouse is the first well-authenti- 
cated instance we know where this has been accomplished by 
any official agency in the country. (See jtage 131.) If future 
experience demonstrates the feasibility of breeding from birds 
of this species, itiised in confinement and kept within artificial 
enclosures, a problem of great scientific and economic value 
will have been solved. 

The obtainment of a launch, the ** Egret," of suitable size 
and proper equipment for collecting egg-bearing lobsters, is an 
attempt in a new direction to prevent the commercial exter- 
mination in our waters of the most valuable crustacean known 
toman. The proper provision made for this by the Legisla- 



10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ture and for the purchase of egg-bearing lobsters evidences an 
earnest public desire to prevent further depletion of the species. 
The work accomplished in the brief time the launch was in 
commission, after her completion, fully demonstrated her fit- 
ness and her future possibilities in this direction, when she will 
have an entire season to carry on her operations. ( See pag^e 54. ) 

The results accomplished by the launch * ' Scoter " in the 
enforcement along the coast of the fish and game la^vs (see 
page 145) are sufficient evidence of the wisdom of providing 
such an accessory for our law-enforcing work. 

There has not been the slightest indication of any desire on 
the part of fish packers to resume official inspection of fish. 
(See page 82.) 

The collection of certain fishery statistics has been prose- 
cuted as usual. (See Appendix G.) 

The lack of available information upon certain of our shore 
fisheries, notably the shellfish or moUusk fisheries, is a remark- 
able instance of neglect of important industries, because of the 
continuance of old-time conditions, that will be more fully dis- 
cussed in another chapter. The time seems to have arrived 
when it should be determined if it is wise for a. State so cele- 
brated as Massachusetts is for its learning, wisdom and good 
government, to longer continue old colonial conditions that 
practically shut out from official care or consideration indus- 
tries of large economic and scientific consequence. 

Many inquiries have come to this department from distant 
States and foreign countries respecting our fisheries ; in one 
case at least an official delegation was sent from a foreign land 
to prosecute a personal inquiry. It is an occasion for satisfac- 
tion that the publication in Germany of extensive extracts 
from one of our reports, together with illustrations, resulted 
in the sending of experts from that country to study the fish- 
eries of this State. Inquiries have also been made on behalf 
of the Italian government. Assistance and information were 
freely given, so far as practicable, but no satisfactory descrip- 
tion of the shellfish fisheries was available, and consequently it 
was impossible to fully supply the data sought for. 

We have continued to give such assistance as we could to 
scientists and scientific institutions, and have received in 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No, 25. 11 

return suggestioas and information of value to the commis- 
sion in the prosecution of its work. 

For the first time in the history of this department the com- 
mission has had a salaried biologist on its staff, — one who has 
given his attention to various matters of public interest. The 
limitations placed upon the annual report, however, preclude 
the possibility of the publication of papers on any industrial 
subject sufficiently full and complete to make them really in- 
structive and helpful to the public. 

We regret the demise of Mr. Thorndike Nourse, who, we 

are informed, died within the current year in ^France. He 

has been a long-time correspondent of this commission, and, 

at oar instance, has actively interested himself in creating a 

demand in France for American cod roe. Through his efforts 

the price of this product of our fisheries advanced materially, 

greatly *to the advantage of our fishermen, who would have 

profited much more than they have done except for the unusual 

absence of the sardines from the French coast for the past two 

vears or thereabouts. 

ft 

Notwithstanding the money available for travel was more 
limited than ever before, due to extraordinary demands else- 
where, and despite the time required for the procurement, 
outfitting and trial of a new launch, the field work — exam- 
ination of ponds, rivers, brooks, sawmills, dams, etc. — was 
prosecuted with a result equ&l to any heretofore obtained. 
In some respects it materially exceeded the highest record 
attained. 

Incident to the field work — indeed, a part of it — has been 
the examination of various sites that were alleged to be suit- 
able for a first-class fish hatchery ; for it is increasingly evident 
that the public demands for fingerling trout and landlocked 
salmon cannot possibly be met with the means now available 
to the commission. 

No effort has been made to increase the natural history or 
other collections illustrative of our work, or to add to our ref- 
erence library, for the simple reason that there is little or no 
room for specimens or books. Such slight additions as have 
been made have been the result of pressure, rather than of 
seeking on our part. Meantime, lack of room prevents the 



12 FISH AND GAME. * [Dec. 

State from profiting through the generosity of prospective 
givers, and likewise prevents proper care of material already 
acquired. 

The question of inadequate office room, in which no change 
has occurred, was so fully discussed in our last report that ex- 
tensive mention here seems uncalled for. We cannot believe 
it is wise or advisable to stifle or retard the development of a 
commission through lack of proper quarters, but there is not 
at present any apparent remedy in sight for the conditions 
now existing. 

Each year^hows a growing demand upon the commission 
for information of various kinds more or less closely associated 
with our work. The success heretofore attained in supplying 
facts, service or material, relating to our work or as a part ot 
our official duties, has apparently led to increased confidence 
on the part of the public in our ability to meet all reasonable 
demands, and has caused a consequent increase in demands 
which have at times taxed our resources to the limit to meet. 
To the extent of our ability we have most cheerfully complied 
with every demand, and there is gratification in feeling that it 
has been our high privilege to satisfactorily serve the public 
in these particulars. The fact that we have had to seek infor- 
mation, and even to procure drawings, from foreign countries 
to meet the requirements of our citizens is an additional cause 
for gratification, especially if what was done aids in the pro- 
curement of more satisfactory conditions in the affairs most 
intimately concerned. 

There is a continuously increasing demand for the documents 
issued by the commission, especially in the matter of annual 
reports and pamphlets or posters containing fish and game 
laws. We can repeat with emphasis that which we said last 
year: ** Compliance with it is a matter of public necessity." 
We have gone to the extreme limit of our resources, or 
beyond, in our effort to supply this demand ; but the best we 
have been able to do only demonstrates the fact that what 
seemed ample a year ago is insufficient now. Besides this, 
the cost of printing is increasing, and the money that would 
accomplish requisite results of this kind heretofore will no 
longer suffice for the same purpose. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

There has been a continuous development in recent years in 
the law-enforcing effort, and in perfecting the organized sal- 
aried force for actively prosecuting this work. As a result, it 
can >«fely be stated that never before in the history of the 
commission has there been available so highly organized and 
efficient a force as now, and never before 'has such effective 
work been accomplished in the enforcement of the fish and 
crame laws. We simply take the number of arrests and con- 
Yietions as the sole standard for consideration. This is all the 
more remarkable, in view of the fact that in some regions of 
considerable extent violations have been reduced to a mini- 
mum, — an additional evidence of the satisfactory enforcement 
of law. The increasing popularity of this effort is indicated 
anmistakably by the large numbers of men of varying trades 
and professions who have sought appointments as unsalaried 
deputies ; their desire to see the fish and game properly pro- 
tected has apparently been their only motive in seeking such 
an office. 

As will be seen in succeeding chapters, the commission has 
andertaken preliminary studies of some matters which may 
lead to a more complete utilization of our interior water re- 
sources, or which otherwise invite attention to information 
helpful to our citizens. 

Ocean Fisheries. 

Xotable Features of the Year, — Perhaps the phenomenal 
scarcity of the dogfish {Squalus acanthias) on the fishing 
grounds frequented by our market fishing vessels, and in the 
waters bordering this State, has been one of the most remark- 
able features of the sea fisheries in a century. It is all the 
more noteworthy because at the last session of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature a resolution was passed, calling upon the 
Congress of the United States to * ' protect the food fish of our 
coast from these sharks or dogfish." This action was due to 
an abnormal abundance of dogfish during the previous year, 
a continuance of which, with the conse(iuent harmful influence 
ou the fisheries, was dreaded ; nevertheless, the action of the 
Legislature has probably seldom, if ever, been paralleled so 
fw as the fisheries are concerned. 



14 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The excessively cold winter at the beginning of the year was 
out of the ordinary, and, aside from the consequent increase 
of hardship and suffering to the fishermen, it had a marked 
influence upon certain branches of fishery prosecuted in mid- 
winter. Not only were vessels frozen in port, but they were 
sometimes exposW to peril because of being caught in ice 
fields or newly frozen ice outside of harbors. Instances of men 
freezing to death in their boats were not unknown, and alto- 
gether the fishermen were exposed to unusual interference and 
dangers . 

The year has been noteworthy for a remarkably small catc*h 
of cod on the banks, and especially on the eastern iishing 
grounds. 

The large catches of shad in Ipswich Bay are said to have 
been unprecedented in that region. 

The establishment of cold-storage warehouses on T wharf, 
Boston, by some of those dealing in fresh fish, appears to be 
an important progressive step in the fresh-fish trade. 

The year has seen many additions of first-class sailinor vessels 
to the ocean-going fishing fleet. The number added to the 
Boston market fleet has been larger than common, and, as a 
rule, the schooners have been large and of superior designs. 

No steamer of considerable size has been employed in the 
Atlantic deep-sea food fish fishery, although small steamei-s and 
naphtha boats have been added to the inshore fishing fleet. 
The loss of the " Alice M. Jacobs " at Newfoundland near the 
close of 1903 detained her owner and master, Capt. SolomozJ 
Jacobs, so long in looking after the wreck and settling affairs 
incident thereto that there was no time to build another steamer 
before the opening of the spring fishery. What the future will 
bring remains to be seen. 

It is remarkable that the whiting or silver hake {MerlncJm 
biHnearis) , which formerly was a waste fish and was thrown 
away as of no value, has recently become one of the most im- 
portant species taken in the Cape Cod weirs. While it is 
cheap in price, it is usually abundant, and the extensive sale 
of it has been an important factor in the weir fishery. Those 
prominently identified with this fishery have stated tliat the 
conditions this year were such that, except for the income 



1004,] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

resulting from the sale of the whiting, the industry could not 
have been profitably pursued. In late October it was the only 
product of any consequence that was being taken in the weirs 
tit North Truro and vicinity. 

It is difficult to get at the exact amount of whiting that have 

been saved and sold, for the reason that they come under th^ 

head of '* other fish " in the returns submitted by the fishermen. 

This is due to the fact that the species was of little consequence 

as a factor in the shore fisheries until very recent years. From 

what information comes to us, however, it seems probable that 

the total amount marketed largely exceeds that of last year, 

when 2,500 barrels were frozen at Truro and Provincetown 

to\vai'd the close of the season, and when, according to expert 

information that came to us after the publication of our report, 

the aggregate quantity of this species sold was fully 14,000 

barrels. 

We are advised that the price of whiting is considerably 
influenced by the large quantities of this species taken on the 
New Jersey coast and frozen in refrigerators. Being near the 
great metropolitan markets of New York and Philadelphia, 
the New Jersey fishermen not only are able to supply much 
of the demand, but they can command for their product a larger 
price than the more distant fishermen on our own coast can 
secure. The whiting is a species which is peculiarly depend- 
ent upon prompt transportation and nearness to markets, when 
sold fresh; hence the advantage of New Jersey over Massa- 
chusetts in this particular. 

The utilization for l>ait of large quantities of the sand eel or 
lant (Ammodytes amertcanua) by the off-shore fishing vessels 
is an innovation, and one which has proved largely advanta- 
geous to the fishermen. These little fish, which are well known 
to be a favorite food for the cod and allied species, occur in 
great abundance in Gape Cod Bay at certain seasons. In the 
spring quantities of them are taken in the weirs or pound nets. 
Because of their size and eel-like shape they pack together 
very closely, consequently a certain number of barrels of them 
will go farther for bait purposes than the same quantity of fish 
of other species. For this reason, and also because they are 
attractive to the cod, they make desirable bait. The addition 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of this species to our native bait resources is a matter of some 
moment, for when it is obtainable at home in large quantities, 
as it has been this year, and our fishermen have learned, to util- 
ize and appreciate it, we are to that extent increasingly inde- 
pendent so far as a Imit supply is concerned. 

The attempt of the authorities of the United States Treasury 
Department to collect revenue on the brine in which foreign- 
caught fish were imported into this country was one of those 
incidents which showed a startling lack of information con- 
cerning fish and fisheries on the part of government officials. 
While this decision more directly affected trade in imported 
fish products, and might not be seriously considered by those 
not directly interested in such commerce, the dense ig-noranee 
of the fisheries indicated by such action suggests how these in- 
dustries may at "any time be menaced or even seriously injured 
because of lack of information. It is inconceivable that ,brine, 
which has no food value, should have had a tariff assessed upon 
it, — an action never before taken since the art of curing fish 
with salt was discovered by a Dutchman hundreds of years ago. 
The protests of the press and people soon corrected the mis- 
take, however, for the decision was promptly revoked, when 
it was seen that a grave injustice had been done to those prora- 
inentlv concerned in fish trade. 

Although the year may not justly be considered a success- 
ful one, when considered from the standpoint of the aggregate 
quantities of fish landed, and while the yield of certain impor- 
tant fisheries has been considerably less than the average, the 
earnings have been fair, and those of some of the vessels have 
been large, if not extraordinary. 

Work of the United States Fisheries Bureau. — At the 
opening of the fiscal year, beginning July 1, 1903, the United 
States Fish Commission which, since its organization in 1871, 
had been an independent and unattached bureau of the federal 
government, became a part of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor, and its official title was changed ; it is now known 
as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. There has been 
no change, however, in its functions or belongings. As a 
consequence, the two important fish hatcheries of the United 
States on the coast of this State continue without change the 



li*04.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 17 

efforts heretofore made to increase the sea species of food fish 
and crustaceans off our shores. Thus the annual planting of 
millions of fry in our waters, which has been of yearly occur- 
i-ence, still goes on. According to detailed statements fur- 
nished by Upn. George M. Bowers, U. S. Commissioner of 
Fish and Fisheries, the aggregate output of fish and lobster fry 
firom the two stations for 1904 has been 416,179,000, which 
exceeds the production of 1903 by 20,891,000. The increase 
is wholly in lobster fry, for there is a falling off of 31,838,000 
fry in the production of fishes. But, while the entire yield 
of fish fry went into our waters, as will be seen, the plant of 
lobster fry along our coasts was considerably less than half the 
output, being 42,942,000, as compared with 63,940,000 that 
went into the waters of the neighboring States, from which the 
egg-bearing lobsters had been mostly obtained. The total out- 
put of fry in the waters of this State was 352,239,000, which 
was 13,677,000 less than was planted off our shores in 1903 
from the same stations. Of this amount, 79,455,000 were cod, 
228,272,000 were flatfish, 1,246,000 were pollock, 324,000 
were mackerel and 42,942,000 were lobsters. 

The production of cod fry was even less than in 1903, which 
was much below the average. This result must justly be 
attributed to the unusual severity of the weather during the 
cod-hatching season in the early part of 1904. The winter of 
1903-04 has rarely been equalled for long-continued cold and 
t^evere gales. These conditions not only made it difficult to 
fish on the in-shore grounds, but even when the fist were 
caught the extreme temperature was liable to chill and kill 
the eggs, while frozen harbors brought all the difficulties of 
frozen-in fleets, anchor frosts and the consequent death of adult 
gravid fish held in confinement until their eggs would be avail- 
able. 

The result of hatching flatfish of various species was but a 
little short of that of the year previous. It is only necessary 
to repeat that the work is timely, and may be of large conse- 
quence in securing the continuance of the abundance of species 
which are now beginning to attract the attention they are justly 
entitled to. 
The hatching of pollock, which was apparently not prose- 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

cated in 1903, has received some attention this year. On the 
other hand, tautog, soup and sea bass, more or less of which 
were artificially propagated in 1903, do not appear to have 
been hatched in 1904, so far as the returns show. The output 
of mackerel fry, however, although small, exceed^ that of last 
year by a few thousands. 

The aggregate yield of lobster fry exceeds anything accom- 
plished in recent years, and the number planted ia the waters 
of this State is the larofest for some time. This is due to 
various reasons. In the first place, the facilities for collecting 
egg-bearing lobsters have been increased materially, es]>ecia]iy 
on the coast of Maine, and long experience in the ^vork has 
brought more satisfactory results. By authority of law, the 
Commission on Sea and Shore Fisheries of Maine has heartily 
co-operated with the United States Fisheries Bureau in the 
collection of egg-bearing lobsters, thereby increasing the sup- 
ply of available eggs for propagation. Inasmuch as all these 
eggs had to come to the hatcheries at Woods Hole and Glouces- 
ter for incubation, and also because more or less egg-bearing 
lobsters were shipped to the Boston dealers from Nova Scotia 
in the course of trade, but were sold to the Fisheries Biu-eau, 
the ordinary receipts of lobster eggs were much enlarged, with 
a consequent greater output of fry. The following tabulated 
statement, furnished by the Bureau of Fisheries, shows in detail 
and with exactness the number of fry of each species, includ- 
ing the lobster, planted in the coast waters of this State, and 
the points along the coast where they were liberated : * — 

* This statement does not inclade the distribution of lobsters along the coasts of 
Maine and New Hampshire, — almost wholly in Maine waters, — since tho^te data 
properly belong elsewhere. 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



19 



Statement of Sea Fish and LobaUrs hatched and planted in Matsachuutts 
Waters by the Oloueester and Woods Bole Stations of the United Slates 
Fiaherie* Bureau, during the Fiscal Fear ending June 30, 1904. 



8PXCI84 AND DXBPOBITIOM. 


Fry. 


Cod. 




Atlantic Ocean, Gloucester, Mass., 


35,376,000 


Yineyard Sound, off Tarpaulin Cove, Mass., .... 


2-4,076,000 


Vineyard Sound, off Jobs Neck, Mass., 


4,363,000 


Yineyard Sound, off Lackeys Bay, Mass., .... 


1.002,000 


Yineyard Sound, off Woods Hole, Mass., 


687,000 


Woods Hole Great Harbor, Woods Hole, Mass., . 


12,368.000 


Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Mass., 


822.000 


Buzzards Bay, off Weepecket Island, Mass., .... 


1,876,000 


Flatfish, 


79,466,000 


Great Harbor, Woods Hole, Mass., 


63,476,000 


Great Harbor, Falmouth, Mass., 


86,723,000 


Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Mass., 


926,000 


Woods Hole Little Harbor, Woods Hole, Mass., . 


2,097,000 


Atlantic Ocean, Gloucester, Mass., 


124,616,000 


Waqooit Bay, Waquoit, Mass., 


3,349,000 


Buzzards Bay, off Weepecket Island, Mass., .... 


8,086,000 


Pollock, 


228,272,000 


Atlantic Ocean, Gloucester, ^f ass., 


1.246,000 


Mackerel, 




Woods Hole Great Harbor, Falmouth, Mass., 


136,000 


Yineyard Sound, Falmouth, Mass., 


189,000 


Lobster, 


324,000 


Atlantic Ocean, Gloucester, Mass., 


22,360,000 


Atlantic Ocean, Manchester, Mass., 


3,460,000 


AtlanUc Ocean, Rockport, Mass., 


3,660,000 


Atlantic Ocean, Marblehead, Mass., 


1,400,000 


Atlantic Ocean, Beverly, Mass., 


1,100,000 


Atlantic Ocean, LanesTille, Mass., 


800,000 


Vineyard Sound, Falmouth, Mass., 


2,088,000 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 



Stalement of Sea Fish and Lobsters hatched^ etc. — Concladed. 



SrxciBs AKD Disponnov. 



Fry. 



Woods Hole Great Harbor, Falmouth, Mass., 
Buzzards Bay, Falmouth, Mass., 
Buzzards Bay, Gk>sDoId, Mass., 
Hadley Harbor, Gosnold, Mass., 
Ipswich Bay, Newburyport, Mass., . 



1,979,000 

5.033,000 

867,000 

215,000 

500,000 



42,932,000 



The fry of fresh water species obtained by this commission 

from the Bm*eau of Fisheries for stocking interior waters are 

mentioned in detail elsewhere. But, aside from these, the 

hundreds of millions of young fish put into our coast waters 

is a work which deserves consideration on the part of those so 

largely engaged in the commercial fisheries as are the citizens of 

this State. Indeed, whatever tends to maintain or increase the 

supply of available food that can be taken from the water is a 

matter of no small moment to all, and is worthy of considerate 

attention. 

Shore^ Weir and Net Fisheries, 

The beginning of the year was a time of anxiety for the 
weir fishermen of Cape Cod. Those who had left their nets 
in the water the previous winter occasionally made catches of 
herring which yielded a profit ; inasmuch as the weather was 
not severe, and there was little ice going, no great risk \\as 
incurred. The result encouraged a repetition of this venture 
this year. But the conditions met with differed materiallj 
from those of the year before. Temperatures ran low early in 
the winter, and at the very first of the year ice had formed ex- 
tensively in Cape Cod Bay, and menaced the existence of the 
weirs which had not been taken up. A Provincetown despatch, 
published in the Boston ** Herald " of Jan. 17, 1904, said: — 

Weirman are working like horses to-day, getting netting and poles 
from the sea at the east end of the harbor with all speed ; for the 
great ice floe that has lain at the head of Cape Cod Bay the 



k 



1004.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

• 

fortnight has cat loose from its sandy dock, and is slowly forging 
hithervrard along the Truro shore. Already it is abreast the south 
poriion of that township, covering the waters where weirs and scows 
were maintained until a couple of weeks ago, and, pushed by a fresh- 
ening soother, is fast approaching Provincetown, threatening to 
demolish such big fishing weirs as are standing to-night. 

The result of this condition was to suddenly eliminate the 
winter fishing with fixed apparatus of this kind, and the con- 
tiuued severity of the weather did not admit of any premature 
baildiug of weirs in the spring. 

^tackereh — The continued absence of the mackerel from 
in-shore waters, or at least the absence of large bodies of fish of 
this species, while remarkable, is only an additional evidence 
of the well-known habits of a species noted always for its un- 
reliability. Why it left the waters where it could be captured 
in weirs, pound nets or gill nets set near the land, the wisest can 
only conjecture ; why it has stayed away so long is a matter 
of pure speculation; and when it will return in-shore in its 
old-time abundance none can tell. We are aware that ' ' ex- 
planations " are in evidence and predictions are not wanting, 
but such have never been lacking under such circumstances ; 
they may be reasonable, but they are generally far otherwise. 
The few mackerel that have been taken in weirs, etc., are only 
a suggestion of what may sometime happen ; but when, no one 
can tell. 

Pollock and Whiting. — A marked feature of the weir fish- 
ery this year has been the larger captures of pollock and 
whiting. Both of these species are exceedingly voracious, 
and their pursuit of smaller fish takes them in-shore and natur- 
ally makes them liable to capture in the weir§, as pound nets 
are termed at Cape Cod, As already stated, the whiting has 
recently become of large consequence, and the prosperity of 
the weir fishermen now seems to depend somewhat upon the 
capture of a species formerly considered scarcely worth saving, 
or that was actually thrown away. 

Capt. Atkins Hughes, who has the general management of 
the pound nets at North Truro, writing on July 14 in relation 
to the catch of the weirs in that vicinity, said, among other 
things : " The stock of the weirs in Truro and Provincetown 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

up to this time has been an average one, but it has been mostly 
for pollock and whiting." 

In view, too, of the feet that it is not so long ago since the 
horse mackerel was looked upon as unfit for food, it is some- 
what gratifying to be informed that two medium-sized fish ot 
this species which were taken on June 25 in the Cape Cod weirs 
and shipped to New York were sold for $43.50, — an indica- 
tion of the position which this species now occupies in the food 
fish market. 

Again, in a letter received Oct. 18, 1904, he stated that: 
"The larger part of the stock was from pollock and whiting. 
. . . at present whiting is the only fish being caught here." 

We know from pei*sonal observation that the whiting is 
commonly served to the guests of the Cape Cod hotels under 
the name of perch, although it is vastly superior as a pan fish 
to any perch in our waters. 

It was also learned that the demand for the whiting this year 
was far in excess of anything in previous years, and that prac- 
tically the entire catch of this species now meets with a ready 
sale. Information was obtained of several shipments of pickled 
salt whiting put up in barrels similar to mackerel. These were 
sent to one of the southern States, from which at least three or 
more successive orders had been received, the combined orders 
aggregating several hundred barrels. At the time of the late 
chairman's visit a Gloucester schooner lay in the harbor of 
Provincetown, and was daily receiving and curing whiting for 
a firm in Gloucester, prominently identified with the smoked 
fish trade. The fish were sold by the weirmen as they came 
from the water for $1 per barrel, but so great was the catcli 
that the money obtained for them constituted a considerable 
percentage of the receipts of the weirmen. One who was 
prominently identified with weir fishing said that: "Except 
for this whiting and what we get for it, we could not now 
carry on the weir fishery with profit." 

Bluejish, Herring^ etc. — According to Captain Hughes, 
there have been no bluefish taken in the weirs, although they 
have been abundant elsewhere ; only a few butterfish were 
caught, and the take of sea herring was the smallest for many 
years. 

The failure to make the average capture of bluefish in fixed 



1IM14.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

apparatus, contrasted with the reports of unusual abundance 
of this fish at Nantucket and other near-by localities, would 
appear remarkable if the scarcity or absence in one place and 
plentiAiIness in another were not fio completely in harmony 
with the well-known habits of this particular species. Simi- 
lar examples of unexplained phenomena in connection with the 
bluetish could be cited, practically without limit ; but all |)hat 
is proved thereby is the lack of knowledge of its migratory 
habits, and the impossibility of controlling or of accurately 
forecasting its appearance in any particular locality. 

As an example of the presence of bluefish on some sections 
of the coast of this State, the following despatch from Nan- 
tucket, on July 18, 1904, published in the Boston ** Herald" 
on the following day, may be quoted : — 

To-day has been one of the greatest bluefishing days in the history 
of NaDtncket, and sportsmen, hand liners, seiners and steamers all 
bave reaped a bountifal harvest. The total day's catch is upward of 
1,500 fish, the largest fare being 840, made by two dories manned by 
John P. Taber, Asa F. Meigs, Clinton' Orpin and Edward Whiden, 
who made the big catch inside of three hours. The fishing continued 
long after dark. 

Bluefish also appear to have been in Buzzards Bay in con- 
siderable numbei*s this year, and catches much larger than 
common in recent years were made. This return of the blue- 
fish to the waters of that section of the State, after almost a 
complete absence, is exceedingly gratifying. 

Canning Alewives^ etc. — While on a trip to Cape Cod the late 
chairman had an opportunity to visit a canning establishment 
^t. Provincetown, where he learned that considerable business 
^u being done in canning alewives, of the species commonly 
caWed *<kyacks" by the fishermen, that were caught in the 
local weirs, and taken to the packing establishment each morn- 
ing. These are labelled as ' ' mackerel " and * ' trout, " which 
IB a misrepresentation of the species ; but, as the fish are packed 
^hen in the very best condition, they make a very palatable 
and desirable food, which can be placed on the market at a 
^nimam price, and for that reason such products are valuable 
^ people of moderate means. 



24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In this connection it is important to note that tbe Dominion 
government, in addition to subsidizing three plants for ren- 
dering fish offal and dogfish, have started also an experimen- 
tal station* for catching anfl curing herring after the Scottish 
fashion. This work is under direct charge of Mr. John Cowie, 
the Scottish herring expert, and his staff of trained herring 
curqrs. The government bought in Yarmouth, Eng. , for this 
purpose, the steam drifter '^Thirty-three," for use in active 
operations to determine whether Canadian herring can be cured 
to equal Scottish herring, which are now the favorite in the 
American markets. The steam drifter is fitted with all the 
appliances used in the North Sea. She will be used to catch 
herring all along the Nova Scotia coast, and the fish will be 
cured at Canso. If this experiment proves successful, it will 
add at least a million dollars to the annual value of Nova 
Scotia's herring catch, on account of the improved methods of 
treating fish, and thus making them equal in price to Scottish 
herring. 

Capture of Lant, — As* already stated, there has been a 
marked change in the catch of the weirs, as will appear in the 
statistical tables, to which reference is made for details. 

Among the innovations in the weir fishery there have been 
few of greater consequence than the capture of large quantities 
of the lant or sand eel for bait, to be used by the schooners 
engaged in the deep-sea fisheries. As indicative of the extent 
to which these little fish are caught at Cape Cod and their 
value for bait, we quote the following extracts from a letter 
written to the late chairman on June 24, 1904, by Mr. W. 
Irving At wood of Boston, who is largely interested in weir 
fishing. He said : — 

Some little time ago I was talking with yoa in regard to the catch- 
ing of sand eels in the traps at ProvlDcetown and using them foi^ 
bait. I have been able to get the amount of eels caught by three 
of the traps at Provincetov^n during the months of April and May, 
1904. The trap which we will term No. 1, caught 390 barrels ; No. 
2, 350 barrels ; No. 3, 275 barrels ; making a grand total of 1,015 
barrels. 

When you consider the fact that one barrel of eels is the equal 
[for bait purposes] of three barrels of herring, you can see the enor- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

moas benefit that eels have been to the fishing vessels. A single 
baiting of eight or ten barrels of sand eels will, in three days' time, 
catch fish enough for the vessels to stock $800 to SI, 500 each. Many 
of oar fishermen at Provincetown realize that, owing to the scarcity of 
herring, had there been no sand eels the entire [deep sea] spring 
fishery would have been a total failure ; where, as the fact stands to- 
day, many of them have made the best spring's work that they have 
had for years. 

We are also informed by these same fishermen that usually when 
they Qse herring they are unable to catch a trip of fish, on account of 
that pest of all the fishermen, the dogfish ; but that in using the sand 
eels the dogfish trouble them very little. Sand eels are now making 
& reputation for themselves in the haddock fishery, but are not con- 
sidered as good bait as the herring in the cod fishery. 

Weakfish, — The continued abundance of the weakfish or 
s<\ueteague on the northern coast of this State is one of those 
anexplainable phenomena of which the migratory species of 
fisUes furnish so many examples. How long it may remain 
plentiful can only be conjectured, and its sudden departure, in 
whole or in part, is one of those events which may occur at 
any time. 

Horse Mackerel. — The horse mackerel, which has not been 
plentiful as usual for the past two or three years, appeared this 
vear in considerable numbers, but its stay was fluctuating. 
Periods of abundance were followed by days or weeks when 
no fish of this species were caught or seen. We had personal 
mdence of this. Horse mackerel were reported plentiful 
about the middle of July. As indicative of this, the following 
item, Avhich appeared in the Boston '' Globe " of July 22, 1904, 
shows that the market was overstocked with this species : — 

Horse mackerel are not only fiooding the market, but the fishermen 
complain that they are driving blue fish, weakfish and mackerel out of 
tile bay. The huge fish is a lightning swimmer, and, with its euor- 
ID0Q8 capacity and voracious appetite, is never satisfied, and will 
tlean up a good part of a medium-sized school of mackerel at a feed- 
^H' No small or medium fish that is alive is refused by the horse 
Diackerel when on a search for food. 

^bolesale dealers are obliged to keep them on hand, as the demand 
for game Gsh is increasing. They are expensive fish to keep, how- 



26 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ever, as they contain a great deal of oil, and spoil quickly, even when 
kept well covered with ice. Experienced dealers say that no fish 
received in this market uses up ice in such quantities as the horse 
mackerel. 

The late chairman, while at Provincetown near the close of the 
month, felt that it might be an important matter to catch one 
on a hook and line by trolling, since the capture of a '^ Leaj)- 
ing Tuna " in this manner in Cape Cod Bay would doubtless 
be of much interest to anglers, and, incidentally, might lead 
to the distribution of more or less money in the locality by 
those who might go there to angle for this large, active fish. 

Through the courtesy of Capt. R. E. Conwell of Province- 
town Captain Collins had an opportunity to tnake such a trial 
on July 30. Captain Conwell furnished all the desiderata, — 
a power boat such as is used in the weir fisheries, line and 
bait. He also managed the boat, giving the opportunity to 
troll on a fine morning over an area of ten or twelve miles. 
Unfortunately, however, there were no indications of the pres- 
•ence of horse mackerel in the bay that morning, and all signs, 
including lack of capture in the nets, suggested the entire 
absence of the species. Thus, although hooks freshly baited 
with new herring were towed four hundred feet or more behind 
the boat for hours, there was not even a strike of any kind. 

Dogfish, — The problem of dogfish along the coast is a seri- 
ous one. The solution is to be found in some method of 
utilizing the bodies, and in some concerted effort through and 
by the fishermen to prevent the liberation of any dogfish or 
shark which may be captured on hook or in nets. The doirfish 
is a migratory creature, and we cannot argue from experience 
in the past yeara that the present abundance or scarcity of 
dogfish on the coast will be continued. The economic point 
is that the dogfish is a creature which takes fish which could be 
mote profitably used by man, and thus is without question one 
of the great enemies of fish and fishermen. Measures looking 
towards the utilization of the dogfish are, therefore, on proper 
lines. The methods which thus far appear available are, first, 
the reduction to oil and fertilizer in special plants. The 
Canadian government has already subsidized three such plants, 
one in northern New Brunswick, another on the south-eastera 



^04.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 



of Cape Breton Island, and the other on the Magdalen 
f -asbnds. The Canadian government has also made tests to 

whether salted dogfish can be used for bait, with 
rhat results we are not jet informed. 
Tile commission appointed by the Dominion government has 
^^Jso reported in favor of a bounty of one and one-half cents 
«3pon every' shark tail. The dogfish are excellent as food, 
"when &esh or canned; and the only reason at present why 
they ai-e not used is the abundance of other fish. It seems, 
however, that some systematic efforts might be made to utilize 
dogfish as food for men or animals,' as a protein-containing 
constituent of desiccated meal or biscuits. It seems that co- 
ordinate action should be taken by the American government, 
along similar lines to that of the Dominion government, as 
without question uniform legislation is of prime importance. 
There is no doubt that the dogfish has inflicted enoimous 
l(»ses upon the shore fisheries, particularly during the sunmier, 
when the demand for sea food is brisk and prices high. More 
than tJbat, it has caused a loss of thousands of dollars in fishing 
gear, and driven out of employment thousands of men who 
usually find a remunerative means of support in the shore fish- 
eries, and by so doing reduce the cost of fish to the consumers. 
The Bangor ** Commercial," early in August, refers to an in- 
stance at Owl's Head, Me., where a fisherman set 1,500 hooks, 
and on which, on pulling his lines, he found about 1,000 dog- 
fish. The mere killing of these required hours of time. There 
seems to, be some evidence that the dogfish are increasing in 
nambers on our coast. Only within very recent years have 
the fishermen taken the trouble to kill as many as possible, 
bat have turned them loose, freeing them from the nets with 
as little damage as possible. 

There is now comparatively little of the catch of the weirs 

or pound nets that is not utilized for either bait or food. 

Unfortunately, however, there is yet no satisfactory market for 

dog&shj which in seasons of tibundance are taken in large 

nambers. EflTorts are being made elsewhere to introduce them 

for food, we believe as a result of suggestion made by this 

cofflmission ; and the day may not be distant when dogfish, 

both salt and fresh, may become a part of the food fish supply, 



28 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and to that extent a benefit to the fisheries, instead of a ciirse. 
as heretofore. If it can be utilized fresh, salted, smoked or 
manufactured into a fish meal, or used as an ingredient of 
poultry food, it will be a cheap and usually abundant product. 
Many, especially those who are natives of southern Europe, 
may prefer it to the higher-priced fish of other species. If so, 
the result will be satisfactory, and a heretofore waste product 
will be put to a good use. 

The New York ''Fishing Gazette" of Oct. 29, 1904, edito- 
rially mentions the fact that a St. Johns, N. F., firm "are 
splitting and salting dogfish for market." 

There have been numerous press notices of attempts by 
the Canadian government to utilize salted dogfish for lobster 
bait, — attempts that have been ridiculed by a few old fisher- 
men, so it is said, but which, nevertheless, may prove satisfec- 
tory. 

According to the Boston ** Globe" of Oct. 28, 1904, at- 
tempts have been made by Nantucket fishermen to market the 
dogfish for food. ,It says : — 

Wbat will mean a source of large income to the fishermen here, if 
successful, is the shipping to the New York markets of dogfish, a por- 
tion of which, it is understood, is cut into steaks, and sold as a 
species of white fish. . . . The captain states that ooly fish of more 
than 2 feet in length are salable. He says his crew will receive 10 
cents each for them. 

The Japanese, from whom we have much to learn, in the 
utilization of the wealth of the seas, eat such fish. It has 
been said : — 

Among their commonest, cheapest and most wholesome food fifibes 
are sharks, which are brought into the markets and butchered much 
after the manner of beeves in our own country. . . . For some reason 
we do not knowingly eat sharks, and in this we miss a great deal. 
As some people are doubtless aware, the* dogfish, which appear in 
such immense droves on our east coast and are so destructive to other 
fish life, are excellent when fresh or canned ; and I predict ... the 
day when these and other sharks will be regularly seen in our mar- 
kets.* 



♦ Gloucester *' Times," Oct. 13, 1904. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

From the foregoing it will be seen that not only is the dog- 
fish suitable for food, but that the people in this country, 
Canada and Newfoundland are taking intelligent action to 
utilize it, in one way or another. 

Sfiore Fishery, — There is little that is new in the shore 
boat fisher}', carried on for the most part with power-driven 
dories. It is true the numbers of these have increased, naphtha 
dories being substituted for sail boats ; and in this way the 
fleet of small craft is gradually being changed, so that greater 
effectiveness, larger catches and consequently larger earnings 
are becoming more general than formerly. Probably the 
changes in this direction are less in evidence at Cape Cod than 
elsewhere. At Cape Ann, for instance, — Gloucester, Rock- 
port and adjacent coast towns, — there is a very general adop- 
tion of the power-driven boat for various kinds of fishing, and 
a consequent decrease in sail boats. Large power dories, spe- 
cially built for the pui-pose, generally with a sort of cuddy 
aft. are peculiarly adapted to the herring fishery, which is pros- 
ecuted extensively on autumn nights by torching. Such boats 
can make immensely larger catches than the old-fashioned oar- 
propelled craft, and can quickly transport the product to a 
market, where the fish arrive while new, fresh and bright. 
The demand for such herring, which are mostly used for bait. 
Is much greater and more certain than when less expeditious 
methods could be used, and consequently the bait fish often 
were much older than they now are when they reached their 
destination. This being the case, and it also being true that 
the herring naphtha boats now employed can cany a much 
larger cargo than the boats formerly used, it follows that the 
IK)wer dories have practically occupied the field in this line 
of industry, while they Usually engage in different branches of 
fishery at other seasons. Many of the so-called ** shore boats " 
— those employed in the general fishery for cod, haddock, etc., 
OD the fishing grounds not far fi:om land, and which usually 
make daily trips — have had gasoline engines put into them 
for auxiliary power, and some of the craft thus engaged in 
shore fishing rely solely upon power motors. Those at Glouces- 
ter who go out in boats to gather certain fishery products from 
incoming schooners, who are usually denominated "stream 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

buyers," now use power boats, instead of the ordinary dory 
formerly employed. 

It has been asserted that the Nantucket fishermen have rarely 
if ever done so well as this year. The prevalence of northerly 
winds in the fall enabled them to launch their dories and to 
return safely to the harborless shores on the south side of the 
island to a larger extent than common. And, inasmuch as fish 
were reasonably abundant on near-by grounds, the catch was 
larger and more remunerative than usual. 

Pollock Fishing, — The hand-line fishery for pollock by 
boat fishermen appears to have assumed unusual proportions 
this year, partly, perhaps, because of the adoption of a new 
idea in the method of fishing for them. Ex-Representative 
Robert E. Conwell of Provincetown is authority for saying that 
the system of trolling for sea pollock, which was suggested 
by our late chairman, has recently been adopted by the Cape 
Cod fishermen with much success. '*Last spring," he said, 
' < it was interesting to watch the fishermen sailing back and 
forth through the tide rips off the Race in their power boats, 
and pulling in big sea pollock on their troll lines as fast as 
they could haul. Sail boats were also used in this fishery to 
some extent, but they were not so well adapted to it as the 
naphtha dories, which could work back and forth very handily 
through the rips, so that no time was lost." We also under- 
stand that this system of fishing — called ^'drailing" on Cape 
Cod — is somewhat extensively prosecuted from other sections 
of the Gape, notably at Chatham, since it is claimed that some 
of the best fishing grounds are the shoals to the south of that 
town, in the vicinity of Pollock Rip. 

Aside from the interest usually attending a fishing trip, 
*' going out for pollock" has in it an element of six)rt not 
common to the prosaic work of gathering in the sea treasures 
for commercial purposes. 

Boats engaged in this work leave their Provincetown moor- 
ings early, if practicable, the time of departure depending 
more or less upon the state of the tide and the hour when the 
neighboring weirs wijl be "lifted," since it is upon the latter 
that the hook-and-line fishermen depend for bait. Once the 
bait is on board, and the hooks, di*ails and lines ready, the 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

boat is headed for the fishing ground under full speed, and 
away she drives past Long Point, Wood End and beyond 
the Bace, leaving all on the starboard hand. A little beyond 
theBace Point lighthouse the rips are reached, and there are the 
favorite feeding grounds of the pollock in spring. Then the 
lines are put out, and back and forth the boat sails, an etibrt 
being made to keep where the fish are most plentiful. As is 
well known, the pollock is active and gamey, and when it is 
biting fireely the capture of it in this manner necessitates lively 
work, for it is haul and heave as rapidly as possible. To pull 
in hundreds of fish as big and active as large salmon gives 
an amount of sport not easily equalled elsewhere, while the 
remuneration gained from such good fishing is an element that 
gives additional zest to those who can afford to consider only 
the commercial side of such experiences. 

It is, perhaps, unnecessary to invite attention to the amount 
of sport to be derived by the angler firom fishing for pollock 
with rod and reel, when they are playing in the rips in spring. 
An angler of wide renown has recently called attention 
("Forest and Stream," July 23, 1904) to the fact that at a 
place he was visiting "the sportsmen were depending largely 
on the pollock for recreation ; " and he declares, as a result 
of personal experience, that it *' gives as good sport when 
handled with rodtind reel as can be desired." It is gratifying 
at least to know that such an excellent opportunity for satis- 
factory sport in fishing is available on our coast, and within 
easy reach of the many anglers who are resident in large cities. 
One who has participated in the pollock fishery at Cape (^od 
says : ** Half an hour of good fishing is sufficient to give the 
amateur enough sport to recompense him for all the trouble 
of going from the city and getting up at 4 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, — even though the bay is then as silver in the sunrise." * 

Beam Trawling. — The beam trawl fishery at Cape Cod has 
been prosecuted as usual, and, notwithstanding there is nothing 
like a boom in this, the industry is a well-established one, and 
has had a gradual, healthy development since its inaugiuation 
about seventeen years ago, as a result of the publication of 
a 'treatise on beam trawling that was prepared by our late 

* Boston •• Glolw," July 24, 1904. 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

chairman. While the fishery at first and for years after was 
carried on in a very primitive manner, mostly in small boats, 
later in schooners whose rig was unsuitable to the require- 
ments, it has been estimated that a yield approximating 70,000 
barrels of flatfish has resulted. It is claimed that in 1897, ten 
years after the fishery began, the catch exceeded 6,000 bar- 
rels ; and this, too, despite the fact that this particular method 
of fishing is prosecuted only in winter, — October to Feb- 
ruary. 

Provincetown now has a fleet of 18 or 20 small fishing sloops, 
— some of them with auxiliary power, — ranging from 45 to 
60 feet in length, which engage in the beam trawl flounder 
fishing in Barnstable Bay, generally just outside of Long Point 
and Wood End, for an avemge of about five or six months in 
the year. During this time their crews are said to earn an 
average of about $300 per month. After the trawling season 
is over in the spring these sloops take on board a lot of 
mackerel gill nets and other equipments for drift net fishing. 
They then go to the southern fishing grounds, — usually from 
ofl' the Delaware Capes to Block Island, — and engage in the 
mackerel drift net fishery until July. After the first to the 
middle of flune, however, they frequently fish noith of Caj^e 
Cod. During July and August they are generally moored in 
Provincetown harbor, and lie there unused until it is time to 
fit out for the trawl fishery. 

Vessels of this class are better for trawling than schooners 
are, but of course all sailing vessels are at a disadvantage in 
this fishery when calms are prevalent. 

Otter Traxding. — In our last report mention was made of 
the experiment with an otter trawl on board the oyster dredger 
'' Cultivator" of Wellfleet. The trawl had been constructed, 
under the direction of the late chairman, for Capt. L. D. Baker, 
the owner of the dredger; and the hope was cherished that 
opportunity might occur after the close of the oyster season 
to give the apparatus a thorough test in the flounder fishery 
of Cape Cod Bay. The extreme severity of the winter of 
1903-04, however, brought about conditions which precluded 
the possibility of further trials with the otter trawl, for the 
"Cultivator" was frozen. in and rendered helpless. Besides, 



3 

X 



194>4.3 PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 33 

tho fishermen were not favorably impressed with this new- 
fangled form of iBshing apparatus, the efficiency of which they 
distnxsted. 

Finally, in compliance with ordei"s issued by Captain Baker, 

trials Tvere made in October, 1904. Meantime, the weights 

on the otters had been somewhat reduced, so that the gear 

worked over the ground more easily than when th6 trawl was 

tirst tried in the summer of 1903. 

Capt. Samuel 11. Hopkins, who commands the <^ Cultivator," 

is authority for saying that, unfortunately, the trawl was first 

put out on foul ground; consequently, it was soon tilled with 

the dead seaweed which littered the bottom. When brought 

aloD^ide, the great bulk of sea grass made a heavy weight to 

get over the side of the launch, but the net was hoisted on 

board and emptied of its unwelcome burden. There were few 

ti.sh in the trawl, for the seaweed-covered bottom was not good 

ground for the flounders. While the net was being taken on 

board and cleared, a skipper of one of the local beam trawlers 

went on board the *' Cultivator," and promptly advised the use 

of a beam trawl, which, in his opinion, was vastly superior for 

flounder fishing to any other form of apparatus. He did not 

think the otter trawl would prove eflfcctive. Naturally, the 

crew, tired and disgusted with their ill luck and the labor of 

clearing the gear, were ready to listen to the condemnation 

of the otter trawl. But Captain Hopkins determined on one 

more trial at least before reaching conclusions. The otter 

trawl was, therefore, put out again on a subsequent day. This 

time it chanced to strike reasonably clean bottom, such as is 

commonly tished by the beam trawlers, some of whom were 

working in the vicinity. 

The net was towed twice, about two hours or less each time. 
When it was hove up alongside it was seen to be well fished, — 
so full on one occasion that the men were in doubt of their 
ability to lift the bulk over the dredger's side. As a matter 
of feet, they were barely able to do this, although they had a 
tackle to hoist in the bag of fish, a stout rope having been first 
put around the net for the lower block of the tackle to hook 
into. But by a determined effort the bulk of fish was swung 
over the launch's side, the rope that held the *' cod end" was 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

unloosed, and the flounders tumbled out in a mass on the deck 
of the '* Cultivator." Captain Hopkins says they had four 
barrels of fish, which, with those taken in the otter trawl on 
the previous trial, made six barrels as the result of a half-day *i> 
fishing, or more than a beam trawler caught that day fishino- 
over the same ground. It will, therefore, appear that the otter 
trawl caught as many fish in a half-day or less as the best of 
the beam trawlers took in all day. While this result seems 
remarkable, and doubtless will have to be repeated to con- 
vince fishermen that such a catch was not a matter of luck, it 
is in complete harmony with the experience of British fisher- 
men, who have proved by many ydars' fishing that the otter 
ti-awl is vastly superior in eflfectiveness to the beam trawl. It 
is only reasonable that similar results may occur here if equal 
intelligence is applied' ; hence it may not be visionary to antici- 
pate seeing the flounder fishery at Cape Cod carried on in the 
not distant future with power boats operating the otter trawl, 
while there may be a fleet of ocean-going steam trawlers work- 
ing on our outer banks. We cannot remain indifferent to a 
form of fishing apparatus which has revolutionized the deep-sea 
market fisheries of Europe. 

Captain Hopkins informs us that his oyster dredging will 
prevent him from soon using the otter trawl again, but he is 
fully convinced that it can be employed in the Cape Cod 
flounder fishery with great success. 

The otter trawl has proved to be a most important apparatus 
for developing the North Sea fisheries. Our late chairman, 
Capt. J. W. Collins, one of the eminent authorities on such 
matters, believed that the otter trawl was adapted to certain 
branches of our fishing industries. He recognized the advan- 
tages likely to redound to our fisheries through the use of the 
otter trawl. On account of the importance of the subject, and 
to answer the inquiries which have come since the supply of 
last year's report was exhausted, it seems best to reprint the 
description of the construction and use of the otter trawl, which 
was kindly furnished to our late chairman by Hon. O. T. Olsea 
of Grimsby, Eng. : — 

This matter of properly managing an otter trawl is of such conse- 
quence that we venture to publish the instructions we have received^ 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



35 



and also iUastrations of an otter trawl and of Scott's patent otters or 
trawl boards. The Instructions have been slightly revised, and we 
hope they may prove asefal and valuable to our fishermen. 

In Grimsby two flexible steel wire warps are used on a steamer 
operating otter trawls, and two steam drums or winches — one for 
each warp — to heave them in. When rigging trawling gear, great 
care is required in determining the exact length of both warps. 

Each warp is made up in lengths of 20, 25 or 30 fathoms, and these 
sections are shackled together, each end having an eye splice and 
thimble to receive a shackle. The shackles serve as marks to deter- 
mine the length of the warp that has run out, — a very important 
matter, and possibly the most important in shooting a trawl, for the 
warps must be veered oat evenly to avoid fouling the trawl ; there- 





ENLARQED VIEW OF 
PATENT BOA8DS 



fore, if it is found that a shackle on one warp has run out before the 
other, that warp must be checked until the hawsers are ^* levelled up." 
With these leading facts in mind, the act of shooting a trawl is as 
follows : — 

With engines stopped and ship laid dead, proceed to pay away the 
trawl over the weather side, taking care not to pay away too smartly, 
but to allow it time to sink, as throwing it out too quickly is often the 
caase of a fouled net. 

Odb of the best methods of doing this is to pay over the fore and 
after wings first, till you come to the quarters, — the sections of the 
body of the net next the wings, — then put over the cod end, the ex- 
treme end of the net bag or trawl followed by the belly and baitings, 
till the net comes tight to the bosom of the ground rope ; then lift the 
ground rope on to the rail and drop it over the side, when, as a rule, 
jow trawl will be found to flow out quite clear. 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In the event of the trawl being new and ligkt, yon will find it an 
excellent plao to weigb the cod end with an old fire bar, or Bometbing 
else of no value, fastened to the cod line witb a single part of twine, 
BO that it will break adrift when on tbe bottom, and will not retard 
the towing of the net. 

With the trawl away clear and the quarter ropes securely fastened, 
each man should take np his respective position, which in a Grimab; 
tr&wler ib generally as follows : captain on the bridge ; mate and Xo. 
1 deck hand attend the winch ; third hand at after derrick ; No. 2 
deck hand at fore derrick ; trimmer amidship, ready for the mes- 
senger, which is a wire hawser that is long enough to reach from 
the winch to the stem of the vessel, around the after derrick or gal- 
lows, — also called a davit, — thence outside the rigging to the fore 
derrick. The messenger is passed over the after trawl warp and 
taken forward, where the stout hook at its end is put over the fore- 






ward warp, down which it is allowed to slide. Meantime the winch 
is started and the messenger is hove in, bringing both warps tt^ther 
on the quarter, when a strong slip chain is passed around both warpa 
and secured, while the messenger is unhooked. 

Setting up taut on the warps, the d<^B * should be unhooked, and, 
everything being in readiness, the order Is given to lower away. 
This is done by lowering away the fore board about 8 or 10 fathoms, 
and then slacking down the after one well below the propeller. It is 
a good plan to mark the warps in this position, as it is very difflcalt 
to guess the lengths when lowering away at night. 

There are several other ways in vi^ue, notably where the steamer 
is fitted up with a single -barrel led winch ; but, as those are moati; 
out of date, it is not worth while going into details. 

,n eye bolt in 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

Every thing being ready, the engines are started f nil speed ahead, 
and as soon as the ship has sufficient headway the order is given to 
slack away. This is part of the work that requires care and judg- 
ment on the part of the men at the winch, for, if the warps are not 
run ont evenly, or as near so as possible, then the error is sure to 
result in fouled gear. 

The best and surest way is to watch for the marks or lengths of 
warpe as they are running out, and check up the one which has run 
out fastest, so as to level them at each mark or length ; they cannot 
then get veiy much out of line. 

Daring the time the warps are running out, the man at the after 
part of the ship will have passed the hook end of the messenger out 
around the after side of the after derrick, then over the top of the 
after warp and into the hands of the trimmer, who will take it along 
the deck (always being very careful to keep the bight of it inboard) 
and hand it over to the man forward. The trimmer then goes aft 
abreast of the engine room skylight, and stands by for the word of 
command to throw the bight of the messenger over the rail and over- 
board, so that it will go clear of the ship and screw. 

When sufficient warp has been run oat, breaks are screwed down, 
tod the order is given to hook the messenger over the fore warp and 
let go, when, by its own weight and the ship's headway, it runs along 
ift on the fore warp. The trimmer then flings the bight overboard, 
while the man aft hauls in the slack as mach as possible and places 
it in the hawser roller aft ; the trimmer, assisted by the deck hand 
No. 1, puts turns round the end of the winch barrel, and the mate 
proceeds to heave away on it. As the fore warp is being hove up 
ift, the hook of the messenger picks up the after warp also, thus 
bringing both warps together up to the after quarter. 

Having hove the warps up within a foot of the roller, a patent 
slip hook or block is put around them, attached to a strong chain ; 
the messenger is then slacked up and unhooked, and then the vessel 
proceeds to tow along. While the snatch block just referred to holds 
the two towing hawsers together at one side of the stern of a steamer, 
the strain of towing comes on two heavy swivel blocks, of which 
there is one hanging beneath the centre of the arch of each derrick.* 
Each of the steel- wire towing hawsers passes over the block, thence 

* A derrick is a stout iron device, shaped like an inverted U ; it is strongly 
bolted to the vessel's deck near the rail, but far enough from it for the otter board 
to easily go between it and the rail ; it is commonly called a gallows by the fisher- 
men, but is also spoken of as a davit. There are four of these derricks, two on 
each side, one being well aft on each quarter and one forward. They are high 
enoii|;h from the deck so that the warp running through the block at the top of a 
derrick will lift an otter board clear above the rail, so that the board can be readily 
Bwnsg in or out, as circumstances demand. 



38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

around or through a guide or f airleader to the drum of the steam 
winch, which heaves in or veers out the hawser, as circamstances 
demand. 

In the management of a trawl the so-called quarter ropes play an 
important part. These are two ropes which are used to assist in get- 
ting in the net. Each of the ropes is bent to the footrope at the 
quarter of the net, and leads to its respective otter board, 'where it is 
made fast so that it will tow loosely. After the trawl has been hove 
up alongside of the vessel the quarter ropes are cast off from the 
boards and led to the winch, when they are hove in evenly until the 
bosom of the footrope is over the rail. This saves a lot of hard 
labor for the crew in getting the trawl on board ; but the rest of the 
net must be gathered in by hand until the *' cod end," where tbe fish 
are, is at the surface of the sea, when a strap is passed around it, 
and it is hove on board with the fish tackle. The lower end of the 
trawl is then unloosened and the fish fall on deck. 

An Epidemic mnong Menhaden, — June 9, 1904, the late 
chaiiman and the biologist of this commission visited Shode 
Island for the purpose of viewing the experiments on the prop- 
agation of lobsters, carried on by the commissioners of Rhode 
Island. The entire day was spent in studying the apparatus and 
results. A distinguished company was present, including the 
Governor of the State and other high officials, as well as those 
directly interested in the problem. At that time it was noted 
that a serious epidemic had occurred among the menhaden in 
Narragansctt and Buzzards bays, and, inasmuch as it involved 
the fishing interests of Massachusetts, not only in Buzzards Bay, 
but also on the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay, it is deemed 
of interest to publish here the investigations upon that epidemic 
which were carried on by Prof. F. P. Gorham of Brown Uni- 
versity. Professor Gorham has recently made the following 
report to the United States Bureau of Fisheries : — 

In the latter part of May, 1904, the menhaden in Narragansett 
Bay were afflicted with a serious epidemic. The fishes died by the 
thousand and were washed ashore, where thev became a nuisance sb 
soon as they began to decay. The farmers of the neighborhood car- 
ried them away by the cartload to use as fertilizer, and in some towns 
the board of health found it necessary to remove them, so great a 
nuisance did they become. Other fishes were not affected by tbe 
epidemic. Occasionally a fish of another species was found among 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

the dead menhaden, bat never more than are normally foand along 
the shore. 

The symptoms of the disease were peculiar. The affected men- 
haden would appear at the surface of the water, their mouths open, 
swimming in small circles, more or less on their sides, apparently 
^^uggiii^S to sink in the water. Sometimes their equilibrium would 
be lost entirely, and they would spin around on their long axis as 
Ihey shot throagh the water, running into any obstacles which they 
eDcountered. They would frequently leap from the water in their 
straggles ; sooner or later they would die and sink to the bottom, 
only to rise again to the surface when the gases of decomposition 
fonned^ there to float with the tide or be cast up on the shore. They 
coakl be caaght with a dip-net without any trouble when affected 
with the disease, while this is impossible with the normal fish. 

No lesions could be found in the dead fish, either external or in- 
ternal, save the bruises caused by their death struggles, and in some 
cases a slight protrusion of the eyeballs, which probably resulted from 
the braises. 

The fishermen ascribed the peculiar actions of the fish to a worm 
^hich they said was present in the brain of many of them. Investi- 
gation soon showed that this was not true. The '^ worm " which 
\i)ey supposed was the cause of the disease was the common parasite 
of the menhaden, the copepod Lemeonema radiata^ which is always 
pTcsent in a considerable nuoiiber of these fishes, and which causes 
00 serious disturbance. 

A. bacteriological study of the diseased fishes showed that in the 
blood of many of them bacteria were present in considerable numbers ; 
Uieaewere not present in the normal fishes. These bacteria were 
isolated in pure culture, and their characteristics studied. Inocula- 
te experiments were made in normal menhaden and in other fishes. 
It was found that some of the cultures of bacteria when inoculated 
vii\o normal menhaden would kill them quickly, but in no case were 
the exact symptoms of the disease reproduced, though it was always 
pwaible to recover the inoculated organism from the blood in large 
numbers. 

Other fishes besides menhaden also succumbed to inoculation, 
ilthoogb, as said before, other fishes are never affected by the disease 
^&U)Tally. The following fishes died when inoculated with very small 
amoQDts of the culture : squeteagae, butterfish, sea robin. It required 
^\aTge amount to kill tde tautog ; while even larger amounts would not 
itill the sea bass, scup, sand dab and puffer. 

Of the several organisms found in the dying menhaden, it is prob- 
able that one is the cause of the epidemic. Further study of these 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

organisms must be made, however, before anyone of them can be defi- 
nitely implicated. 

That the disease is caused by some infection spreading from one 
fish to another is evident from the fact that but one species is affected. 
If sewage or some other substance were contaminating the water, all 
fishes would be affected. Dead and dying fishes were found from 
the entrance of Narragansett Bay to the waters of the Providence 
and Seekonk rivers. They were as abundant down the bay in tlie 
clean waters as in the upper bay and rivers where contamination by 
sewage exists. 

The disease did not show itself, as far as could be learned, along 
the shores of Long Island Sound, although schools of menhaden were 
abundant. The only other place where the disease is known to have 
occurred is in Buzzards Bay, in the vicinity of New Bedford and the 
Acushnet River. Here it was not so severe nor did it last so long as 
in Narragansett Bay. By the middle of July it had all disappeared 
from Buzzards Bay, while in Narragansett Bay it was more or lees 
in evidence until August. 

Menhaden were exceptionally abundant the past year ; there were 
more schools and larger schools than for a number of years. It 
usually follows, when an animal increases over and above its normal 
numbers, that something occurs to reduce that number. ' It is prob- 
able that the epidemic in question was the result, primarily, of the 
great increase in the numbers of menhaden. 

That this is not the first epidemic which has appeared among men- 
haden is evidenced by the following extract, from the report of the 
United States Fish Commission for 1877 : — 

Captain Pettingill tells me that great mortality often prevails among the 
menhaden at the mouth of the Merriniac River. In 1876 the dead fish 
were heaped upon the shore to a depth of two feet, and the municipal 
authorities of Newburyport expended a large sum of money in carting 
them away. The fish seem to die in great pain ; they come first to the sur- 
face, then, after a severe flurry, die. They sink immediately to the bottom, 
but float at the surface after a day or two. 

It is stated that the same mortality prevailed forty years ago, as now, 
among the menliaden in the Merrimac. They covered the shores, tainted 
the air, and were taken away by the farmers as dressing for land. It was 
noticed that the fish would come to the surface, spin around and around, 
and then turn over on their backs and die. These strange deaths are very 
probably caused by the presence of some internal parasite. 

There can be no doubt that this is the same disease that h&s 
appeared again this past year. 
It is hoped that opportunity will be offered during the coming sun)- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

mer to study the disease still further. It cannot yet be stated with 
certainty that the bacteria isolated are the real cAase. Cultures of 
the germs have been preserved, and will be more carefully studied. 
Watch will be kept for a recurrence of the epidemic, in order that 
f urtber observations may be made, some of the experiments repeated, 
and. If possible, the exact cause of the disease determined.. 

Shellfish or Mollusk Fisheries. — In previous reports atten- 
tion has been invited to the fishery for the long-neck or com- 
mon clam (My a arenaria), and the wonderful results possible 
of attainment by cultivation have been presented. Experi- 
ments made by the United States Fish Commission a few years 
ago, and also by the Rhode Island Fish Commission, dem- 
onstrated conclusively that the cultivation of clams can be 
made profitable to an extent not easily equalled in any other 
direction. 

It is not known that there is an opportunity to do as well 
with other species of shellfish that are commercially important, 
but it is doubtless practicable to improve nearly all of the 
moUnsk fisheries in one Tvay or another. The obstacle that 
confronts any attempt at improvement, by legislation or other- 
wise, is the dense ignorance of these industries, so far as ofil- 
cial and reliable information is concerned, — an ignorance that 
is not creditable in a State so celebrated as this is for its com- 
prehensive knowledge of all that pertains to its industrial life 
and welfare. It may seem a startling statement to make, but, 
so far as this commission is aware, there is not extant any 
modern publication of the State which contains anything that 
may be considered a comprehensive review of our mollusk 
fisheries. The bare statistics, without explanation, even grant- 
ing that they may be correct, come &r short of furnishing data 
which might convey a knowledge of the industries. Appar- 
ently the only study of the Massachusetts mollusk fisheries 
made in a half-century was that made in connection with the 
tenth census of the United States, the results of which were 
published about twenty years ago ; they gave some idea of 
conditions in 1880, a quarter of a century ago. But what was 
then done was far from comprehensive ; the notes then gath- 
ered and subsequently published by the United States Fish 
Commission lacked the completeness they should have had, and 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

■ 

nothing has since appeared that we know of that furnishes 
complete information. 

Regrettable as this is, and contrary to the spirit of the age 
as it may appear, it is the natural outcome of conditions that 
date back to old colonial times, and are still continued, with 
slight, if any, modifications. In the early days it was natural 
that the shore fisheries should be, in whole or in part, placed 
under the supervision of the officers of towns bordering the 
sea, and that such officials should have jurisdiction over them, 
under the law, as to times and methods of fishing. At that 
period essentially the same condition obtained in many if not 
all of the coast-bordering States. Within the past thirty or 
thirty-five years, however, the control or supervision of mol- 
lusk fisheries and similar enterprises has become a care of State 
governments ; commissions have been appointed for the special 
purpose of looking after them, and they have in consequence 
often received such intelligent supervision that deterioration 
has been checked and improvements have been inaugurated 
that led to great prosperity. Such changes were due largely, 
if not entirely, to comprehensive and properly directed studies 
of the different species of economic shellfish and the fisheries 
of which the}^ were the objects. The results of such studies 
were published in annual reports and elsewhere, and furnished 
the information necessary for an intelligent consideration of 
conditions, and likewise supplied a basis for improvement. 
Indeed, beneficial change is scarcely practicable without a 
full knowledge of existent conditions. 

The factor which has probably contributed more largely than 
any other to the indifference that has been shown toward the 
mollusk fisheries of Massachusetts, and the consequent dearth 
of information concerning them, is the system of town control, 
which is here still in vogue at the opening of the twentieth cen- 
tury. It follows, almost as a matter of course, that, to repeat 
an old saw, " Everybody's business is nobody's business ; " and 
it cannot reasonably be expected that town officers will exhibit 
sufficient public spirit and technical knowledge combined to pre- 
pare and publish a comprehensive treatise on even one fishery 
for shellfish, not to speak of the consideration of a number of 
such industries. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

There] is another matter tliat deserves luentioii iu this con- 
nection, and that is the fact that, with tlie present restriction 
upon publication, it would be useless to prepare reasonably 
full notes upon the moUusk fisheries for issuance in a public 
document, even if its appearance might do credit to the State, 
and might lead to conditions which would increase the yield 
of these shore industries hundreds of thousands of dollars an- 
nually. Whether there is ja way out of these difficulties re- 
mains to be seen ; but at least the hope may be cherished that 
something may be done to throw light upon the dark places 
QkUuded to, and to put this State in a position where it will not 
be necessary, as it has been, to confess absolute ignorance 
of industries pursued along her coast, which, in the aggregate, 
yield products worth tens of thousands of dollars and employ 
many men. Kor should it be necessary to confess the State's 
helplessness to do anytiiing for those industries. They need 
her protecting care, for, with the great growth of popula- 
tion throughout the country, they should be developed and 
improved so that they can furnish a larger amount of valuable 
and nourishing food, and add more largely to the income of 
the State. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that, according to 
the United States Bureau of Fisheries, Massachusetts produced, 
in 1902, 106,818 bushels of quahaugs or hard clams, worth (at 
prices paid the fishermen) $131,139 ; 227,941 bushels of fresh 
soft clams, valued at $157,247 ; 75,586 bushels of market oys- 
ters, worth $120,252 ; 27,800 bushels of seed oysters, valued 
at $13,430; 66,150 bushels of scallops, valued at $89,982; 
and 2,000 bushels of cockles and winkles, worth $5,()00. This 
makes a total of 506,295 bushels of shellfish taken from the 
shores of this State in the year named, with an aggregate val- 
uation of $517,650. It will therefore be seen that the taking 
of shellfish, aside from the quantities of delicious food thus 
supplied, is an industry of sufficient proportions to entitle it to 
consideration. 

Much more might be added, but perhaps sufficient has been 
said to draw public attention to existing conditions. Mention 
can be made, however, of a marked improvement this year in 
the direction of enforcement of the law prohibiting the taking 



44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of shellfish from grounds subject to pollution. To the extent 
that this was done the public confidence in the healthfulness of 
shellfish taken in our waters is restored, and the trade in such 
products should be improved thereby . Unfortunately , however, 
the provisions of the law arc such that its application is not easily 
practicable, consequenth' public confidence must necessarily be 
of much slower growth than otherwise might be the case, and 
there will be a consecjuent retardation of a healthy develop- 
ment of trade ; for there are many who, although they may be 
fond of clams, quahaugs, scallops, etc., will prefer to go with- 
out them entirely if they have any suspicion that they came 
from regions infested by the germs and materials characteristic 
of sewage pollution. 

Injury to the Shellfish InduMry by Sewage Pollution. — The 
shellfish industry sufiVrs a severe blow through the prBU.'tical 
destruction of extensive areas, suitable for the production of 
shellfish, by the encroachment of sewage and other sources of 
pollution upon clam and quahaug beds. During the past year 
action has been taken as detailed below. The following wa< 
inserted in the New Bedford newspapers : — 

The CommiBsioners on Fisheries and Game, acting in accordaoce 
with law, as embodied in sections 113 and 114, chapter 91 of the 
Revised Laws, call public attention to the action they have taken in 
reference to the prohibition of oyster, clam and quahaug fishing 
in certain areas in New Bedford harbor ; and they also give notice 
that after the expiration of one week from the appearance of this 
notice it will be illegal for any person to take oysters, clams and 
quahaugs within the limits prescribed by the request of the State 
Board of Health, which limits have been defined and fixed in accord- 
ance with law. 

Following is the order passed by the Board of Commissioners od 
Fisheries and Game : — 

Whereas, The State Board of Health, acting under and by authority of 
the provisions of section 113 of chapter 91 of the Revised Laws of Massa- 
chusetts, has requested in writing this Board to prohibit, in accordance with 
the provisions of said section, the taking of any oysters, clams or quahaugs 
from the waters of New Bedford harbor, north of or inside of a line drawn 
from Fort Point in Fairhaven to a point on the easterly shore of Clark^s 
Point, so called, one mile south of the most southerly sewer outlet in the 
city of New Bedford, or from the waters of Clark^s Cove at any place 



11*04.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 45 

within three-quarters of a mile of the outlet of any sewer of the city of 
New Bedford discharging into Clark^s Gove, until further notice; 

Voted, That, in accordance with the request of said State Board of Health 
and with the provisions of section tld of chapter 91 of the Revised Liaws of 
Massachasetts, the taking of any oysters, clams or quahaugs from the 
waters of New Bedford harbor, north of or inside of a line drawn from 
Fort Point in Fairhaven to a point on the easterly shore of Clark^s Point, 
so called, one mile south of the most southerly sewer outlet in the city of 
New Bedford, or from the waters of Clark^s Cove at any place within 
three-quarters of a mile of the outlet of any sewer of the city of New Bed- 
ford discharging into Clark^s Cove, be and the same hereby is prohibited 
until farther notice. 

The immediate effect of the above notice, which was published 
\i\ the New Bedford *' Evening Standard" of Aug. 11, 1904, was 
a general &Iling off in the number of fishermen, but gradually 
the fishermen returned in considerable numbers. Learning of 
the condition, the deputies of this commission were ordered to 
check the taking of shellfish in this prescribed section. ' Aug. 
^9 and 31, 1904, twenty-six men were arrested for taking qua- 
haugs within this area. They had in their possession an aggre- 
gate of nearly ten bushels, in quantities from two quarts to a 
bushel. Since that time the law has been very generally re- 
spected. 

It is, of course, a serious economic condition, whereby an 
area so extensive as this is rendered worthless for the produc- 
tion of shellfish. Until the time comes, however, when it is 
for the advantage of the citizens and of the State to check the 
polluting influences and to dispose of sewage and manufactur- 
ing wastes in such a manner as to permit the areas in question 
ti produce the food supply which they should, the matter will 
have to be handled as at present. With increased population 
the conditions in other parts of the shore may become simi- 
larly a menace to public health through the medium of infected 
shellfish, and necessitate the extension of these areas from 
which the taking of shellfish must be forbidden. 

Lobster Culture and Lobster Fishinfj, — The details of what 
has been accomplished in breeding the lobster at the stations 
of the United States Fisheries Bureau on the coast of this State 
^Gloucester and Woods Hole — are given in the following 
letters from the superintendents of those stations : — 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Dbpaktment of commerce and Labor, 
Bureau of Fishrkies, Gloucester, Mass., Oct. 26, isw. 

Capt. J. W. Collins, Chairman^ Board of Commissioners on Fisheries and 

Oame, Boston^ Mass. 

Sir: — I submit herewith a brief report of the lobster-hatchiDg 
operations at Gloucester, Mass., station, daring the past season. 

Our collection operations began early in April, and covered the 
principal fishing centres between Cape Ann and Boston, Mass. The 
natural conditions during the entire season were especially favorable 
for lobster fishing, and the catch about Cape Ann showed a substan- 
tial increase over previous springs during the past decade, and our 
egg-lobster collections also showed a corresponding increase. 

Our collections within the State aggregated 2,012 egg lobsters, of 
which 752 were shipped to the Woods Hole station, owing to this 
station being crowded. The egg lobsters shipped to Woods Hole 
yielded 12,948,000 eggs, while those handled at this station, 1,260. 
yielded 22,310,000 eggs. 

There were 82,050,000 lobster fry distributed from this station in 
Massachusetts waters, from Cape Ann to Boston harbor. Of the 
above fry, 20,971,000 were obtained from eggs collected within the 
State, the balance being hatched from eggs collected outside the State. 

Collections were also made in Maine and New Hampshire waters, 

which aggregated 81,897,000 eggs, the bulk of the fry resulting fron) 

these being planted in the waters of the State whence they were 

received. 

Very respectfully, C. G. Corliss, 

Superintendent. . 

Woods Hole, Mass., Nov. 7, 1904. 

Capt. J. W. Collins, Chairman, Board of Commissioners on Fisheries 
and Oame, Boom 238, Slate House, Boston^ Mass, 

Sir : — Herewith I submit a brief report of the lobster work done 
at this station during the past season. 

Owing to the existing conditions, which could be traced to several 

causes, no active effoils were made to collect egg-bearing lobsters 

except from the fishermen in this immediate vicinity. Nearly all 

the eggs received at this station were from lobsters collected by the 

employees of Gloucester station, and shipped here. Of a total of 

13,881,000 eggs received during the season, 883,000 only were from 

local territory. The eggs this season were of poorer quality than for 

several years, and the result in fry correspondingly small, 9,682,000 

fry being hatched and planted in the waters of the State. 

Respectfully, E. F. Locke, 

Superifdendent. 



n>04.j PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

Before entering upon a fuller discussion of the' foregoing 
reports it may be said, in order to avoid mistakes on the part 
of the reader, that the collections made by Mr. Corliss, which 
he states Trere *' between Cape Ann and Boston," really were 
made at those two points as well as between them. He informs 
us that egg-bearing lobsters were gathered at the various sta- 
tions on Cape Ann, including Rockport, Lane's Cove, etc., also 
at Boston, which is the chief market for lobsters in the United 
States, and imports large quantities of these crustaceans from 
Nova Scotia. It was, therefore, probably the point where by 
far the largest number of egg-bearing lobsters were obtained. 
The balk of the Boston lobsters came from the British Prov- 
inces, and, while they added to the possibilities of artificial 
reproduction of this species, and may fairly be designated as 
^< lobsters collected in Massachusetts," it is an indisputable fact 
\bat only a trifling percentage of them at most came from the 
waters of this State. 

As will be noticed, the collection from Woods Hole was 
nearly an utter failure ; but a combination of happy circum- 
stances — good weather, a larger supply of foreign-caught egg- 
bearing lobsters than usual, and, possibly, added experience 
in the work of collecting — gave better results in the obtain- 
ment of lobster eggs this year along the north shore than for 
some time past. To that extent there is reason for profound 
gratification. While a repetition of such success can scarcely be 
expected every year, and while there is small reason to expect 
any egg-bearing lobsters from .Maine next year, because of the 
establishment of a hatchery on the coast of that State, still, it is 
important that every effort should be made to advance artificial 
propagation, and courageously hope that added effort may pro- 
dace results equal' to those secured in 1904. 

The provision made by this State for the collection of egg- 
bearing lobsters may prove an important factor in the work 
i^ext year, and may add materially to what the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries may be able to accomplish. Co-operation 
along this line should result in satisfactory attainments, if the 
hearty support of the fishermen is secured ; for the addition to 
the collecting boats of a well-equipped State launch, like the 
'* Egret," should be an impoiiant factor in securing the results 
hoped for. 



48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

It maj be mentioned here that, although the season was 
nearing a close when the ** Egret" was ready for service, after 
being fitted with a well and having other changes made, she 
collected 970 egg-bearing lobsters, 504 of which were delivered 
to the Woods Hole station of the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries, payment for the same being made to the State by 
the Bureau. Of courae the eggs on these lobsters ^vrere green, 
and will not be ready to hatch until next summer ; but the 
experiment of keeping them over winter will be made. If 
it is feasible to thus keep them, the number that live ifi^ill be 
that many added to those secured next spring, and the eggs 
they yield will be that many saved from destruction ; while 
the adult lobsters will be returned to the water whence they 
were taken, instead of being sent to market, as would have 
been the case had we not secured them. They will at least 
have one more chance to reproduce their kind. It is likewise 
expected that we shall be able to get from the station at 
Woods Hole any fry hatched from the lobsters we send there,' 
and, if so, the purpose of this commission is to do our utmost 
to return to the waters from which the female lobsters were 
taken a proper proportion of fry. This will, of course, involve 
much extra work ; but it is only just that the fishermen of each 
locality should be treated with absolute fairness in the matter 
of stocking the coast watera. It will be scarcely fair to take 
egg-bearing lobsters from one locality and put them and their 
progeny into the waters of another section. It is a fear that 
this will be done which has caused some of the fishermen to 
refuse to sell egg-bearing lobsters either'to the federal author- 
ities or to the State. They complain tliat lobsters sold by 
them heretofore for purposes of artificial propagation have been 
put into other waters, and that they have not received the fry 
which should have been planted on their fishing grounds. 

We believe an honest effort has been made to deal justly 
with the fishermen ; but, however that may be, the fact remains 
that some, at least, are not satisfied, and claim un&ir treatment 
as a reason why they should not co-operate in any effort to 
promote artificial propagation. Were it certain that every 
egg-bearing lobster would be returned to the sea, so that it 
could naturally propagate its kind, no real harm would result 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

from this determination ; bat serious harm is liable to come 
from the bmshing away of the eggs by some of the fisher- 
men, who prefer to sell all the lobsters they catch and get the 
money they will bring. Some of these fishermen have little 
regard for law and less for any possible future benefit to the 
fishery as a result of present self-denial. 

It is not, perhaps, surprising that many theories are held by 
the fishermen regarding the decadence of the lobster. Strange 
as it may a{>pear, there are those who stoutly assert that there 
has been no decadence in the abundance of the lobster ; and 
that, too, in the fiaoe of all the evidence to the contrary, — 
eridence so convincing and so overwhelming that it is folly to 
gainsay it. One fisherman correspondent thinks that, because 
tbe fishermen in his locality are '' still getting a fair living out 
of the business . ... shows the lobsters haven't diminished 
any in the last twenty-five years on Cape Ann," — a reasoning 
so glaringly inconsistent and misleading as to carry its own 
refutation. But that is not the worst, for the same individual 
gravely writes to the commission as follows : '*I have fished 
outside the Salvages and Lodoner and Milk Island Ridge for 
the last eleven years, and find a great many lobsters get frost 
fnUen in winter,*' The assertion that the sea ofl^ the New £ng- 
\and coast, and especially off Cape Ann, is sufficiently chilled 
io winter to cause lobsters to be frost bitten at depths rang- 
ing firom 15 to 30 fathoms would certainly be startling, if the 
"Statement could be relied on. A temperature that would cause 
a lobster to be frost bitten at such depths would cover the sur- 
&ce of the sea with ice so heavy that no vessel except an ice 
breaker could sail through it. 

Another, who states that whereas 12,000 lobsters were not 
considered a large catch at Chatham fifteen years ago, but 
'-,W0 would be above the average season's take now, attrib- 
utes the decline to the destruction of the young lobsters by an 
enemy which he believes has recently entered the field in that 
locality. Writing of this decadence, he says : " The cause is 
the great enemy of the young lobster, the English turbot. 
• • . Last season I found as high as 41 young lobsters in one 
flounder. Fifteen years ago the flounder was unknown here/' 
There can be no doubt of the honesty of this statement, but 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



this does not prevent it from being erroneous and misleading. 

In the first place, the English turbot does not occur in our 

I waters, and never did ; it is the common flounder or plaice or 

I dab which has been found with young lobsters in its stomach. 

There are several species that occur in the waters off Chathanj. 
and doubtless have been there in abundance always. Our late 
chairman caught quantities of them there on several occasionN 
about thirty years ago. 

It is well known that young lobsters are preyed upon by 
various species of fish, including those of the flounder family : 
but it is highly probable that, during its jBree-swimming stage, 
when it is near the surface of the sea, it is eaten most exten- 
sively by surface fishes, such as the mackerel, bluefish, sque- 
teague, etc., although other free-swimming species, like the 
cod and pollock, are doubtless more destructive than the 
flounder. The latter, as is well known, is strictly what is 
known as a bottom-feeding genus, and does not often seek 
food at or near the surface of the sea. Nevertheless, the M 
fishes are known to pursue their prey to the surface when 
occasion demands it ; and there is strong reason to believe 
that the flounder is an active and destructive foe of the young 
lobster, and one that has always been such. It is, therefore, 
not the natural enemies of the young crustaceans that have 
caused the marked decadence of adult lobsters at Chatham (or 
elsewhere), but the thoughtless and law-defying actions of the 
fishermen, who, according to the coirespondent quoted, un- 
hesitatingly tear off the eggs from the swimmerets of gravid 
female lobsters and then ship them away to market, fiilly con- 
tent with trifling present gains, but utterly regardless of the 
future. But why should they care, when they, are convinced 
that the gradual disappearance of the lobster from their fish- 
ing grounds is not due to their own improvident acts, the 
result of which was foretold to them years ago, but to the 
flounder ! 

It is unnecessary to follow this farther. The fact is that, 
except in rare cases, there is complaint of the scarcity of the 
lobster, — growing and continuous scarcity ; but the increase 
in price enables the fishermen to eke out a livelihood on a 
catch that has been growing less and less as the years went 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



51 



by. The increase in the collection of egg-bearing lobsters 
and reported fair catches in one or two localities are the 
first rays of light that have been shed in many years on an 
otherwise dark picture of industrial decay. Whether they 
justify a confident hope of '' better days " remains to be seen ; 
but at any rate we can hope, even if our wishes and hopes are 
<omewhat overshadowed by misgivings. 

As will be seen, the letters of Messrs. Corliss and Locke 

show clearly the number of fry hatched from eggs obtained from 

lobsters collected on the coast of this State, and they also show 

the number of fry hatched from eggs collected in other States, 

that were planted off our shores. ^ Reference is made to the 

tabulations in the chapter entitled " Work of the United States 

Fisheries Biureau " for information as to the points where the 

fry were liberated in the sea. 

The following table will show the results of the lobster- 
hatching work, so far as it applies to Massachusetts, during the 
past four years, ending June 30, 1904 : — 

Table showing ComparcUive StcUislics of Lobster Culture by the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries at the Massachusetts Coast Stations in 1901-04. 





1901. 


!•••. 


1»«8. 


1»«4. 


Number of egg lobsters, 
Eggs obtained. 
Fry hatched, . 


2,046 
26,679,000 
24,140,000 


2,361 
83,241,000 
30,362,000 


1,323 
22,983,000 
21,127,000 


2,063 
36,141,000 
30,663,000 



If the statistics of the lobster fishery, gathered by this com- 
mission, gave any encouragement of an increase of abundance 
which would seem to substantiate the indications in the fore- 
going table, there would be cause for satisfaction. Unfortu- 
nately, however, the contrary is true ; for the figures show 
conclusively the same old dreary decadence of supply that has 
characterized the lobster fishery for many years, and which has 
gone on with the regularity and irresistible force of the move- 
ments of an ice floe. If this continues (and there is no present 
indication of anything else), the outcome — the commercial 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

extinction of the lobster — is as sure to result as day is to 
follow night. 

There has been an increase of pots per man, but a felling off 
in the catch per pot from 33 in 1903 to 28^ in 1904, or a 
decadence of about 14 per cent. In thirteen years there has 
been a decrease* of more than 66 per cent, in the catch of 
lobsters per pot ! Is it necessary to say more ? 

The Launch ^^ EgreL'^ — The third section of chapter 408, 
Acts of 1904, which was approved and became a law Jane i, 
1904, made provision for the procurement of a launch for col- 
lecting egg-bearing lobsters, as follows : — 

For purchasing, equipping and maintaining a suitable boat to be 
used by the said commissioners in enforcing the provisions of this 
act, a sum not exceeding four thousand dollars may be expended. 

In view of the fact that the collection of egg-bearing lob- 
sters involves cruising along the entire shores of the State, 
including the long stretch of harborless and dangerous coast 
on the east side of Cape Cod, between Provincetown and 
Chatham ; and that the delivery of such lobsters to the Woods 
Hole station of the United States Fisheries Bureau, for the 
purpose of propagation, would likewise necessitate frequent 
passages from the north shore of Massachusetts Bay to and 
around Cape Cod, as well as across Nantucket shoals to Woods 
Hole, — it was evident that the launch acquired should be 
large enough to make such a trip in ordinary weather without 
too great risk; that she should be sufficiently powerful and 
swift to make the runs iu a short time, so as to minimize 
the danger arising from prolonged passage ; that she should 
be strong and tight, built on a superior design, to ensure the 
maximum of seaworthiness ; that she should be equipped 
with a well, wherein the lobsters could be kept alive; and 
also that she should have accommodations for her crew to 
cook, eat and sleep on board, in order that the living expenses 
of the men could be kept as low as practicable. 

It was quickly seen that such a * ' boat " could not be built 
for the sum appropriated ; it would unquestionably cost consid- 
erably in excess of $4,000, or else it would have been neces- 
sary to construct a launch much smaller than was needed. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo: 25. 53 

Besides this, it would have been practically impossible to 
design a launch, get out all ber'plans and complete her con- 
stroction, in time for her to be used this year in collecting 
lobsters. 

Under these circumstances, it was promptly determined to 
purchase a launch already built, if one could be found which 
had the chief requisites, and could be purchased at a reason- 
able price. !Even if changes had to be made, it was deemed 
possible to make any necessary changes to fit her for her work 
and still keep safely within the appropriation, while there was 
a probability of getting the boat ready in time to do consider- 
able service in the special line for which she was required. 

We were fortunate in having learned in advance of a launch 
that was for sale, admirably suited to our purpose in many 
^'s. She was built by the Muiray & Tregurtha Company 
of South Boston, in 1903 ; had been used only a few weeks, — 
barely long enough to limber up her engines ; and in every 
[)aitieular was as good as new, with the exception that she 
required a light coat of paint, a little varnish and the over- 
hauling of the tender. Her construction was up to the highest 
standard ; she was equipped with a new design four-cylinder 
Murray & Tregurtha engine, rated at 20 horse-power, but 
developing 26. 

The launch had originally cost nearly $4,000, with her 
equipment ; we purchased her for $2,750. After the purchase 
^^ concluded, the necessary alterations were begun in con- 
fonnity with plans of the late chairman, authorized by the 
Board. 

The " Egret *• has an extreme length of 42 feet, and is 40 
feet long on top ; she is 8 feet 6 inches beam, and 4 feet 9 
inches moulded depth. The total length of the cabin is 19 feet 
finches; it is 7 feet 6 inches wide. The forward cabin is 7 
feet 6 inches long. The cockpit is 9 feet 9 inches long ; after 
^l of cockpit to extreme stem on top, 2 feet 6 inches. 

The ** Egret" has a speed of about 12 miles an hour, or a 
^ttle better than 10 knots. She is one of the most power- 
Ail and swiftest cruising launches of her size on the coast of 
this State, for she easily maintains a 10-knot speed under any 
ordinary circumstances. The seaworthiness of the launch was 



54 • FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

severely tested in going around Monomoy Point in a stroog 
south-west wind. That she passed safely through such an ex- 
perience is sufficient evidence of her strength, power and sea- 
going qualities. The incident also emphatically demonstrates 
how unwise it would be to undertake the work the " Egret" 
has to do in a launch less qualified for it in size, or any other 
particular. 

The changes made in the ** Egret," including equipment for 
cooking, changes to and cleaning of engine, ballast, naphtha 
for trial trip, etc., cost $850.60. This brings her cost, ready 
for service, to $3,600.60, or about $800 less than a new launch 
of the same type and size could be built for, if she was equipped 
in a similar manner. 

The cost of equipment and changes, as given above , does not 
include charts of the Massachusetts coast, the cost of which was 
about $10 or less. 

Reasonable satisfaction is felt by the commission that it has 
been able to secure such an excellent boat for such an outlay. 

Work of the ''Egret,'' — The ''Egret" was completed and 
launched near the close of September ; but owing to the ex- 
tensive alterations in her, and especially the building of a well 
forward, material change had been made in her displacement 
and in her trim. It was therefore necessary to give her pre- 
liminary trials before sending her along the coast to collect 
egg-bearing lobsters, for it is evident that she might meet mth 
serious disaster if not in good working trim. 

The first trial trip was a short run down Boston harbor and 
return. This run developed the fact that the launch was con- 
siderably too much by the head ; consequently, she did not 
steer well, and required too much space to turn in . It was 
also seen that a bell by which the engineer could be signalled 
was an imperative necessity. A few minor alterations were 
required. 

After the necessary changes were made, such as putting some 
ballast under the cockpit floor, installing the bell, etc., the late 
chainnan ran down as far as Marblehead on a final trial trip, 
which proved that the launch was in shape for the duties she 
had to perform. Immediately after, she was put into com- 
mission ; and, beginning at Cape Ann, cruised along the coast 



liK>4.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

from station to station, where egg-bearing lobsters could be 
secured, from Gloucester to Monomoy Point, Chatham. 

The '* Egret " carried one cargo of lobsters around Cape Cod 
to Woods Hole, where she delivered them to the superintend- 
ent of the station of the United States Fisheries Bureau. 
Subsequently two consignments of egg-bearing lobsters were 
shipped to Woods Hole from Boston by rail, since it seemed 
better to send them by rail, during the inclement and un- 
certain weather of late autumn, than to attempt to transport 
them on the launch, especially in consideration of the delays 
which were practically certain to be caused by heavy winds 
and storms. 

We had an arrangement with the Bureau of Fisheries to 
deliver 500 egg-bearing lobsters at the Woods Hole station ; 
we delivered a total of 504, as already has been stated ; 2 
died in transportation, leaving 502 received alive. The State 
was reimbursed for them, the money actually paid us for the 
lobsters amounting to a total of $125.50. This sum was 
turned over to the Treasurer and Receiver-General. 

If the experiment of keeping the lobsters over winter at 
Woods Hole succeeds, future autumns may bring larger oppor- 
tunities for us to aid the work being done by federal authority 
on the shores of this State in the artificial propagation of the 
lobster. Success in wintering lobsters has been met with in 
Maine, and the attempt to winter them at Woods Hole will be 
watched with interest. 

In addition to those that were sent to Woods Hole, the 
"Egret" collected 439 egg-bearing lobsters that were liberated 
on the fishing grounds where they were taken. Usually they 
were carried one to three miles off shore from where the pots 
were set, so that there would be less chance of their capture 
the second time this year. In every instance a round hole 
was punched through the middle flipper of the tail of a lobster 
before it was liberated, so that its purchase the second time 
could be easily detected. This hole is so placed that even 
after a lobster sheds its shell its mark can be detected. None 
were obtained the second time in the fall of 1904, but it is 
reasonable to suppose some of the marked crustaceans will be 
in evidence in the spring and early summer of 1905. 



56 FISH AND GAME. [;i>ec^ 



We paid a total of $279.80 for lobsters, including $6.35 
railroad charges on those sent to Woods Hole. Deducting 
the $125.50 returned to the State by the Bureau of FisheBres, 
the actual net outlay for lobsters was $154.30. Of course this 
does not cover the expenditure incident to running the launch, 
the salaries and living expenses of the crew, gasoline for the 
engines, etc. 

It is pertinent to explain that men fully qualified to fill the 
positions of master and engineer on the ' ' Egi*et " had to be 
sought for, and could be secured only if employment the year 
round was assured them. To place the launch in the hands 
of inexperienced or inefficient persons would be to invite disas- 
ter; the commission never contemplated taking any chance 
like that. 

The price paid for lobsters, with the exception oi a few 
very large ones obtained at Chatham, was 25 cents each; 
25 cents additional was paid for the largest ones. The price 
was fixed after consultation with some of the leading lobster 
dealers in Boston, and was approximately 25 per cent, more 
than they estimated the market price of the average-sized 
lobster would be. 

As a result of experience, however, we are satisfied that a 
better plan than to fix one price per lobster is to weigh the 
lobsters when taken from the fishermen, and pay for them, in 
accordance with their weight, a reasonable percentage above the 
market price. It is not always easy to weigh lobsters when 
the boats are bouncing about and pounding each other in a 
seaway, and when time is limited and delay dangerous. If 
the system is feasible, weighing is the surest way of securing 
actual justice to the fishermen. Lobsters on some parts of 
the coast are two or three times larger than they are in other 
localities ; consequently, they are more valuable either in the 
market (where they are practically certain to go, if we don't 
buy them) or as egg producers. 

The effort to collect egg-bearing lobsters was continued 
until near the close of November, — the '' Egret " was hauled 
out and put into winter quarters November 25, — at which 
time all the lobsters that had been obtained and held in storage 
for us had been collected and disposed of. The permits issued 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

granted the privilege to collect egg-bearing lobsters until 
November 1 north of Cape Cod, but it is evident all could not 
be collected bj the ^' Egret" at the same moment. Inclement 
weather, and especially several hard gales, delayed the work 
of picking up the lobsters from Cape Ann to the fishing sta- 
tions aoath of Boston on the so-called south shore ; thus it took 
about three weeks to visit all the places where we expected 
egg-bearing lobsters were held for us. By that time the fishery 
was practically over for the year. The weather was rough or 
menacing most of the time. The temperature was occasion- 
ally sufficiently low to cause anxiety lest the vapor freeze, and 
render the gasoline engine useless. 

The crew of the *' Egret" consisted of only two men ; but, 

while they have successfully performed the duty devolving 

upon them, it is evident that an additional man is needed to 

ran the launch. When making a passage, the boat should 

bave the full and exclusive attention of a man at the wheel and 

another at the engine. Therefore, with only two on board, 

th^re is no opportunity to either cook or eat while the launch 

is under way. It is clear that either can be attempted only 

at a risk ; the only alternative is to take a hasty bite of ship 

biscuit and wash it down with cold water, — a most unsatis- 

hotary meal for men engaged in hard work, covering long 

hours of close application and intense aleitness. A saving 

that compels undue hardship or risks which are avoidable is 

not economy. 

The illustration opposite this page shows the *< Egret " in 
ordinary cruising trim, running down Boston harbor at full 

speed. 

Summary of Lobster Work done by the ^^Egrei.^ 

Marked and liberated at sea, 439 

Died while in oar possession, 22 

Lobsters whose eggs were destroyed by accident while in our pos- 
session, 5 

Forwarded to Woods Hole, 504 

Whole number of egg-bearing lobsters collected, 970 

]9amber less than lOi inches, 52 

We are making elsewhere recommendations for a '* lobster 
meaf* bill (see page 150), which prohibits the sale of uncanned 



/■■. 



• 



58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

lobster meat without the shell. Further, the bill requiring that 
lobster fishermen be required to secure from this Board a per- 
mit, which could be revoked at any time in case the holder 
was caught violating any law for the protection of lobsters, is 
also in the line of advanced and efficient legislation, and makes 
towards uniform legislation throughout the lobster-producing 
regions. These measures are moderate and salutary, but are 
opposed by fishermen, who appear not to have the faculty of 
seeing beyond the immediate present. When our late chair- 
man, Captain Collins, was asked before the committee why he 
did not recommend a close season, he replied that he 'waa desir- 
ous of trying other measures before inflicting such a hardship 
upon the men dependent on lobster catching for a living. 

Deep-sea Fisheries. 

Importance, — The commercial importance of the sea fish- 
eries of this State is shown by the following figures, extracted 
from a recently issued bulletin of the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries, supplying statistics of the New England fisheries for 
1902. It is &ir to state, however, that the statements made, 
statistical or otherwise, so far as they relate to values of fishery 
products, are based on prices paid the fishermen, — often for 
undressed fish taken from nets, ox on lines, and brought in bv 
boats the same day ; and they purposely fail to convey any- 
thing like an adequate idea of the value of the prepared product 
as it goes to the consumer, whether it passes through opera- 
tions which may justify its designation as a manufactured arti- 
cle, or simply receives the care and attention which must be 
given to fresh fish to insure their proper fitness for food when 
they reach their destination, — the consumer. Speaking, then, 
in general terms, it is safe to estimate that the value of sea 
products, especially those used for food, are enhanced fully an 
average of 100 per cent, in the course of preparation for ship- 
ment. In order, therefore, to get at the correct value of the 
fisheries products of this State, it is entirely conservative, in 
our judgment, to double the figures given. So far, however, 
as the statistics relate to other matters, no such allowance need 
be made. 

The authority cited shows that, in 1902, Massachusetts had 



1W4.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 59 

employed in its fisheries 14,300 persons, 594 vessels, with a 
total tonnage of 31,965 tons,* and a value, including outfits, 
of $3,903,774; 11 vessels of 405 tons with outfits, and worth 
821,285, transporting fishery products (chiefly or wholly lob- 
sters) : 2,688 boats, valued at $213,963; 253 seines, 9,071 
gill nets, 170 pound nets, trap nets and weirs, 18 fyke nets, 
l')5 dip nets, 65 beam trawls, lines valued at $182,879, 
9i*4 eel pots and 26,376 lobster pots.f These, together with 
dredges, harpoons and other forms of apparatus, had an aggre- 
gate valuation of $602,918. Including shore property, such 
a:> fish houses, etc., and cash capital required to conduct the 
bosiness, the capital invested in the fisheries of Massachusetts 
in 1902 was $10,811,594. This more than equalled the invest- 
ments of all the other New England States combined, since 
their total capital in the fisheries was $9,157,437. The prod- 
ucts of the Massachusetts fisheries aggregated 230,645,950 
pounds, with a value of $6, 482,427. If we double this amount, 
to arrive at an approximate value of the products when they 
go out from the wholesale dealers, we find a total of nearly 
$13,000,000 as the amount annually gathered from the sea by 
our fishermen. The position held by this State in the yield of 
the fisheries is shown by the fact that the total value of fish 
products of Maine, New Hampshire,, Rhode Island and Oon- 
necticut, as given by the Bureau of Fisheries, was $5,797,974 
in 1902, or nearly three-quarters of a million dollars less than 
the products of this Commonwealth were estimated to be 
worth. 

The local importance of the vessel fisheries of Boston and 
Gloacester, the two largest fishing ports of the State, is shown 
in the figures given below, these being extracted from monthly 
buUetins issued by the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 
These do not, of course, convey a comprehensive and exact 
idea of the fisheries or fish trade of either port, for the reason 
%i they do not include the boat fisheries. Beside this, it 

* The preflomption is that net tons are meant in the table issued by the Bureau, 
^t sQch is not stated. If so, then consideration should be g^lven to recent changes 
in the tonnage laws, whereby fishing vessels measure much less than formerly. By 
t^e standards in vogue a few years ago the same fleet of fishing craft now owned in 
this State would exceed 40,000 tons in the aggregate. 

t The number reported to the Fish and Game Commission under oath was 20,008 



60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

is only just to say that large quantities of fish are landed 
at Boston from vessels belonging in other ports, including 
Gloucester, these being practically all firesh products. Never* 
theless, the statements made are interesting and valuable. If 
we double the values, we will be able to arrive at a fairly close 
approximation of the worth of the fish brought in hy the 
vessels, even if it is acknowledged that such an estimate makes 
no account of secondary products, such as tongues, sounds, 
livers, fish skins, etc. 

During the year ending Oct. 30, 1904, the fish landed 
from American vessels at Gloucester and Boston aggregated 
127,094,681 pounds of fresh and 39,248,360 pounds of salt 
products, with a combined value of $4,266,492. Of these, 
Gloucester received 45,087,665 pounds of fresh fish, valued at 
$797,141, and 38,173,360 pounds of salt fish, worth $1,404,- 
237 ; while Boston had 82,007,016 pounds of fresh fish, value 
$2,035,017, and 1,075,000 pounds of salt fish, worth $30,097. 

The figures show conclusively that Gloucester is still heavily 
engaged in the salt fish industry, in which it always has been 
pre-eminent. Therefore, while it remains the great fishing 
port of the country, and sends to sea the largest fishing fleet 
that floats in the open ocean from a single port under the 
American flag, and while many of its finest vessels engage in 
the market fishery at least a part of the year, Boston, with its 
wonderful steamer and railroad facilities, remained the leading 
market of the State and of the country for fresh sea fish. This 
trade, which has already reached large proportions, must neces- 
sarily develop until the fish market of Boston is to America 
what Billingsgate is to Great Britain. 

Disasters. — Although the fisheries have not been exempt 
from disaster, — losses of life and property that would appal 
those less accustomed to the dread havoc wrought from time 
to time, — and notwithstanding there has been suflTering and 
death incident to fishing and loss of fine vessels by stranding, 
the unique fact stands out in bold relief that for the first time 
in many years not a single Gloucester fishing vessel, up to the 
date of this report, has foundered at sea, going down with all 
hands. This may justly be ascribed to the improvement in 
fishing vessels that has taken place in less than eighteen years. 



904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

L]£hough our late chairman scarcely dared to hope that he 
roald live to see bis hopes realized, and with a full apprecia- 
lOD of the danger he incurred of being considered an unjus- 
tfiable agitator or crank, he nevertheless ventured to write 
lie following in 1882, when urging changes in the design and 
onstruction of our deep-sea fishing vessels : — 

Eveiy fisherman who goes forth to brave the perils of the deep, 
rhose saccess and life itself depends upon the merit of his vessel, 
sboold be well informed in regard to which is the safest model and 
the best rig ; every woman, patiently and hopefully watching for the 
retorn from sea of those she loves, should at least have the conso* 
l&Uon of knowing that those she waits for have sailed in the very htst 
ressel that human skill can devise; every merchant who sends his 
fleet to sea should feel that everything has been done which can be 
done to relieve him of the enormous burden of insurance, which for 
years has so handicapped the Gloucester fisheries. If what I have 

vritten has any influence in bringiog about a result so much to be 
wished for, then I shall be amply repaid for my labor. 

This year has seemingly brought what then could only be 

seen by &ith. For, despite the fact that the conditions &oed 

were never more severe, the vessels have passed scathless 

through the wildest storms, so long as they had sea room, and 

proudly defied the elements. Instead of widowed women and 

&therles8 children, as a result of schooners foundering at sea 

in storms, not a single casualty of that nature has been reported, 

and the loss, of life in consequence is reduced to a minimum. 

Then, too, the vessels are better fitted for their work than ever 

before, as is evidenced by their increased earnings, even in a 

so-called «' bad year ; " for the maximum stocks earned in the 

lading fisheries have been several times greater than they were 

thirty years ago, notwithstanding the scarcity of cod, mackerel 

and other si)ecies which are chiefly relied upon for financial 

results. 

But, while much benefit has resulted from the wide adoption 
of properly designed vessels, the fact remains that the fisheries 
have not been exempt from loss of life, sometimes under cir- 
e\«ftstaivce8 of such a character that a bare statement of facts 
^ould read like a chapter extracted from the creation of a novel- 
\sts brain when indulging in the wildest forms of fancy. Much 



62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

property has likewis.e been lost, chiefly because of vessels 
stranding on outlying reefs, ledges or headlands, when the 
fishermen were running in thick fogs and snows. It is not 
practicable here, however, to do more than mention such dis- 
asters in the briefest manner, however much the conditions 
surrounding them tempt the pen to give them more extended 
mention. There have been numerous instances of rescue of 
men and vessels, the details of which are always interesting 
and are sometimes thrilling, but such have to be omitted. 

The Cape Ann *'News" of Oct. 29, 1904, reviewing the 
losses in the fisheries for the year ending with the close of that 
month, said : ''The number of men who have been sacrificed 
in this hazardous but honorable calling has been the smallest 
of any year since 1865, for it was but 20, who left 3 widows 
and 9 children. ..." Of these, 2 died on board their ves- 
sels while in port and 1 was drowned in dock ; consequently, 
it will be seen that only 17 men were lost while actually 
engaged in fishing. Inasmuch as 1 of those who died in port 
was married, it therefore appears that only 2 women were 
widowed as a result of the dangers of fishing. 

Of the men who met death at sea, part were washed over- 
board in gales and drowned, and some were lost while out in 
boats, attending trawls. 

Up to the close of October, according to the *'Ne\vs," 
Gloucester had lost '* 11 vessels, with a gross tonnage of 
1,191.03 and of net 719.69 " tons. Four of these vessels were 
employed in the winter market fishery (3 of them were clas- 
sified as ** shore fishermen" and the other ''a winter had- 
docker ") , 1 was engaged in the Grand Bank halibut fishery, 
2 were mackerel fishing on the southern grounds ( 1 of these 
was run down by steamship " Deutschland " ) , and 4 were 
employed in the Newfoundland herring trade, which hs^^ 
recently grown to be exceedingly dangerous. One of the 
latter was the steamer '* Alice M. Jacobs," which was stranded 
on the Newfoundland coast while making a passage. Three 
of these vessels were small, and of comparatively slight value, 
one being only 5 tons, 1 between 11 and 12 tons and 1 of 13 
tons. All the others were fine vessels, among the largest and 
best built for the fisheries. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

The account given by the '* News" did not include the fish- 
ing schooner ** Patriot" of Gloucester, which, according to 
the Boston ** Herald" of July 4, 1904, went ashore at high 
tide on the Shovel Shoal late in the afternoon of July 2, and 
became ''a total wreck, having been pounded so heavily by 
the breakers daring the night that she will never he fit for ser- 
vice. . . . None of them [the crew] saved anything except 
clothing worn. . . . The wreckers discovered ... a large 
bole in the bottom of the ' Patriot.' ..." We are not informed 
that this schooner was subsequently saved. 

Meantime, several other vessels engaged in the fisheries from 
Massachusetts ports were reported lost, but fortunately without 
loss of life except in one instance. The whaling schooner 
*' Carrie D. Knowles" of Provincetown sailed from home Jan- 
uary 27, and on May 8, 1904, the Boston '*Post" declared 
thaX: ^'The Knowles left port intending to go straight to 
Dominica, where she was to ship what more men she needed 
for whaling." No news had come of her, — she was reckoned 
\rith the missing ; and the ' < Post " published the statement 
that hope had " utterly gone out of the breasts of those who 
ue accostomed not to relinquish it all until there is absolute 
surety that there shall be no late returning." It was reported 
tbat the "Kiiowles" had a crew of 15 men when she sailed 
from Provincetown. 

The whaling bark ** President" was lost by stranding on the 
west coast of Africa, but there was no loss of life. 

The fishing schooner ** Maggie Sullivan" was reported as 
having been stranded and lost on the west coast of Nova 
Scotia. 

Many fishing vessels have been stranded and subsequently 

saved, and there have been niunerous hair-breadth escapes of 

fis\iennen from imminent death. In one case the crew of a 

schooner, stranded on Sable Island, rowed more than a hundred 

miles to reach the mainland of Nova Scotia, and thus to escape 

from their enforced imprisonment on a sand bar in mid ocean. 

Half.fi^zen fishermen rescued from boats surrounded by ice 

ftoes and being driven to sea and to certain death ; power- 

toven dories rendered helpless by gasoline freezing in tanks, 

ww^ exposing fishermen to almost certain destruction ; men • 



64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

reaching ports in small boats in the midst of wild flurries of 
snow ; others astray for eleven days without food or water, 
exposed to the perils of the open ocean in a small open dory ; 
others on an iceberg that rolled over ; one with his hand blown 
off while firing a signal for men out in a fog ; and others still 
who were exposed to the innumerable hardships and dangers 
incident to fishing, — were some of the many happenings that 
have come to our notice, but which, fortunately, w^ere not 
fatal. 

One particularly sad incident was that where two men, fail- 
ing to find their schooner in the bitter winter weather of the 
early year, actually froze to death in their boat. One was 
washed out of his dory on Georges Bank and drowned. 

Subordination^ etc. — The unhappy results of insubordina- 
tion of men on fishing vessels, which was such a deplorable 
feature of the fisheries of 1903, seem not to have been re- 
peated this year. The most careful inquiry develops the fact 
that little difficulty has been experienced in getting crews or 
in maintaining reasonable discipline — fishermen's discipline — 
on board the vessels. In only one instance has there been 
trouble on a Banker. A part of her crew left her while she 
was in a Nova Scotia port on her second trip ; in consequence, 
the vessel was compelled to return home and enter another 
branch of fishery. 

It is true that there have been brief periods when difficoltj- 
was experienced in securing fishermen, because of their scarcity, 
but these have occurred rarely, and comparatively little troabfe 
has resulted. 

Mackerel Fishery, — As a whole, the mackerel fishery has 
not been successful during the season of 1904. Bad weather 
in the early spring made the southern shore fishery unprofitr 
able as compared with other seasons, although the drifters, 
operating gill nets, did fairly well. Later it was claimed, ap- 
parently witli good reason, that the repeated discharge of heavy 
guns from warships engaged in target practice off Neman's 
Land scared away the mackerel in that vicinity, and scattered 
them to such an extent that a profitable fishery was destroyed.* 

* It is a fact well known to all familiar with the mackerel {Scomber scon^^) 
that it is extremely sensitive to noises, especially those of an explosive nature. lo 
those days when the mackerel was taken chiefly with hook and line, care was ob- 



904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

The fogs of summer and the greater or less scattering of the 
nackerel on different feeding grounds had their influence on 
he season's catch, which was further limited by the early 
leparture of the fish in the fall. 

Thus, while it is true that the season did not a<3tually close 
until after the middle of November, some of the seiners re- 
maining late on the Nova Scotia coast or off Cape Breton, in 
hopes of making a big catch, it is nevertheless a fBLCt that the 
mackerel fishery practically came to a close before the end of 
September. Some time before that date there was ample evi- 
dence of the departure of the bulk of the fish, and several 
of the vessels early abandoned the pursuit of mackerel and 
promptly entered into some other branch of the fishery. From 
this time until late November gales brought in the last strag- 
glers of the fleet, the vessels dropped out, one by one, to go 
elsewhere,' until only a few were left to hunt for the evasive 
schools of fish that were occasionally reported here and there, 
bat which, with slight exception, the wild fierce gales of 
autumn protected from capture by fishing schooners. 

The early fleet got away as usual for the southern fishing 
grounds. Reports had reached the fishing centres of mackerel 
being seen north of Cape Hatteras early in March ; the previ- 
ous year's catch had been mostly disposed of, and, as is well 
known, the early catches meet with a ready demand and high 
prices when taken fresh to New York and other markets. All 
this held out the requisite temptation for the early departure 
of the fleet, the leaders of which were off in good season to 
look for the first **bluebacks" that "showed up" north of 
Gape Hatteras. The schooner '* Ralph L. Hall," the first of 
the fleet to sail, was reported to have started March 26 ; but, 

ieired that little noiae should be made on board a vessel lying to with a school of 
fish alongside. Anything falling heavily on deck, and making a sharp, resounding 
noise, would almost surely drive away mackerel, however contented and peaceful 
they had previously been. For this reason, and because it seems probable that the 
dijicharge of heavy ordnance, that might be heard many miles, would frighten 
mackerel and drive them from waters ordinarily frequented by them, it is regret- 
table that some other part of the ocean has not been selected for target practice, — 
a part of the Atlantic where such operations will not disturb an industry, and give 
rise to complaints that the welfare of poor fishermen is of little consequence to a 
rich and powerful government. For, however little justification there may be for 
mch a charge, the continuance of such operations, in spite of protest, leaves a bit- 
terness in the hearts of many who feel they have unnecessarily been robbed of their 
bread while helpless to defend themselves. 



66 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

because it was known to fishermen that the moon during' April 
would not be favorable to night fishing, the majority did not 
hurry to get away as early as usual. 

It was not the fault of the enterprising fishermen that their 
efforts were 'not sooner rewarded. But bad weather and other 
unfavorable conditions defied skill and determination, for fi^h 
could not be seined in gales or under other unsuitable circum- 
stances. A few small captures were taken reasonably early 
in the season, but weeks went by with little result outside of 
catches made by the gill netters, whose operations were less 
interfered with by the weather than those of the seiners'. 
Thus the ^' cream of the season" — that period when large 
catches and big prices are often secured — went by without 
big hauls by the seiners being reported. As late as April 23 
it was reported in the press that ' ' the catch of fresh mackerel 
by the fleet to date has been 855 barrels," — a ¥ery small 
amount; also that ''the mackerel fleet has had . . . during 
the past week ... no luck at all. Owing to the unfeivorable 
weather, the fleet has landed no mackerel." 

Some fine catches were made later in the spring than usual, 
and a few of the seiners did well ; but the chief profit obtained 
was secured by the little drifters that carried only a few men 
each. Although their catches were small as compared >^ith 
those of some of the larger craft, they were more uniform, 
more e(}ually distributed, and, being shared in, by smaller 
crews, gave an average profit that compared fisivorably with 
that earned by the men on the big schooners. A part of this 
success of the gill netters was due to the fact that the early 
catches made by them sold for high prices, — prices much 
higher than usual, because the seiners were doing so poorly. 
The men on one of the netters, which stocked $3,100 on her 
southern trip, shared $203 each. The claim was made that 
the schooner '' Florida" was high line of the drift-net fishing 
craft on southern grounds; her crew shared $375 each. The 
schooner ^'M. Madeline" also did well; she stocked $3,500 
with a crew of 8 men, each of whom shared $235. The little 
schooner ''Motor" was another *' lucky" one; she arrived 
home from a netting trip to southern grounds July 8, up to 
which date she had stocked $4,000, her crew sharing $3'')0 
each. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 

The first mackerel of the season to arrive were landed at 
Fortress Monroe, Va., on April 7, by the auxiliary schooner 
** Victor" of Gloucester. Her catch was reported as only 29 
barrels, these having been caught about 30 miles east of Cape 
Henry. The auxiliary schooner ** Saladin," also of Gloucester, 
made a catch of 8,000 fish — about 75 or 80 barrels — on the 
same day the ' * Victor " took hers ; but carried them to New 
York, ^w'here she arrived the day after the ' * Victor " reached 
Fortress Monroe. It was also reported that the schooner 
*'*' Rival " likewise caught a fare of mackerel at the same time 
and place, but while on her passage to New York she ran 
aground on Brigantine Shoal, off the New Jersey coast, and 
was wrecked. As already shown, adverse conditions prevailed 
the larger part of April; and, although an occasional good 
&re was pulled out of the stormy sea, like a brand snatched 
from the burning, comparatively little was done until after 
the first of May. Then the fish had moved toward the east 
end of Long Island and off Block Island, consequently much 
of the catch was landed at Newport, although many fish were 
carried to New York. As the mackerel moved to the grounds 
off Block Island and vicinity they were not only eagerly fol- 
lowed by the larger vessels of the fleet, but as early as May 10 
it was reported that fully 100 boats — sailing and auxiliary — 
were in the waters of Vineyard Sound, awaiting the appear- 
aoce on near-by fishing grounds of the schools of mackerel 
which had been reported a few days previously off Fire Island, 
and swiftly passing eastward along the Long Island shore. 
Immediately thereafter, on May 13, many arrivals of mackerel 
at New York and Newport were reported. Among the most 
notable of these were the following: the schooner *'Norum- 
bega,** with 500 barrels; ** Annie Greenlow," 250 barrels; 
'< Constellation,'' 285 barrels; and several others with fares 
ranging from 100 to 220 barrels. For the week ending May 14 
it was claimed that the fleet landed 6,904 barrels of '^ large, 
fresh mackerel," of which 3,148 barrels were brought to mar- 
ket by the netters and 3,756 by seiners. On May 16 another 
large list of arrivals was noted, but mostly with small fares. 
The schooner ** Pinta " was reported to have landed 260 barrels, 
but that was the largest catch. 



68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Early in May some of the mackerel schooners abandoned the 
fishery on the southern grounds, came home and fitted for the 
so-called Cape shore fishery, — off the southern coast of NoTa 
Scotia. The first to sail for the Cape shore got away on 
May 11. Many fine fares were secured while the fish were 
passing eastward, which added materially to the incomes of the 
season. On June 4 it was stated that for the week ending that 
date the fleet landed 5,554 barrels of mackerel, all of which 
were fresh except 85 barrels. On June 7 the schooner ** Vic- 
tor " arrived at Gloucester from the Cape shore with a Sbltb of 
700 barrels of mackerel, according to the Cape Ann ** News " 
of June 8, 300 barrels of these being salt fish and the re^ 
mainder fresh. The '' Saladin " landed 200 barrels at Newport 
on June 6, and the next morning was in port again with 200 
barrels more. On June 7 the schooner **Lena and Maud'' 
landed 15,000 fresh mackerel and 300 barrels of salt fish ; the 
'^Balph L. Hall" was reported in same date with an equal 
quantity ; the «* Natalie J. Nelson" with 325 salt and 15,000 
fresh mackerel. Two days later the following *' rousing &res " 
were landed: schooner '*Lena and Maud" of Gloucester, 550 
barrels ; " Natalie J. Nelson," Gloucester, 600 barrels ; " Ralph 
L. Hall," Gloucester, 550 barrels ; ** Kentucky," Gloucester, 
from a two-weeks trip, with fare sold for $4,347.88; "Con- 
stellation," Gloucester, from a two-weeks trip, with stock 
of $5,669; and '< Saladin" with 200 barrels. On June 12 
the schooner *< Grayling" arrived, with 275 barrels of salt 
mackerel and 10,000 (equal to about 100 barrels) fresh fish. 
The next day it was reported that the schooners ** Avalon" 
and " Priscilla Smith " each landed 500 barrels. 

The schooner " Bertha and Pearl " of Gloucester was reported 
on June 13 to be high line of the mackerel fleet for the sea- 
son to that date, she having stocked $10,187.76 as a result of 
her fishery on the southern grounds and on the Cape shore. 
Her crew had shared $250.04 each. Eleven days later, June 
24, the honor of having been high line of the fleet was claimed 
for the auxiliary schooner '* Saladin," which at that date had 
earned a stock of $13,403. But this distinction was tempo- 
rary, for on July 15 the ** Bertha and Pearl" arrived, with 
15,000 fresh fish and 275 barrels of salt mackerel, and was 
again acclaimed " high line of the fleet." ^ 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 69 

The new schooner *' Lucania " was reported as having arrived 

on June 2 with 20,000 fresh mackerel and 320 barrels of salt 

fish. The mackerel fishery ofl' the southern coast of Nova 

Scotia, or Cape shore, is of short duration, for the fish are 

migrating, and pass rapidly eastward on their way to the Gulf 

of St. Lawrence. In recent years they apparently break up 

into small *• *• pods," or scatter and disappear after passing 

through the Strait of Canso or around the eastern end of Cape 

Breton Island. It was stated that the mackerel fishery at the 

^lagdalen Islands in the early sununer of 1904 was an absolute 

&ilare. ^^ There had not been a single mackerel seen" there 

prior to Jane 15, it was reported ; and those who went there 

to catch mackerel in gill nets were compelled to go elsewhere 

U> feh. A report was brought in, moreover, by the crew of 

the schooner ** Moween," which arrived at Gloucester on June 

22, that, while they were trawl fishing for cod off Anticosti, 

''mackerel of the largest size would follow the fish on the 

trawl to the sur&ce, and they could be seen passing under the 

dory almost continuously." They believed there were large 

quantities of mackerel in the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; but sub- 

aequent results did not prove that they were taken there in 

great numbers. 

As usual, the early catch of mackerel was sold fresh, and 
newly caught salt fish did not appear in the market in quantity 
until after the middle of May. 

The fishery on the Cape shore had barely ceased, indeed, the 
bst of it was probably still in progress, when large bodies of 
nuuikerel were found off Neman's Land, migrating slowly in the 
direction of Georges Bank. Therefore, as soon as there was a 
<^«asation in the fishing south of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, 
the vessels piled on canvas and drove away to the south-west 
ioi new fields on Georges. Thus, while on July 9 it was re- 
ported that the fares of salt mackerel landed the week previous 
were from off Neman's Land, the statement was made a week 
later that " the fleet is now mostly on Georges. ..." 

Meantime, some fine fares of mackerel had been taken on 
Georges, for whereas the market reports on July 12 com- 
plained of a scarcity of fish of this species, numerous arrivals 
^ere noted three days later. Among these were the following : 
schooner ** Faustina" of Gloucester, reported July 15 as having 



70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

stocked $4,755 on her trip, her crew sharing $112.57 each; 
schooner '* Norumbega," stock $3,477, share $83.47 ; ** Lelia 
E. Norwood," stock $2,273, share $65.11; ^* Natalie J. Nel- 
son," stock $3,662, share $81.14. Mention has already been 
made of the fare brought in on same date by the ^^ Hertha and 
Pearl." It was stated on July 18 by the Cape Ann ** News'" 
that this schooner had ''just completed another successful 
mackerel trip." Her stock on the trip was $5,800; share, 
• $141.50. Up to that date the " Bertha and Pearl," it was as- 
serted, had made a stock for the season of three months' fishing 
of $16,000, and the crew's share amounted to $395 each, — a 
result rarely equalled in the same length of time. The same 
date, July 18, the schooner '<Pinta," which had been absent 
from port only forty-eight hours, was reported to have arrived 
with 22,000 mackerel, that sold for 12 cents each ; the ** Gos- 
sip " was in, with 5,000 fresh mackerel and 320 barrels of salt 
fish, which stocked $4,000 in round numbers, share, $90; 
''Electric Flash," with 280 barrels; and "Victor," with 165 
barrels of salt and 15,000 fresh mackerel. This fare, accord- 
ing to the Gloucester "Daily Times," brought the stock of the 
** Victor" up to $17,000 for the season, and, temporarily at 
least, made her high line of the fleet. The fact also appeared 
in the press at this time that the schooner ' ' Balph L. Hall " 
had made a season's stock to date of $14,700 ; and a stock on 
her last trip, landed shortly before, of $5,747, her crew sharing 
$117 each. 

The schooner ' ' Grayling " was among the leaders, for od 
July 27 she was credited with having stocked nearly $16,000 
for the season, and was reported to have stocked $3,238 on a 
fare landed just previous to that date, her crew sharing $72.88 
on the trip. 

The Gloucester '* Daily Times" of July 23, 1904, reported 
that the schooner *' Lewis H. Giles," *'on her recent seining 
trip," stocked $6,071 ; her crew shared $134.36. This proved 
to be one of the best fares of mackerel of the season. 

During the brief season of good fishing, sharks were exceed- 
ingly abundant and troublesome ; and the mackerel on Georges 
soon grew wild and more or less scattered, so that there were 
few large fares landed after July, and the good catches in 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

August and later were rare. The schooner "James and 
Esther,'' which was reported as arriving with 12,000 fresh 
mackerel caught in the South Channel, was " a rarity at T 
wharfs then. The fact that the fish sold for 20 cents each is 
sufficient to show the scarcity of mackerel at that time. The 
fleet vainly hunted the fishing grounds ovet, from Block Island 
to the east coast of Cape Breton, in search of large schools of 
mackerel. At first the waters of the Gulf of Maine and further 
south were harried from Block Island to Nova Scotia; and, 
as the season advanced and migrating mackerel were expected 
to put in an appearance off the Cape Bi*eton coast and along 
the south shore of Nova Scotia, some of the fleet went there, 
with the hope of success. Little was accomplished, however, 
ou any of the fishing grounds after midsummer ; and the only 
important catch of a seiner in the late fall was made by the 
''Victor," which was reported to have taken 125 barrels off 
the Cape Breton coast early in November. On the night of 
November 9 a catch of 1,400 big mackerel was made by the 
gill netting schooner «' Grace," between Gloucester and Cape 
Cod; but the fish were evidently moving rapidly, for no other 
good catches were reported. On November 18 the last of the 
seiners were reported as arriving home, except one, — all 
empty except the *' Victor." Under all the circumstances, 
it is remarkable that so many fine fares were landed and such 
excellent stocks were earned by some of the vessels. The 
results secured indicate unmistakably that nowhere else in the 
world has greater skill, enterprise and efficiency been shown 
io the fisheries than was displayed in the Massachusetts' mack- 
erel fleet during the season of 1904 ; and nowhere else can be 
found such efficient apparatus for capture, and such swift, 
powerful and quick-working sailing vessels as those constituting 
the bulk of the fleet. 

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the fishery has been 
the notable display of skill, tireless energy and determination 
exhibited for the second year in succession by Capt. Joseph 
Smith, master of the schooner "Bertha and Pearl," who, 
although now three score and ten or thereabouts, has exhibited 
endurance that could reasonably be looked for only in the 
hardiest young men. It is no child's play to compete for high 



J 



72 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

line honors in the mackerel fleet ; and he who vrins or comes 
near winning can maintain his position only by a happy com- 
bination of qualities of mind and body that are sufficiently rare 
in the comparatively young to make them little short of mar- 
vellous in one who has reached the time of life when the aver- 
age man is utterly incapable of such extraordinary exertion, 
exposure and endurance as are required. It is the limit of 
strenuosity for the strongest, and rare indeed is it that one of 
advanced years is equal to the extraordinary strain. 

The highest mackerel stocks of the year, as reported to us, 
are as follows: schooner *' Grayling" stocked $21,547, crew 
shared $475.18 each; schooner «* Victor" stocked $20,000, 
in round numbers; schooner '< Marguerite Haskins *' stocked 
$18,372,^ crew shared $392.53 each; the stock of schooner 
" Bertha and Pearl " was reported to be between $18,000 and 
$20,000, but was probably close to the former figure. 

The total catch of mackerel by the New England fleet during 
the season of 1904, as reported to the Boston Fish Bureau, 
wsa 75,125 barrels, of which 28,323 were salted and 46,802 
barrels were fresh fish. The catch was 39,533 barrels less than 
that of 1903, — a material falling off. The proportion of the 
catch marketed fresh is only slightly in excess of that of the 
year previous, it being in excess of 62 per cent, in 1904 and 
above 60 per cent, in 1903. It is probable that a larger per- 
centage would have gone to the market fresh this year, except 
for the fact that so large a part of the catch was taken on fish- 
ing grounds remote from markets, and often in such small 
quantities that it was inadvisable to ' ' run in " such small lots 
fresh. 

The best fishing from southern Massachusetts — from ports 
on Buzzards Bay, Vineyard Sound and adjacent waters — was 
a complete failure this year. The fishermen believe their 
success was destroyed by the target practice of warships. 

The annulment of the rule of the Treasury Department^ 
whereby a duty was assessed by government officials on the 
brine in which imported mackerel were cured, was a matter of 
much moment to those engaged in the importation of foreign- 
caught fish. 

The Bank Cod Fishery, — This year has been an exception- 



19040 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

ally unfavorable one for the cod fishery on the eastern banks. 
The scarcity of the cod and the diflSculty attending the pro- 
curement of bait, coupled with an unusual if not heretofore 
unknown abundance of the dogfish on the far eastern fishing 
£jrounds, were obstacles to the obtainment of good fares that 
fe^r could overcome. But, while the bulk of the fleet brought 
home " half fares" or light catches, a few of the schooners 
were fortunate enough to secure large faros ; because of the 
bij^b prices, they made big stocks which compare favorably 
with those of previous years. 

The first vessels got away early ; a few were reported to 

have sailed before the end of February, despite the severe 

temperature. They were not much helped, however, by this 

early departure, for after they called at Nova Scotia ports to 

take on board part of their crews, the schooners were frozen in 

and had to lie in harbor until milder conditions released them* 

The outfitting of bankers continued until May, although the 

majority of the fleet got away before that date ; for cured fish 

were reported extremely high in March, and the temptation 

was great to get fares home early. 

To what extent the dogfish interfered with the presence of 
bait species along the provincial coast, or whether it was re- 
sponsible for the scarcity of cod on the fishing grounds east 
of Cape Sable, cannot now be determined. It was, however, 
reported as unusually abundant in those regions ; as bothering 
the fishermen on the Grand Bank and as far north as *^ Bacca- 
lealt Bank " on the east coast of Newfoundland ; and fully up 
to its reputation in voracity and destructiveness. If such 
statements were correct, there can be little doubt of the evil 
influence of a species the presence of which in great numbers 
on any fishino^ ground invariably causes there a scarcity of the 
fish it preys upon. It therefore follows that herring, squid 
and other bait species may have been less abundant than com- 
monly, because of the extraordinary plentifulness of this pest 
of the fishermen, and a like influence may have been exercised 
upon the cod. The wonder is that both cod and bait species 
were not utterly driven from their usual haunts when the dog- 
. fish appearad)^^^— a result generally looked for when it swarms 
on fishing grounds further west. But, Avhatever the evil eflfect 



74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of the dogfish, it appears that neither the cod nor bait species 
were completely driven away ; consequently, in a few cases the 
fishermen did well. 

An innovation in the cod fishery which attracted much 
notice was the successful use of a seine for the capture of fish 
on the banks. The schooner " Maxine Elliott" of Gloucester 
was the pioneer in this new departure. She sailed April 11 
for the fishing grounds near Sable Island; and, while her 
master had been one of the prominent captains in the don 
hand-line cod fishery, he was equipped on this trip with a 
seine of special design for catching codfish or related species 
in the shallow water and on the smooth bottom near Sable 
Island, or more especially its long, shallow sand bars, that 
stretch out miles from each end of the island. In late spring 
or early summer schools of cod and pollock often appear in 
shallow water on these bars, and can be seen in two or three 
fathoms in large numbers. Frequently they will not bite a 
hook, whatever tlie lure. Sometimes the pollock are said to be 
Tery numerous above the cod, and so ravenous that it is nearly 
impossible to get a baited hook to the bottom without it being 
first taken by the fish at the surface. 

In addition to a full equipment for dory hand-line fishing, 
dories and all, a mackerel seine boat was carried on the " Max- 
ine Elliott " to operate the big net. 

The '* Elliott " arrived home June 23, and brought in a fare 
of 275,000 pounds of salt fish, more than half of which were 
pollock. The experiment of seining fish on the bars of Sable 
Island was successful, especially so to the extent that it was a 
method of cod fishery which could be pursued without bait. 
In luture years, when the proportion of cod is larger, the 
results may be more gi-atifying. 

The unusually small catch of cod on all the eastern banks 
the fishermen attribute to the notable scarcity of bait in mid- 
summer, and likewise to the remarkable scarcity of cod, and 
windy weather in later Aveeks or months, when the cod fishing 
season was nearins: a close. 

In spring herring Avere plentiful, as usual, at the Magdalen 
Islands, and schooners that went there for bait easily got a 
supply. But the herring resorts to these islands at that season 






1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

5oleIj for the purpose of reproduction, and when it has spawned 
it scatters or goes elsewhere ; thus its season is short, and it 
can be relied on for a bait supply in this region only a few 
weeks. It is seldom the second supply of bait can be secured, 
unle^ss a vessel is fishing near by, and more rarely that the same 
schooner would get herring bait at the Magdalens three times 
in succession. Capelin appeared at the usual time on the 
Newfoundland baj^s and harbor, but they were scarce, and 
left the coast sooner than conunon. While capelin could be 
secured for bait the vessels obtained good cod fishing. The 
squid, which is chiefly relied upon for a bait supply, reached 
the coast late, and it probably has seldom if ever been so 
scarce and difficult of procurement. Ordinarily this bait species 
can be taken in considerable numbers on the banks, especially 
on the Grand Bank ; but there is a unity of statement to the 
effect that the fishermen have never known squid so scarce on 
the Grand Bank as this year. It was impracticable to get 
enough bait at sea to meet the requirements. Much time was 
spent in discouraging efi'orts to obtain bait; the schooners 
were driven from point to point on the coast, and every device 
known to the fisherman's skill was ehiployed to overcome the 
difficulties met with, but often without success. Under all the 
circumstances, it was fortunate that the men of the crews bore 
the delays and disappointments so well as they did. There 
ij^ good authority for stating that little difficulty was experi- 
enced with the crews. This is decidedly creditable to the 
fehermen. 

The limits of this report preclude mention of much that 
would be interesting and instructive. Suffice it to say that, not- 
withstanding almost insurmountable obstacles, a few schooners 
were lucky ; they obtained good fares, and those particularly 
which landed fine catches in late autumn earned stocks more 
suggestive of a prosperous season than of a period remarkably 
lean and unsatisfactory. 

Following are some of the most notable fares and stocks : 
the schooner "Elector" of Gloucester was high line of the 
bank cod fishing fleet. As a result of two trips to the Grand 
Bank, she landed 500,000 pounds of salt cod, earned an ag- 
gregate of $18,535.06, and each of the sharesmen received 



7« FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

$615.77.* She sailed March 2, and arrived home from her 
last trip on October 27. The next best catch api>ears to have 
been made by the Gloucester schooner "Aloha," which is 
credited with landing two fine iares and stocking $18,315.41. 
Her crew of 22 men each shared $347.44. The schooner 
*' HazelR. Hines," as a result of two trips, stocked $17,312.10. 
Oapt. Joseph V. Cusick of Gloucester, in two vessels, the 
'* Helen G. "Wells " and the new schooner '' Independence IL," 
secured a good stock. He sailed February 25, made two trips 
on the ** Wells," then took command of the ** new one," aad 
arrived home from the trip in the *' Independence II." on 
October 15. On the three trips he landed a total of 464,350 
pounds of salt fish, stocked $16,922.24, and the crew made 
an average share of $328. 93. f The schooner '* Maggie and 
May" landed 455,000 pounds of salt fish and stocked $16,818; 
crew shared $453.50. She did not sail so early as some other 
vessels. 

Mention may appropriately be made of the following indi- 
vidual fares, taken at random, which were among the largest 
of the season. On June 13 there were several notable arrivals 
at Gloucester from the various fishing grounds, and it was des- 
ignated as *' the greatest fish day" the old fishing port had 
*'seen for many months." The *' Elector," whose season's 
stock has already been mentioned, was one of the arrivals. 
The schooner ** Valkyrie" also brought in 245,000 pounds o/ 
salt cod. The schooner ''A. E. Why land" was reported on 
June 23 to have stocked $7,845.34 from a bank tare landed 
just previous to that time; crew shared $237.98 each. The 
schooner '' Arabia" arrived at Gloucester July 19 with a fere 
of 340,000 pounds of salt cod; she stocked $10,985; her 
crew's average share was $257.80. The schooner *«Lucinda 

* A part of the crew, including the master, ordinarily designated as ** shares- 
men," hired the balance of the men, paying them monthly wages. In sach Ten- 
tores, which have long been common on bankers, the sharesmeu pay the " hired 
men " their wages, and equally divide among themselves any profit or loss that 
resalts. A good fare, for which a portion of the crew — generally one man in each 
dory — has a special inducement to strive, gives each of the sharesmen a mnch 
bigger share than he otherwise would earn ; while a bad catch bears with particular 
severity upon him who joined in the risk of hiring part of the cz«w. 

t All the crews of the ** Wells" and •' Independence II." were on sharas. The 
crews counted fish, and the two men in each dory shared according to the fish 
caught. The high-line shares were more than the average as above given. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

I. Lro^f-ell " arrived the same day at Gloucester from the Grand 
Bank with a fare ot 281,000 pounds of fish ; stocked $9,100 ; 
^haresinen made $330 each. The schooner ** Hazel R. Hines," 
which arrived at Gloucester the day previous, landed a fare of 
290,000 pounds ; stocked $9,500. This was the maiden trip 
of the "Hines," and stamped her a «« lucky vessel" in the 
eyes of the fishermen. The schooner " W. E. Morrisey " of 
ivlouoester, which arrived about this time, landed 204,000 
pounds of salt fish ; stocked $9,300, and her crew earned from 
$ol^ to $346 each, according to the amount of fish taken in 
eac-h dory. Several other iares arrived between July. 10 and 
20 that were above the average, but those mentioned will indi- 
cate the maximum catches. 

As the season advanced the difficulties increased, as already 

intimated, and fewer good fares came in. The schooner 

*'Dora A. Lawson" was reported arriving in port October 8 

with a fere of 250,000 pounds of salt fish; she had been absent 

since some time in March. The schooner "Mystery," which 

arrived from a long trip on November 1., was alleged to have 

a &re of 275,000 pounds of salt cod ; she had sailed on the 

trip in the spring. The schooner "Aloha" of Gloucester 

arrived home from her last trip on November 21, with a fare 

reported to be 265,000 pounds of cod; this vessel sailed on 

her voyage in July, after landing another fare. The trip was 

remarkable, for the reason that the fare was caught chiefly 

with salt capelin for bait, on the Flemish Cap, the eastermost 

of the fishing banks resorted to for cod by our fishing vessels. 

In this desolate region, hundreds of miles north-east of the 

Grand Bank, surrounded with icebergs and no other vessel in 

sight, the fishery was pursued with vigor and success. The 

extraordinary prices prevailing when the *' Aloha" arrived 

made her fare much more valuable than otherwise it might have 

been ; for immediately before this, on November 19, $4.75 had 

been paid for large green salt cod as taken from the vessel, and 

$4.2.5 for medium-sized cod. These prices were paid for the 

fare of the schooner ** Mabel D. Hines," which was reported 

to have landed 140,000 pounds of salt fish. 

Shack Fishing, — This is a branch of bank fishing that 
appears to be growing in favor. It is now pursued from the 



J 



78 FISH AND GAME. [Dw. 

fishing grounds off the Nantucket shoals to the Grand Bank^ 
and all, or at least a large percentage, of the catch is brought 
in without having been salted, part of it in a condition *to be 
sold fresh, but the bulk of it only fit to be split and salted. 
Shack fishing derives its name from the fact that originally, 
and to a large extent now, the catch is largely made up of 
hake, pollock and other cheap varieties of fish, especially those 
of the cod family. Such fish, tumbled in together, without 
effort at classification, are known as " shack," and it is deemed 
more profitable to catch large quantities, and run them in with- 
out splitting and salting, than to observe the old-fashioned 
methods. The effort is to get large quantities of fish so 
quickly that they can be kept without salt until a full fare or 
nearly that is caught. Large masses of gear are used, for little 
time, comparatively, is required to care for the fish, which 
are simply eviscerated and tumbled below without cereraozij'. 
A little ice may be used to keep the fish cool, but generally 
they are not packed with the care that fish are which are in- 
tended for sale as fresh goods* in the market. Such care is 
bestowed on the last of the catch, but seldom on the first fitjh 
taken. Sometimes the first caught fish are salted, especially 
if they are cod, and the early fishing is not especially promis- 
ing ; but as soon as a larger abundance gives promise of a quick 
trip, the splitting and salting ceases, and ** a shack trip " is the 
dominant thought while the fishing lasts. While at Grst a 
shack trip referred particularly to a voyage on which cheap 
species of fishes constituted the bulk of the catch, this system 
of fishing has now broadened materially, to such a- degree that 
it is common for vessels, some of them large schooners, to go 
as far as the Grand Bank, where cod alone are taken. With 
the swift schooners of the day it is entirely feasible to bring 
the majority of the fish in fresh, even from the distant Grand 
Bank ; and frequently some of the last caught are in such fine 
condition that they go upon the market as " fresh fish,'' and 
may be sent hundreds of miles into the interior. The bulk of 
such fares is landed at Gloucester for salting. Shore gangs 
take charge of the fish, split, wash and salt them. They are 
salted in butts, — molasses hogsheads on end, with the upper 
head out, — and after a week or two can be made ready for 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25» 79 

drying on flakes, although they usually remain longer in salt. 
The butts are filled with brine, and fish salted in this manner 
are known as " pickle-cured fish." They enter extensively 
into the boneless fish trade. 

There is as much rush and drive in discharging a fare and 
outfitting for another trip as is characteristic of the fishing. 
No time is lost. While the fish are going over the side on to 
the pier, being weighed and otherwise disposed of, the stores 
for another trip are going on board, messages to baiting sta- 
tions are sent oflf, or whatever can be done in preparation for 
another voyage is promptly attended to. No sooner are the 
fish out and the deck and hold well washed, than salt and ice 
are taken on board, and whatever remains to he done is 
promptly attended to. If salt nmst be obtained from a ship 
moored in the harbor, a tug is alongside at the earliest moment, 
and no time is lost. Discharging a big fare usually takes a 
whole day, or nearly that, hence there is one night home in 
:such an event. Other than this, or the time necessary for re- 
pairs, painting and the like, there is little pause, for the rivalry 
is intense. The struggle to lead in this as in other branches 
of fishery generally produces an intenscness of effort rarely 
equalled elsewhere. 

Following are brief notices of a few of the catches : on May 9 
the schooner *'Dido" arrived with 145,000 pounds of fresh 
pottock, and the '* Metamora" with 110,000 pounds of mixed 
fresh fish. Two days later the schooner *' Samuel B. Crane" 
brought in 120,000 pounds of fresh fish, chiefly cusk, from the 
Bay of Fundy fishing grounds. Early in June the Gloucester 
schooner " Slade Gorton" landed a shack fare that gave her 
& stock of $3,372 ; each of her crew sluu'ed $89. tlust before 
the middle of June the schooner ''Claudia" stocked $2,(572 
on & shack trip; her crew shared $71.30 each. At the same 
time the schooner "Monarch" landed a fare that sold for 
^2,376. On June 22 the schooner "Moween" arrived at 
Gloucester from a shacking trip to the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
with 140,000 pounds of fresh fish. Her fare was chiefly cod, 
caught near Anticosti Island, where the fish were unusually 
large. The presence of a bountiful supply of bait and com- 
plete absence of the dogfish were specially helpful conditions 



80 FISH AND GAME. [Dch. 

on the trip.* Just before the middle of July the schooner 
"Orinoco" stocked $2,900 on a fare of shack she landed: 
crew shared $55 each. About July 20 the schooner * * Arbutus " 
landed a shack fare that realized a stock of $3,024; crew 
shared $72.31. Early in September the schooner **Murier 
had a shack fare that stocked $1,670; crew shared $30.70. 
Other good fares might be mentioned, but these will suffice 
to show the scope and character of the best. 

It is difficult to give anything like high-line stocks or 
catches of vessels employed in the so-called shack fishery. 
Such employment is temporary at best, and often is so closely 
associated with the deep-sea market fishery that both are seem- 
ingly engaged in at the same time on board the same vessel. 
Then a vessel which may go " shacking" on one trip may be 
market fishing the next week ; and if she spends the summer 
in 5«hack fishing, she is almost certain to fish for the market 
the balance of the year. 

Georfjes Fishery. — The cod fishery on Georges Bank, long- 
celebrated for the disasters associated with it, is one of peculiar 
interest to Massachusetts, for vessels from no other St^Xe 
engage in it. 

The better class of vessels now employed in this fishery has 
robbed the industry of its terrors, to a large degree ; for, 
whereas more or less vessels formerly foundered in each recur- 
ring severe gale, going down with all hands, few losses now 
occur, and the Georges fishery is as safe as any. 

Probably owing to the comparative scarcity of dogfish ifl 
summer, the fishery on Georges was exceptionally good. At 
seasons when few fish are ordinarily taken, comjmratively large 
fiu:es were caught this year. It was not uncommon for fares 
of 30,000 to 45,000 pounds, or even more, of fish to be 
brought in by the schooners; and the high prices that pre- 
vailed enabled the vessels to make fine stocks and the men to 
earn good pay. A few examples must suffice for illustration : 
the record trip for the season was that made the latter part of 
September and first twenty days of October, by the schooner 

• The crew qf the " Moween " reported that large mackerel frequently iollowed 
their trawls to the sea surface, and it was not uncommon for the men to see mack- 
erel passing under their dories while they were engaged in fishing. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

** William H. Moody." She was absent from her home port, 
Ciloucester, about five weeks, and landed 30,000 pounds of 
halibut, in round numbers, — 14,000 pounds of these at Port- 
land, — and 15,000 pounds of cod. She stocked $3,400, and 
her crew shared $112. August 6 the schooner "Caroline 
Vought " arrived, with 40,000 pounds of salt cod. 

Tike Market Fishery, — On the whole, the deep-sea market 
fishery has been successful. To a considerable extent this has 
been due to an unusual midsummer scarcity of the dogfish, 
and a consequent large summer catch of ground fish (cod, 
haddock, hake, pollock and cusk) by the vessels bringing 
those species fresh to the market. As a matter of fact, there 
was often an over-supply of such fish in midsummer, with con- 
sequent low prices, which led to the necessity of splitting large 
quantities of fish, and thus resulting in much dissatisfaction. 
The dealers at least ascribed the over-supply of fresh ground 
ti-^h to the abnormal scarcity of the spiny-backed dogfish. 
Their inability to market the remarkable summer catch of cod, 
etc., and the resulting disarrangement of prices, even induced 
many to emphatically express their desire for tlie return of 
the dogfish, and the consequent Imlancing of the supply and 
demand of market fish of the deep-sea, bottom-feeding varieties. 
The unusual catch of the schooners supplying the regular mar- 
ket was supplemented to a large degree by the great quantities 
of marketable fish brought in by the shack fishermen, or by 
vessels fishing chiefly for cod but taking the larger part of 
their catch to port fresh, with the hope or expectation of selling 
a considerable portion of it as market stock. It will thus be 
seen that, aside from the fares of the market vessels, which 
were large, as we have stated, supplies of fresh fish were being 
brought in by schooners arriving from all the fishing grounds 
from Nantucket Shoals to the Grand Bank of Newfoundland. 

There have been many periods of scarcity, for a few days at 
a time, due to bad weather or difliculty in securing bait, but 
the summer fishery was remarkably prolific. Fares of fresh 
fish ranging from 10,000 pounds to well above 100,000 pounds 
were frecjuently reported. It does not follow that all of the 
feh brought in were taken for market use. Indeed, the con- 
trary was true, for millions of pounds in the aggregate went 



82 



FISH AND GAME. [Dec. j 



to Gloucester, after having been in Boston, and were sold for 
splitting and salting. 

Inspection of Fish. — There have been no recjuests during 
the past year for the inspection of fish, under chapter 138, Acts 
of 1902, and no fees have been received. 

The Hatching, Rearing and Distribution of Game Fish. 

Appropriations. — Inasmuch as the general fund available 
for fish culture is included in the general appropriation, it is 
not practicable to give any more than an estimate of the amount 
required for this branch of the work ; it did not vary materiallv 
from that of last year, which was about $(5,800. The appro- 
priations for stocking ponds and l)rooks under special acts 
remain the same, viz., $500 for ponds and $300 for brooks. 

We can only repeat: '*It has been found in practice that 
the amount estimated for the cost of distributing fish is not 
sufficient ; the utmost economy has failed to make it cover the 
expense." But, inasmuch as the allotment is included in the 
general appropriation, the fish are distributed by our salaried 
deputies, who for the time being act as messengers ; and, while 
sufficient means are available to pay their travelling expenses, 
the public is served. If the purpose of the Legislature is thus 
fullv carried out, it seems to matter little if the estimate for 
this special work comes short of actual requirements. 

The allotment of $500 for stocking ponds is insufficient. It 
was ample years ago, shorth'^ after the enactment of the law. 
and when the demands upon the commission for stocking pond^l 
were about one-fourth or one-sixth of what they now are. 
But full compliance with the public requirements is no longer 
possible with this appropriation. For instance : we have been 
earnestly besought to stock certain waters with white perch, — 
a reasonable and proper request, if, as is sometimes the case, 
this species is by far the most desirable for certain waters. 
But, as a rule, we have been compelled to neglect such re- 
quests, although we would have preferred otherwise. With 
a maximum of work to do, however, and only the funds pro- 
vided for a minimum, it has clearlj- been necessary for us to 
take the available fish from our hatcheries, rather than to 
attempt the more expensive method of collecting white perch 



1H04.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 83 

fri>ni Mill Pond on Cape Cod, and transporting them long dis- 
tances to ponds in other sections of the State. It is true that 
the fish available are doubtless the best in most instances ; but 
there are cases where white perch could, we think, be used 
uiore advantageously, if the means justified the necessary ex- 
I>enditure. We hope to meet the demand in the near future, 
at least in part, by the aitificial propagation of white perch ; 
bat even that will not suffice to make adequate the sum of 
^•">00 to do the work now required, and which ought to be done 
promptly and efficiently. In our opinion, a pond or lake which 
has been stocked and the fishing therein regulated in accord- 
ance with law, should be additionally stocked each recurring 
autumn, while the regulations are in force, in order to bring 
the fish life into a satisfactory condition. But it requires no 
ai^ument to show the impracticability of this, when our re- 
sources are strained to the utmost to meet the annual demands 
in other directions. The remedy lies with the Legislature. 
"We have done and can do many times more than was deemed 
possible a few years ago ; but the limit has apparently been 
reached, beyond which it is not practicable to go to any con- 
siderable extent, if at all. 

The demand for stocking streams under section 5, chapter 
91 of the Revised Laws, is not large, and seemingly does not 
grow in propularity. We can conceive of conditions which 
would make the application of this law highly beneficial. But, 
while it is easily possible, through stocking and regulation of 
fishing for three years, to bring the fish in a stream to the 
highest point of abundance, — when there are as many trout as 
can live comfortably in a brook or that the food resources will 
sustain, — it is evident that when all restriction on fishing is 
removed, at the end of the close season, there will be a rush to 
the stream for the *' early catch," with the result that the trout 
are soon depleted, and the eflbrt of years to increase fish life 
is nallified in about as many days. It is probably because of 
this that this system has met with so little favor. To the 
majority, a few days' fishing and subsequent baiTcnness is not 
sufficient recompense for yielding to years of restriction. If 
there was some way of conserving a reasonable amount of the 
abundance created by self-denial, no doubt the special law for 



84 FISH AND GAME. [Dec 

stocking streams would be better appreciftted. This is a mat- 
ter which the Legislature may justly consider. 

The allowance for stocking brooks has been ample ; it has 
not all been used. 

The improvements made at the stations have resulted chiefly 
from the work of the regular employees. The amount ot 
extra labor, such as teaming, etc., has been small. 

On the whole, the utmost economy has been observed, and 
it is believed the largest possible returns- have been secured 
for the money expended. 

Expansion. — For several years past it has been customary 
to establish a new annual record in fish culture, despite the 
fact that the limit of practical effort seemed to have been pre- 
viously reached. Such is the case this year, when a neiv and 
gmtifying record has been made. This has been accomplished, 
too, in spite of obstacles, and notwithstanding limitations in 
some directions that could not be overcome. 

There has been notable progress in the work of breeding 
and distributing fish. There was a single important exception 
to this. Because we were unable to secure any landlocked 
salmon eggs from the United States Fisheries Bureau, we have 
been unable to breed that species as extensively as usual. 
The few eggs obtained from our own salmon, the majority of 
which were infertile, were not of large consequence. 

The fact that only a few fry were retained at the Hadley 
station for raising fingerlings, — kept more in the natiure of a 
forlorn hope of experimentation than with any expectation o( 
success in raising them, — and that the work of this nature 
was thrown entirely upon the Sutton hatchery, made the out- 
look at the beginning of the year not encouraging. It was 
feared the record could not be maintained. That it has been 
nearly equalled is cause for satisfaction. 

The conditions at Hadley still continue disquieting, and 
somewhat remarkable from some points of view. Fry in their 
early stage, say up to the time of the spring distribution, 
which occurs in April, gi'ow remarkably ; the Hadley trout fry 
are the best we have at any hatchery in the State, — large, 
healthy and vigorous. The dangerous period is between the 
fry and finger ling stages. It may be true that the mortality 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

this year has been less than ever before, but the fact remains 
that the critical period is between April and September, during 
which time the temperature of the water at Hadley is too high 
for the successful rearing of young fish. When the water 
grows cooler 'with approaching autunm the danger ceases, and 
l^efore the season is far advanced the next year the yearling 
tish have so far developed in growth and vigor that they are 
thereafter immune from the danger that threatened them dur- 
ing the first summer. Indeed, yearling fish thrive well, and 
nowhere can finer examples be found than some trout we have 
raised this year at Hadley. Adult fish also do well. 

Efforts have been made to determine the cause of the exces- 
sive mortality to young fish, which is believed to be attribu- 
table chiefly to parasitic attacks, although the temperature may 
likewise have a deleterious effect. For this reason we were 
g\«d to avail ourselves of the voluntary services of Mr. Charles 
C. Jocelyn of Bucksport, Me., an expert on fish diseases, who 
chanced to be temporarily in Boston. He went with us to 
Hadley, obtained specimens of the fry and water, made a ten- 
tative microscopic examination, but could not determine, 
mthout further investigation, the exact nature of the malady. 
It was, however, fairly well ascertained that the trouble was 
due to a very minute parasite attacking the gills of the fry in 
sach a manner as to soon cause death. 

1b this connection it may be stated that Mr. Jocelyn also 

visited the Sutton hatchery, where he obtained specimens of 

trout afflicted with throat disease, — a form of disease that 

bas attacked our fish virulently at that station, causing the loss 

of many. Trout thus attacked soon develop an ulcerated sore 

at the throat ; the ulcer rapidly enlarges, the flesh sloughs 

away and death shortly ensues. Fish are promptly removed 

&om their fellows as soon as the earlier symptoms of this 

fittal disease appears. Fig. 1 is an illustration of a salmon 

afflicted with throat disease, as our trout are ; it is from a 

drawing made by Mr. Jocelyn, who kindly permitted us to use 

it for this report. 

The work at Sutton has been reasonably satisfactory ; it has 
been an advance on the previous year, but not quite up to for- 
^w records" in the important item of raising fingerlings. If 



V 



I 

86 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. j 

in the future it is possible to accomplish more in this direction 
at that station, an unexpected result will be attained ; never- 
theless, all possible will be done to reach the highest prac- 
ticable limit. But there is a much wider possible range in 
breeding fry, which we hope to more fully occupy in the 
future. Meantime, Sutton has established a record in various 
directions, and has fully maintained its reputation for doing 
its part in increasing the fish-cultural work of the State. 

Output of Fii^h. — Two carloads of shad fry, aggregating 
(5,100,000, were planted in the rivers of the State. One load 
was put into the head waters of Taunton Great River, where 
a similar planting was made in 1902, and the other lot went 
into the head waters of Parker River. The young" fish were 
received in fine condition from the United States Fisheries 
Bureau, and there is reason for anticipating the happiest re- 
sults in consequence of this effort to stock our streams wbici 
flow into the Atlantic, and are reasonably free frooai pollution 
or other serious menace to fish life. It is believed that those 
difficulties which exist can be readily overcome, and this is a 
matter which will receive the earnest and active consideration 
of the commission. If, because of stocking with shad and as 
a result of efforts made in other directions, the minor rivers 
can be made to contribute to industry and to supply their 
quota of delicious and nourishing fish food, an important 
object will have been accomplished in the utilization of oui 
natural resources. 

A consignment of 5,000,000 pike perch eggs was also re- 
ceived from the Fisheries Bureau. From these 3,300,000 fry 
were hatched, and those were planted in several ponds. 

The largest aggregate plant, so far as numbers are con- 
cerned, was that of 16,000,000 landlocked smelt eggs. These 
were distributed in various ponds which had previously been 
stocked with landlocked salmon, or which were coincidently 
being stocked with that species. 

Carp were distributed from the Winchester Pond to Mrs. 
Rice of Ipswich, Mr. Hobbs of Essex and Mr. Harry RusseW 
of Pittsfield. About 200 fish in all were given to these par- 
tics. Some experiments were made in shipping the fish to 
Pittsfield, with the object of saving expense in transportation. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 87 

As a preliminary, 12 carp were first placed in a box with wet 
moss. At the end of twenty-four hours the box was opened, 
and 9 of the fish were found alive. About 130, including 
the 9 that Tvere ta\en from the moss, were then put into cans 
with water about 5 inches deep, and sent to Pittsfield with a 
loss of only 1 in transportation. This method of shipment 
materially reduces the expense of distribution of carp, and 
limits it to the cost of catching the fish and a comparatively 
small charge for expressage. 

In connection with this subject, we deem it proper to invite 

attention to a matter which may be interesting to many. 

There is a chain of ponds extending from Woburn to Medford, 

and they are connected, in Winchester, by a flowed mill pond, 

covering some 50 acres. A dozen years or so ago these ponds 

were heavily covered with algae ; the surface of them was 

covered with green aquatic grass, through which only glimpses 

of water could be seen. 

Some time previous, 8 carp, weighing from 1 to 2 pounds 

each, were put into the upper end of this stretch of ponds. 

The carp increased with wonderful rapidity, until the pond 

became well stocked with them, several having been taken 

with hook and line which weighed from 12 to 20 pounds 

each. With the increase of thfe carp the algse disappeared, 

until now there is scarcely a visible trace of it. The chairman 

of the Board of Health states that the conditions around the 

ponds have not materially changed, and there is no doubt that 

the disappearance of the algse is due to the carp, which feed 

upon it. 

It is a question for consideration whether many of our ponds 
wherein aquatic growths are overabundant may not be im- 
proved by the introduction of carp to feed on the vegetable 
matter which otherwise decays and pollutes the water, ren- 
dering it offensive. From their vigorous breeding the carp 
would also furnish food for the native game fish. 

The fact that high official authority has so recently declared 
that the carp, although a non-carnivorous species, is a tine game 
fish, and yields much sport to the angler who fishes for it with 
hook and line, seems to place it in a different category from that 
it has heretofore occupied. That it ranks high as a commercial 



88 FISH AND GAME. [De* • ', 

I 

species, with wonderful reproductive powers and a rapidity of ■. 
growth beyond that of ordinary fresh-water fishes, is well 
known ; that it will keep down a. harmful overgro^vth of aquatic 
grasses is also true ; and now that the carp is declared a game 
fish, it seems to have much to recommend it to public attention. 

Frog Rearing. — The question of breeding frogs as an ele- 
ment of work in connection with fish culture, and distributing 
the young as we distribute fish fry, is a matter which the com- 
mission has seriously considered. It is of course a well-known 
fact that the frog is a marketable product of no little impor- 
tance ; it is consumed largely for food. This being the case, 
it seems right and proper that what otherwise may be waste 
water resources, such as swampy lands, shallow pools, etc., 
should be utilized in frog farming, if it is demonstrated th&t 
this can be successfully accomplished. Thereby an additional 
source of income can be made available to our farmers. 

In pursuance of the effort to acquire all information relating: 
to work done elsewhere along this line, a letter was addressed 
to Hon. W. E. Meehan, Commissioner of Fisheries of Penn- 
sylvania, who, we understood, has entered upon the work of 
breeding frogs for public distribution. His reply indicates a 
public interest in this new departure in pisciculture — perhaps 
it may more properly be called frog culture — that is most 
encouraging. Mr. Meehan writes in part as follows : — 

If yoo had had the experience I did this summer, when public an- 
nouncement was made that applications would be received for frogs 
hatched by the State, you would be even more thoroughly conviDced 
that it was a matter of more than passing interest. There were about 
300,000 frogs hatched, and the blank applications filled out called for 
nearly 2,000,000. In addition, there were several hundred letters 
received after the last blank form had been sent out. There was not 
a nook or corner of the State from which applications were not re- 
ceived. The experiment has convinced me that the Department of 
Fisheries of Pennsylvania must hereafter go into frog culture on more 
extensive lines than brook trout, and if possible on lines as exten- 
sively as we do in some of our food fishes, namely, shad and white- 
fish. The frogs we raised last summer were from wild spawn. . . . 

Mr. Meehan hopes to soon issue a bulletin giving the facts 
relating to frog culture as prosecuted by the Pennsylvania 



1904.] PUBLIC D0CUMP:NT — No. 25. 89 

Coimnission ; but at the time of writing, Nov. 9, 1904, he had 
not secured sufficient data to justify the issuance of sucli a 
publication. This was due to the fact that '^ the work . . . 
was only begun on a large scale last spring," and there had not 
been time to collect data. 

The press very properly gave wide mention of this work, 
and to that extent aided in an effort which ultimately may take 
high rank ; since the prosecution of frog culture on a large 
scale may contribute materially to the profitable utilization of 
heretofore waste areas, and a consequent increased income to 
our agricultural population. 

The fullest utilization of all water resources for the produc- 
tion of food is, we believe, a justifiable ambition of .this com- 
mission, especially if important results can be accomplished 
with comparatively small outlays. For this reason, experiments 
may soon be made by us to test the feasibility of breeding frogs 
on a large scale in this State ; but it is evident that such work 
cannot be accomplished on a plan of sufficient magnitude with 
the fikcilities now at our command. And frog culture, which 
now seems far simpler than fish culture was at the beginning, 
is only a suggestion of the yet undeveloped possibilities that 
await the progressive fish culturist in the immediate future. 

The Work of Distribution. — The work and method of dis- 
tribution have been so fully considered in previous reports that 
little remains to be said here, beyond the statement that the 
work has now been reduced to a system that nearly eliminates 
, serious mistakes and trouble, with the result that satisfaction 
with what is accomplished is very general. We know of only 
one important exception to this. This was due to misleading 
statements made to the messenger who carried the fish, with 
the consequent result that, although they were intended for 
IVikard Pond in Orange, they went into another pond. Almost 
as a matter of course there were attempts to get trout to put 
into private brooks, — attempts such as were usually successful 
years ago, — but they were defeated ; there were also numer- 
ous other small annoyances, but they were overcome by the 
messengers, and may be considered unimportant. 

In view of the great number of brooks, rivers and ponds 
stocked (there were 195 applications for stocking brooks with 



90 FISH AND GAME. [Dec-l 

trout fry and 205 for brook trout fingerlings, 8 ponds have 
been restocked, 23 applications for stocking ponds were filed), 
and the &ct that the messenger may necessarily have to go to 
unfamiliar localities, and may have his plain instructions to ap- 
plicants misunderstood, or even may also occasionally have to 
deal with open attempts to defraud the State, — it speaks well 
for the efficiency, the intelligence and faithfulness of those 
engaged in it, that it has been prosecuted so effectively with a 
minimum of error. It is true that some of our best men^ those 
most experienced in the service, have been detailed to this 
work ; but the highest intelligence may not always be proof 
against plausible, misleading statements, especially when fish 
are liable to die if action is deferred even for a comparatively 
short time. 

A large list of extracts from letters, etc., warmly conunend- 
ing what the commission has accomplished in fish distribution, 
which might be supplied, is omitted for the sake of brevity, 
since they would be only supplementary to or a repetition of 
what already have been published in previous reports. The 
only complaint was regarding the small number of fingerlings. 
We sincerely regret there were not more ; but it always will 
be impossible to meet the demands with our present facilities, 
nor can we deny fingerlings to one that another may get a 
larger number. Fair play and no special favors must control 
the distribution. 

It is gratifying to be able to state that the withdrawal oi 
several of our experienced men firom the law-enforcing work 
to carry on the fall distribution of fish was not so seriously 
felt this year as it was in 1903, for the reason that available 
financial resources were suflScient to allow the appointment of 
temporary salaried deputies to take part in the enforcement of 
the Ush and game laws. 

Wbi'k at the Hatcheries. — Reports from all sections of the 
State indicate a satisfactory increase in the number of tront 
and other game fish, and the evidence of ** good strings" taken 
in the State are becoming numerous. 

The most certain results follow stocking with fingerlings. 
The proper demand for fingerlings exceeds many times the 
capacity of our rearing ponds, and increased facilities must be 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 

furnished for rearing a greater number of trout and saknon 
fry to fingerlings, if the commission is to meet the reasonable 
demands which come from all sections of the State. The 
advantages of such an increased output are obvious, not alone 
from the point of view of the true sportsman and the lover of 
natnre. The actual economic value of the fish produced makes 
this a matter of interest to all who see the advantage of causing 
our brooks and rivers to be a definite source of food or even 
pecuniary income, as well as a resort for pleasure and recrea- 
tion. The public demand for fingerling trout is an intelligent 
one, and should elicit a satisfactory response. 

The usual spring output of fry from our hatcheries included 
915,550 brook trout and 40,000 brown trout. The largest 
number of fry of these species that could be accommodated 
and all of the rainbow trout and landlocked salmon were 
reserved to be reared to fingerlings. In the fall, 41,000 brook 
trout fingerlings were liberated in the brooks; 11,000 brown 
trout fingerlings, 7,000 rainbow trout fingerlings and 1,200 
landlocked salmon fingerlings were put into ponds ; also 337 
adult brook trout have been liberated in ponds ; while 4,000 
brook trout and 2,000 brown trout fingerlings have been held 
at the hatcheries, to replenish or add to the brood stock. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the aggregate out- 
put of eggs, fry and larger fish was considerably in excess of 
26,000,000; and, having in mind the number of fingerling 
and largei* fish included in this summation, and their compara- 
tive potentiality for stocking purposes, the result seems satis- 
fiictory . The increase over last year exceeds 73 per cent. ; the 
total output was nearly thirty times as much as it was five 
years previously. 

In addition to our ordinary work, we undertook to aid those 
desirous of obtaining carp for stocking purposes. We were 
able to do this from the ample supply in the pond at Win- 
chester. The expense was paid by those desirous of securing 
the carp for private waters. 

The latest report of the Illinois Fish Commission not only 
emphasizes the paramount value of the carp as a basis for an 
important commercial fishery, — more important than all other 
species combined, — but it points out the fact that it is a fine 



92 FISH AND GAME, [Dec, 

I 

game fish, and therefore deserves the appreciative consider*, 
tion of the sportsman angler as well as that of the fisherman 
who catches it for profit. 

The report of the superintendent of the Sutton hatchery 
follows : — 

State Fish Hatchbry, 

WiLKINSONVILLE, MASS., I>eC. 12, 1$«. 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Oame^ 8UUe Honsey Boston^ Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The collection of brook trout eggs in 1908 amoaoted 
to 628,000 ; of brown trout, 40,000 ; making a total of 668,000. Later, 
this number was increased by 85,000 rainbow trout ^gs received from 
the Hadley hatchery and the United States Fisheries Bareaa Station, 
Manchester, la. ; but the latter lot, numbering 25,000, was almost 
entirely spoiled in transit, and only about 2,000 fry were hatched 
from it. 

From three female salmon, part of a small experimental lot raised 
from the stock hatched here in 1899, 5,000 salmon eggs were secured. 
The eggs were of large size, well colored, and apparently as strong 
as wild salmon. One lot was well fertilized, but the other two were 
rather poorly fertilized because of lack of males at spawning time. 
The fry resulting from these eggs were somewhat redaced by an 
epidemic in May, but at all other times were healthy, and seemed 
proof against disease or parasites. The fry hatctied from the brown 
trout and rainbow trout eggs were received for rearing, and yielded 
satisfactory results, although the rainbow trout fingerlings were 
smaller than common, because of the lateness of the eggs — three 
months later than usual — in hatching. Early in June an epidemic 
attacked the rainbow trout kept in the lower tubs, and destroyed 
about 8,000. It was supposed that this trouble would be avoided 
this year, because it was no longer necessary to use pond water; 
but it is probable that the spring water piped from the head of the 
pond deteriorated in its passage through the pipe, for fish of the 
same lot kept in the same water at the head of the pond were not 
affected. Early in September the rainbow trout in the plank pen by 
the hatchery were attacked by fungus, and 1,000 died. These pens 
are supplied by pond water, and it is an exceptional year when the 
fish are carried through without loss. 

Twenty-three thousand brown trout, rainbow trout and salmon were 
raised to fingerling size, and were sent out in October and November 
for stocking ponds; 100,000 brook trout eggs were shipped to Win- 
chester, and 500,000 fry were hatched from the eggs left. Fry num- 
bering 331,000 were put out in the spring distribution, and 161,000 
were reserved for rearing, which number was later increased by 15,000 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 93 

fry received from Hadley, making a total of 185,000 for rearing. The 
brook troat equalled in size the exceptionally large ones grown last 
year, and filled the ponds nearly as well as the larger namher some 
years before, though some pools, especially those below the hatchery, 
were not nearly filled to their capacity. In all of these pools there 
was an unusual shrinkage, and in one, possibly two, both excavated 
in soft, black soil, there was a possible loss by leakage through mole 
holes. Trouble from moles at this place has been met with many 
times before, and it would add largely to the yield of these ponds 
if they could be planked, and also prove an important measure of 
eoonomy in the care of them. Some of the upper pools have shallow 
margins, and the fish are exposed to losses that might be avoided if 
the pools could be deepened around the shores, and plank used for 
edging. The results from the upper plank pool are a yearly object 
lesson of the advantage to be expected from this improvement, for 
this pool is uniformly the most productive of all, and it possesses no 
advantages over the others except in its construction. 

The number of fingerling brook trout raised was 45,000, and several 
thoasand of these were reserved for rearing as breeders. 

No especially new problems in the care of the fish arose during the 
year, but many matters previously mentioned, and recommendations 
made, may be repeated, some with more urgency, as with the lapse of 
time the need becomes plainer. The improvements mentionied in the 
ponds, for the protection of the fish and as a means of probable increase, 
would make it possible to shade and enclose the ponds with netting 
more effectively. For some ponds, where the need of this is most 
argent, it is quite impracticable to do anything as the ponds are now. 
Th^e small improvements cost but little in any case, and, in the 
aggregate for all that is needed, add but a slight percentage of 
increase to a year's expense ; but would add materially to the capac- 
ity of each pond, to which we must look for an increased supply 
of fingerlings. 

The pond next above the brood fish pond, which is generally used 
for yearlings, was filled with rainbow trout, and when these were 
shipped* was used for holding spawned trout. This pond is partly 
walled with stone, and only a supply of cement is needed to finish 
the work, as an abundance of stone lies near the pond. This work 
and the suggested work of paving the bottom with flagstones, grouted 
with cement, to make it possible to keep the spawn in better con- 
dition, is particularly urgent, for every year sees a heavy loss of the 
female trout that sometimes cuts seriously into the supply of brood 
fish. Tbe benefit of shading, which is also pronounced in the case 
of ponds, is possibly as needful for the tubs where they are set in 



94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

open ground ; for there has been a pronounced difference in the c<»- 
dition of the fish grown in the tubs, those set in the woods prodaciif « 
healthier and better fish than those exposed to the bud. When thiil 
became apparent, covers were made for the tubs at the new stand, i 
and a quick improvement resulted. A still more effective way woaki- 
be to build awnings of wood or canvas over the tub stands. 

The old pipe to the hatchery having become clogged and neariy 
useless, a new one was laid to a point near the hatchery beyond 
which the old pipe was serviceable. From the springs a deep cat 
was made across to the pond, and a four-inch vitrified tile pipe laid^ 
coming out on the bank about six feet above the water level in the 
pond, so that ample fall was secured for utilizing the sarplas water 
in a stand of tubs. The tile pipe terminated in a large iron tank set 
in cement, and from this a two-inch galvanized-iron pipe was laid 
nearly three hundred feet to the hatchery. The old pipe, if taken up 
and cleaned, could be relaid and used for supplying the lower tubs. 
The tubs formerly located in the woods and supplied by the same 
water were moved to the new location, where they coald be supplied 
through the four-inch tile pipe, and placed on a solidly built stand. 
More stone wall was laid at the upper pond, but the work could not 
be brought to an end, because it did not seem advisable to lay stone 
without cement. The overflow from the brook was taken care o( bj 
digging a ditch around this pond, and thus it was made safe for ase 
as a rearing pond for fry. Above the upper ponds, between tiie 
plank pen and the woods, a tract of rough ground was filled in and 
levelled by flowing the water of the brook over it while work was 
being done in cleaning out and deepening the channel. The mad 
and sand carried down by the water graded the ground very evenlj' 

Below the dam unused plank pens were torn out, and the lumber 
used in building a new pen near the meat house, where it would be 
useful in holding fish for spawning, when the pond was drained, and 
as a rearing pond for yearlings. 

The usual amount of work was done in clearing land of stumps 
and otherwise improving the grounds, but this was done mainly witii 
reference to the needs of hares and pheasants. 

The arrangements for hatching pike perch were improved by add- 
ing a new form of supply tubs, that regulated the flow of water in 
the pens so well as to stop the bunching of the eggs and conseqaeot 
loss ; and fry were cared for better by the construction of a large 
receiving tank, used in place of the glass aquaria. 

Early in May 5,000,000 pike perch eggs were secured from the 
United States Fish Hatchery, S wanton, Vt., and by careful trsan- 
portation reached the hatchery in excellent condition. Many im* 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 95 

proTements made in the hatching apparatus, the result of observation 
made during the visit to Swanton to secure the eggs, and suggestions 
of the foreman at that station, made it possible to handle the eggs 
mach better, and resulted in a very successful hatch, — nearly 
3,;>0O,OO0 fry. While the arrangements for hatching had been so 
improved that the eggs can be handled without unusual loss, the low 
temperature of the water used in hatching affects the quality of the 
fry, and makes the results of stocking uncertain. The hatching 
period Is lengthened fully one-half, and the fry is developed in water 
that is probably 10^ to 12° colder than the water of their natural 
spawning grounds. It might be expected that this would result in 
teeible fry, and, while there has been no opportunity to make com- 
parisons with normally healthy fish, the quality of some lots has been 
decidedly inferior to what was expected. 

In hatching pike perch, the gain over nature's methods is almost 
wholly in fertilizing and developing the eggs ; but from the time of 
hatching it is doubtful if any care that can be given will improve on 
a home in natural spawning waters. Where millions of fry are 
hatched they must be crowded together in masses, that in the case of 
VQch fish as trout, whose capabilities are better known, would be 
regarded as impossible, and in the case of the perch must be consid- 
ered harmful to quite a degree. In natural spawning waters the fry 
would be under conditions wholly favorable for gaining strength, 
&nd its minute size would make it exempt from the dangers that 
attend the larger fry of trout and salmon. 

It seems probable that better results might be obtained if the pike 
perch eggs were taken when well eyed and scattered on what would 
tkpproximate the natural spawning beds of the fish. In shallow 
water, with a steadily rising temperature, they would hatch quickly 
and gain strength rapidly, and the dangers to which they might be 
exposed could hardly equal the dangers of hatching in jars and of 
transportation. 

Iq addition to what has been recommended, many other improve- 
ments are desired, and some should be pointed out as deserving 
early attention. A refrigerator should be built, as proper means of 
keeping the fish food never existed here; and this food spoils very 
qoickly, even if it reaches the hatchery in good condition, which is 
often not the case. The loss of food has never been large, but the 
indirect loss from feeding spoiled meat and the waste of time in 
handling it must be considerable. 

The road entering the grounds has for many years received but 
little attention, and is for a part of the way merely a cart path, hav- 
ing no ditches and obstructed by partly sunken boulders. The travel 



96 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Ib satficient to jastify a well-bailt road. Where the road crosses th« 
daoi the plank forming the facing of the dam toward the pond ii 
very rotten, and should be replaced. 

The condition of the water in the breeding pond, which this seasoi 
was bad, seems to indicate that the ponds and inflowing streams are 
used to their full capacity, and any extension in that direction is not 
likely to result in any gain in production, as with the addition of aoj 
new pond there is likely to be a corresponding loss in capacity of the 
older ponds, especially of the brood pond; but two of the lower 
group of springs, flowing in below the dam, are not yet utilized, and, 
though located where it is quite diflScult to make ponds, if the means 
could be provided to do the work, three ponds of about the average 
capacity could be built. The three ponds with three already built in 
the same locality would make a block of six, fed by unfailing springs, 
and not affecting or being affected by any of the others. This loca- 
tion is also favorable for development in other ways, as it is the most 
promising place for driving wells, which may provide a much-needed 
increase of water. The improvements recommended, and many not 
mentioned but deserving early attention, require to execute them an 
amount of work greatly in excess of what has been possible to accom- 
plish in past years with the allotted means. While no season here 
has passed without making good progress in putting the hatchery in 
the most productive condition, what is accomplished falls each year 
farther behind the requirements, because of the constant increase of 
routine work and greater amount of repair needed, both of which will 
demand additional attention in the future, leaving even less time for 
new work. 

The demands upon the hatchery have been such that its greatest 
capacity should have been reached several years ago, yet, at the rate 
which has been possible to develop it, this end may be several years 
in the future. 

It should be possible to execute some of this needed work either 
by increasing the allotment for regular work, or by making a special 
allotment for some of the more pressing matters, so that the largest 
output can be secured, while the urgent demand for it is so far from 
being satisfied. 

Respectfully submitted, Arthur Merrill, 

Superintendent Sutton Station. 

The usual routine work of hatching fry and sending the 
young fish out from the hatcheries at Winchester and Adams 
has been performed in the ordinary manner. There has been 
no occasion for improving these stations, and nothing seems 



(•;_ 



1 



tr 



i ■ '< 



i;»04.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 

feasible beyond keeping them in rei)air. It has been previously 
stated that they are solely what are asually ternied developing 
stations, — auxiliary hatcheries, made necessary by the former 
system of distribution of fry, through which each applicant 
bad to go to a station for his allotment of fish, and transport 
them thence at his own expense to the point where they were 
to be planted. For this reason the public demanded the 
establishment of stations so located as to give them reasonable 
access to the hatcheries, so that their personal expenses in the 
item of fish distribution would be somewhat less of an annual 
burden. Under present conditions there would be no reason- 
able excuse for the expenditure of money for such auxiliary 
stations, however much we may now need an additional first- 
-lass hatchery ; but, inasmuch as they have been constructed in 
the most durable manner, it is apparently more economical to 
\\ae them than to let them lie idle, since the transportation of 
fish eggs costs far less than the expense attending the move- 
ment of fry. There is consequently a saving to the State in 
utilizing the hatcheries already provided at Adams and Win- 
chester, so far as fry are concerned, since the outlay for super- 
intending the hatching is nominal. 

The work done and improvements made at Sutton and 
Ikdley are detailed in the reports of the superintendents of 
those stations. It is only necessary to say here that every- 
t^g practicable has been done at the Sutton station to improve 
and utilize its natural resources. The introduction of new 
pipes for the carriage of water to the hatchery, tubs, etc., was 
among the important improvements of the year. Little or 
nothing in the way of permanent improvement has been at- 
tempted at Hadley. There is, apparently, no justification for 
special eftort or outlay in this direction. The willows planted 
wound the ponds for shade have grown well ; in a short time 
they will be large enough to provide much protection to the 
ta)ut in warm weather. 

A change of superintendents at the Iladley station, due to 
the unexpected resignation of Supt. W. D. Tripp and the ap- 
pointment of W. R. Collins, led to some differences in man- 
agement which are believed to be advantageous. 
The following repprt of Air. Collins, superintendent of the 



4 






98 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. ! 

Hadlej station, gives details of the work prosecuted at that 
hatchery : — 

I was appointed as superintendent at the Hadley hatchery on 
March 16, in place of Mr. William D. Tripp, who resigned, and left 
here on the 1 6th. Previoas to this time I had been for two weeks at the 
station as assistant, and had thus gained some knowledge of the status 
of affairs at the hatchery before assuming responsible control of tt. 

From such information as I was able to glean, the condition of the 
work at the beginning of the year was as follows : — 

There were on hand 429 adult brook trout; 1,100 young brook 
trout, which became yearlings in the spring ; 127 four-year-old brown 
trout; 339 adult rainbow trout; and 78 four-year-old landlocked 
salmon. 

The adult brook trout and the salmon were in the large pond, the 
yearling brook trout in section pool No. 4 and the larger pool next to 
the pond, the brown trout in the wooden pens below the dam, and the 
rainbow in sections Nos. 1, 2 and 3. There were also 492 rainbow 
trout fingerlings, which were put into the wooden pens below the dam 
last winter. The adult rainbows were transferred to the large pond 
as soon as we got all the eggs from them, the last of which were not 
taken until March 29, owing to the extreme cold of the winter, which 
delayed ovarian development. 

During the spawning season of 1903-04, up to and including March 
14, 1904, there were 241,500 eggs taken at the hatchery, and after 
this time we got 77,000 rainbow eggs, making a total of 318,500 eggs 
for the season. 

The eggs were divided as follows: 153,000 brook trout, 60,000 
brown trout and 105,500 rainbow trout. 

During the process of incubation and hatching there were lost a 
total of 30,071 as eggs or young fry, or not quite 10 per cent. 

Of the rainbow trout eggs taken, 75,000 were sent to the Sutton 
hatchery after they had eyed out. The balance of the fry were all in 
a healthy condition on April 15, and, barring the small losses caused 
from what appeared to be inflammation of the gills, and from other 
causes commonly encountered in the work, we had on hand at that 
time a fine lot of large fry for distribution. 

On April 20 we commenced the annual work of distribution, all the 
fry being sent out under charge of Deputy Dennis F. Shea. Brooks 
were stocked in various towns of this section of the State, and from 
all to whom the fry were consigned Mr. Shea brought back the most 
favorable reports of their appreciation of the fish. The oldest brook 
trout fry had attained a really extraordinary size at the time of dis- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 99 

tribation, and caused considerable surprise as well as satisfaction to 
those who received them. The other fry were all of good size, and 
were none the less in favor with the recipients. 

The favorable reports that came in from all quarters, concerning 
the size and condition of the fry at the time of distribution, goes to 
prove that this is without a doubt a fine station for raising fry ; but 
the lamentable deficiency of water still prevents us doing anything 
farther tow^ards trying to raise fry to the fingerling stage. 

After the season of distribution was over we put out into the four 
section pools at the upper end of the grounds 40,000 fry, viz., 10,000 
brook trout in each of the pools Nos. 1 and 3, 10,000 brown trout in 
pool No. 2 and 10,000 rainbow trout in pool No. 4. 

Before we placed the fry in the pools we made some floats of laths 
and pat them at the head of the pools, to give shade to the young 
fish. They seemed to enjoy hiding under these floats, and also under 
the shade of the young willow trees which were planted last year 
along the edges of the pools. These willows have thrived well, and 
bid f au" to furnish a lot of shade to the fish that are in the pools in the 
summer months. 

After the fry were placed in the pools they were looked after very 
closely, and coaxed until I could get them to bunch up instead of 
scattering all over the pool at the time of feeding. They received 
their regular three meals daily, and at the usual hours, with rare ex- 
ception. Still, with all the care bestowed upon them, the fish began 
to drop off gradually, and every day I could see quite a number of 
dead fry fioating on the water. The loss was probably greater than 
I realized, and no doubt numbers of the fish were hidden by the 
masses of vegetation in the pools ; for when we came to seine out the 
fiogerlings, we found only a total of 760 out of 40,000 fry. These 
were divided as follows: 462 brook trout, 162 brown trout and 136 
rainbow trout. 

This alarming mortality among the young fish goes far toward 
discouraging any future attempt to raise fingerlings here. What the 
eaose of this decimation is has not yet been determined, so far as I 
am aware. 

In May we were favored with a visit from Mr. Jocelyn, a special- 
ist who makes a study of fish diseases, and who while here made 
microscopical examinations of some of the young fry in the hatching 
hoQse. 

Shortly after the distribution of fry, Commissioner Delano paid a 
visit to the hatchery, when we made a change in the location of some 
of the fish. 
We drew off the largest one of the six pools at the head of the 



100 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

pond, and cleaned out the mud and refuse. Then we seined the pooU 
holding the yearling brook trout, and transferred them to the large 
pool. We then drew down the section pools and cleaned oat the 
disagreeable black mud, sticks, etc., after which we put on a coating 
of clean sand about four or five inches deep. This gave the pools a 
clean, bright appearance, and put them in much better condition to 
receive the young fish which we put out, as heretofore mentioned. 

We had 127 large brown trout which had wintered in the wooden 
pens below the dam. Thinking they were in rather close qaarters 
for fish of their size, I transferred them to the pool between the 
sections and the pond. They seem to have enjoyed the change, and 
have no doubt done better than in their former quarters. 

During the spring and summer we were caused considerable annoy* 
ance from fish-eating birds and other natural enemies of the fish. In 
the early summer I saw quite a number of fishhawks and herons in 
the neighborhood of the ponds, but they were so wary that it was 
hard work to get a shot at them. As the summer advanced these 
large birds grew scarce, but there were plenty of those little pests, 
the kingfishers, present at all times ; they ate great numbers of the 
young fry. Superintendent Merrill of the Sutton hatchery paid me 
a visit the first of May, and recommended the use of pole traps, 
in the same manner that he used them last summer. I made the ex- 
periment, and found it to be very profitable, for by the use of the 
traps in this way I caught a number of birds ; I took 13 kingfishers, 
8 bitterns and 1 great blue heron. This latter bird was a very fine 
specimen, measuring, when shot, 5 feet 7 inches from tip to tip of 
the spread wings ; he had been a serious menace to our fish. 

During the summer I received visits from a few scientific gentle- 
men, who were naturally interested in the work because of its scien- 
tific value. I did what I could to explain the dififerent phases of the 
work, and, while imparting some knowledge of local conditions to 
them, I gained from them some information which will, I trust, prove 
valuable to the station. The hatchery appears to be interesting and 
instructive to the average citizen in this section of the State. Gen- 
erally on pleasant Sunday afternoons during the summer from 10 to 
80 people would come from different points to visit the station, often 
for the special purpose of seeing the fish fed. Many came two or 
three times, and in this way, as well as by their words, showed their 
appreciation of the work the State is doing in this direction. 

I furnished specimens to Mt. Holyoke College once, for use in 
their zoology classes. They had at that time 1 two-year-old brook 
trout, 100 trout fry and 50 eyed eggs. 

W. Raymond Collins, 

SupeHnte^ident Hadley SUUion. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 101 

Ltist of Ponds stocked, — Thirty great ponds of the State 
have been stocked with food fish suitable to the varying condi- 
tions in the ponds, but all were desirable varieties for game 
or food ; and regulations controlling fisheries for three years 
have been applied, in conformity to the provisions of section 19, 
chapter 91 of the Revised Laws. Such regulations were, how- 
ever, omitted in cases where a pond was restocked that had 
been stocked within three years, and sindlar provisions of con- 
trol had already been applied to it. 

Sixteen of the ponds were stocked for the first time, or were 
restocked upon petition, in accordance with law, for the second 
time. Of the latter there were 5, — an increasing number, 
which is evidence of the growing popularity of the law mak- 
ing possible a continuance of the conservative regulations 
applied, and the resultant continuance of a reasonable supply 
of fish, instead of the waters being practically barren of fish life. 
Following are the names and location of ponds stocked for 
tiie first time, and the species of fish put into them : Massa- 
poag Lake, Sharon, pike perch ; Long Pond and Little Long 
Pond, Plymouth, were stocked with pike perch and brown 
tront; Packard Pond,^Athol, landlocked salmon ; Goose Pond, 
Chatham, Baker's Pond, Orleans, and Great Herring Pond, 
Plymouth, were stocked with brown trout; Billington Sea, 
Rymouth, Quannapowitt Lake, Wakefield, Baddacook Pond, 
Groton, and Sheep Pond, Brewster, were stocked with rain- 
bow trout. 

The following were stocked for the second time, and the 
fishing therein reregulated, under section 19, chapter 91 of 
tfie Revised Laws : Long Pond, Tewksbury, and Pleasant 
Pond, Wenham, were stocked with pike perch ; Long Pond, 
Freetown, with brown trout; Great Pond, North Andover, 
and Forest Lake, Palmer, were stocked with rainbow trout. 

The following ponds, with regulations of which were in 
force at the time, were restocked in accordance with the 
policy of the commission to do all possible to increase the 
abundance of fish in so-called closed ponds : Forest Lake, 
Pahner, pike perch and adult brook trout ; Round Pond, 
Pahner, pike perch ; Massapoag Lake, Groton, pike perch and 
landlocked smelt; Spectacle Pond, Littleton, brown trout. 



102 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

pike perch and landlocked smelt; Fort Pond, Littleton, pike 
perch; Quabbin Lake, Greenwich, brown trout, pike perch 
and landlocked smelt; North Pond, Orange, pike perch; 
Cranberry Pond, Spencer, landlocked smelt; Laurel Lake, 
Lee, brown trout and landlocked smelt ; Lake Chaubunagan- 
gamaug, Webster, adult trout ; Neck Pond, Barnstable, land- 
locked smelt ; White Pond, Concord, Hampton Pond, Westfield, 
and Pearl Lake, Wrentham, brown trout; and Bock Pond, 
Georgetown, landlocked smelt eggs. 

In addition to the above, Hoosicwhisick Pond in the Blue 
Hill reservation and Lake Quinsigamond in Worcester were both 
stocked, but not closed, making a total of 32 ponds stocked. 

Uniform regulations have been applied. These regulations 
prohibit, for three years from date of issuance, ^*all fishing 
from the first of November to the first of June of each j'^ear. 
Fishing is permitted with single^ hook and hand line, or line 
(with single hook) attached to a rod or pole held in the hand, 
on Monday, Wednesday and Saturday of each week, from the 
first day of June to the first day of November of each year, 
while the regulations are in force." A penalty of $20 for 
violation of these regulations has been .fixed by the commis- 
sioners, in accordance with law. 

What Ponds shall be stocked? — The petitions filed, de- 
manding the stocking of ponds which had been assigned for 
the water supply of towns and cities, and the attempts made 
by some of the water boards to control or prohibit fishing in 
such ponds, through certain regulations promulgated by them- 
selves or by boards of health, raised anew the question of the 
constitutional rights of the people in the matter of fishing or 
enjoying other public rights in great ponds of the State on the 
one hand, and the powers of water boards under various acts 
of the Legislature on the other, — a question that is trouble- 
some to the public and to this commission, and which ought 
to be authoritatively settled. 

It is true that the late Hosea M. Knowlton, while holding 
the position of Attorney-General of the Commonwealth, when 
considering a question of the public rights in a pond assigned 
by statute as a water supply of a town, declared that : ** It is 
well settled that the statute authorizing the town to take Cape 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 103 

Pond does not take away any public rights in said pond, ex- 
cepting so fiar as they are necessarily lost in the exercise of 
the right conferred upon the town to use the waters of the 
pond as a source of water supply. The right of fishing remains 
unimpaired, as well as all other public rights, subject to the 
limitations I have stated." 

The same distinguished authority also gave it as his opinion 
that ^<the town has no right to obstruct the passage of fish, 
unless it can show that the waters of the pond are thereby 
rendered unsuitable for drinking purposes." If this is a cor- 
rect interpretation of public rights, then it follows that towns 
and cities, or any agency thereof, have no legal right to pro- 
hibit or control fishing in great ponds of the State that are 
used for a water supply, unless it can be clearly shown that 
fishing makes the waters fished in '^unsuitable for drinking 
purposes." And ^' the burden of showing this fiwjt is upon the 
town," according to the authority quoted. 

It is regrettable that the opinion given by Mr. Knowlton 
fidls to indicate whether or not it is the duty of the State 
to take legal proceedings against municipalities which have 
seemingly invaded public rights by alleged prohibition of or 
attempts at control of fishing in ponds stocked by the Common- 
wealth, without showing clearly to this commission that such 
action was necessary to preserve the purity of the water <' for 
drinking purposes." In consequence of this omission, and the 
general assumption that the State should make an issue of this 
matter, the commission has been besought to act in various 
directions, especially in the matter of stocking water supply 
ponds, with the evident hope on the part of some that a contest 
in the courts for the determination of the respective authority 
of the State and the municipalities in the right to control fish- 
ing under the various water supply acts of the Legislature may 
be precipitated. Such a contest would necessarily be costly 
and troublesome, and jnight be the cause of firiction between 
those desirous of being at peace with each other and extending 
to each other every courtesy that good will can prompt. For 
these reasons, anything in the nature of a conflict of authority, 
which would make a resort to the courts necessary on the part 
of any one, would be greatly deplored. 



104 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

MeaDtime, the situatioD is clearly embarrassiDg. The law 
(section 19, chapter 91, Revised Laws) is mandatory regard- 
ing the stocking of ponds. It provides that, when a petition 
has been properly presented, requesting that '' a great pond" 
be stocked, <^ the commissioners . . . shall cause the waters 
of such pond to be stocked with such food fish," etc. ; and 
** they shall thereupon prescribe . . . regulations relative to 
the fishing in such ponds and their tributaries. ..." 

If, then, a great pond of the State continues to be such^ so 
fiftr as fishing is concerned, after it is legally assigned as a water 
supply, then it is evidently the duty of the commission to 
comply with the mandate of the law when a request to stock it 
is presented in due and proper form ; and it is dearly the duty 
and right of the commission to ^^ prescribe . . . regulations 
relative to the fishing " therein. There can be no question 
about this, and for this reason it is difficult to see how a re- 
grettable oontlict of authority can be avoided if we comply with 
the law^ and some other agency with eqital authority of law 
attempts to do what the law commands us to perform. 

It is therefore evident that the Legislature should take action 
that will settle this question. It should declare either that the 
assignment of a pond as a water supply takes away from the 
people no right of fishing or other public right, so long as 
fishing, sailing, etc., is pursued in a manner that does not 
cause pollution of the water; or else it should clearly state 
that a water supply pond is not a great pond of the State, so 
far as public rights are concerned, and when assigned for such 
a purpose is thereafter to be the property of a corporation, to 
be controlled by the water board of the town or city it supplies, 
and the public have no constitutional rights therein. 

The acts of water boards in prohibiting fishing, boating, 
shooting, etc., on certain ponds, seem to have been taken on 
the presumption that it was the intent of the Legislature, in 
making assignments for water supply, to absolutely take away 
from the public all rights they had theretofore enjoyed, and to 
which they are still entitled, if the opinion of the late eminent 
Attorney-General Knowlton is of any value. In view of this, 
and because it is evidently unwise to put fish into a pond 
from which the public are or may be excluded, it seems highly 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 105 

important that this matter should be definitely settled by 
legislation. Meantime, we have deemed the matter of suf- 
ficient importance to request the Attorney-General to furnish 
us with an opinion on the chief points at issue, in order that 
we may be able to carry on our work with a full knowledge of 
public rights in the ponds (or lack of them), and also with an 
authorized definition of our responsibility and authority under 
the law. It is also desirable that the limitations upon water 
boards should be clearly and authoritatively established. 

While it may be conceded that the preservation of the 
purity of drinking water is of practically paramount impor- 
tance, there is serious question if public rights should be reck- 
lessly invaded, on the pretext of securing this. The fullest 
possible proof should be submitted to proper authority that no 
other means can be found to accomplish needful results ; and, 
at least, this commission should be relieved from the respon- 
sibility of stocking water supply ponds over which it cannot 
exercise control of fishing. Either this or the right to use 
great ponds of the State for a water supply should be aban- 
doned. At any rate, the present embarrassing and unnecessary 
condition should not longer exist. 

The following exhaustive opinion of the Attorney-General 
throws a clear light upon the status of water supply ponds, 
and shows beyond question that the assignment of a pond for 
water supply by the Legislature immediately changes the 
status of a great pond of the State. It therefore appears that 
it is thereafter impracticable for this commission to completely 
carry out the mandates of section 19, chapter 91 of the Revised 
Laws. This })eing the case, it seems wiser — indeed, impera- 
tive — that we shall not hereafter attempt to stock ponds that 
are used for water supply purposes, since it is evident that we 
cannot exercise control over them, and, the rights of fishery 
are subordinate to those for which a pond has been assigned. 

Decision of the Attorney- General. 

Office of the Attorney Genekal, 

Boston, Nov. 2.% Um. 

Joseph W. Collins, Esq., Chainnan, Department of Fisheries and Game, 

Dear Sir : — You have required my opinion upon the effect which 
certain rales and regulations made by the State 3oard of Health, 



106 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

under Revieed Laws, chapter 75, section 113, may have upon the 
duty of the Fish and Game Commission, under the provisions of 
Revised Laws, chapter 91, section 19. 

Revised Laws, chapter 75, section 112, is as follows: — 

The state board of health shall have the genei*al oversight and care of 
all inland waters and of all streams and ponds used by any citj', town or 
public institution or by any water or ice company in this commonwealth 
as sources of water supply, and of all springs, streams and water courses 
tributary thereto. It shall be provitled with maps, plans and documents 
suitable for such purposes, and shall keep records of all its transactions 
rclatiTe thereto. 

Section 113 reads : — 

Said board may cause examinations of such waters to be made to ascer- 
tain their purity and fitness for domestic use or their liability to impair the 
interests of the public or of persons lawfully using them or to imperil the 
public health. It may make rules and regulations to prevent the pollution 
and to secure the sanitary protection of all such waters as are used as 
sources of water supply. 

Revised Laws, chapter 91, section 19, provides that: — 

'I'he commissioners, upon the petition of the mayor and aldermen of a 
city or of the selectmen of a town within which a great pond or a portion 
thereof is situated, or of thirty or more inhabitants thereof, shall cause the 
waters of such pond to be stocked with such food fish as they judge to be 
best suited to such waters. They shall thereupon prescribe, for a period 
not exceeding three years, such reasonable regulations relative to the fish- 
ing in such ponds and their tributaries, with such penalties, not exceeding 
twenty dollars for one offence, as they deem to be for the public interest, 
and shall cause such regulations to be enforced. Five hundred dollars 
shall be annually appropriated by the commonwealth to carry out the 
provisions of this section. 

This section was amended by Statutes of 1903, chapter 274, which 
authorized the commission to restock such ponds with food fisli. 

The facts submitted in your communication are applicable to 
North Watuppa Pond and its tributaries, which is used by the city 
of Fall River as a source of water supply. 

Acting under the authority of Revised Laws, chapter 75, section 
1 13, the State Board of Health has made certain rules and regulations 
governing North Watuppa Pond and its tributaries, of which only 
section 14 is material to the present question. 

14. No person shall bathe in, and no person shall, unless permitted by 
a special regulation or by a written permit of the Watuppa water board of 
the city of Fall RivlBr, fish in, or send, drive or put any animal into North 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 107 

Watuppa Pond, so called, said pond being in the city of Fall River and the 
town of Westport, and used by said city as a source of water supply. No 
person other tlian a member of said Watuppa water board, its officers, 
agents or employees, or public officers whose duties may so require, shall, 
unless so permitted by regulation or permit of said board, enter or go, in 
any boat, skiff, raft or other contrivance, on or upon the water of said pond, 
nor shall enter or go upon, or drive any animal upon, the ice of said pond. 

Your letter also states that the board of health for the city of Fall 
River has also ^established rules and regulations relating to North 
Watnppa Pond, in substance like those above quoted ; but, inasmuch 
as it is the clear intendment of Revised Laws, chapter 75, sections 
112 to 130, to place the entire regulation of sources of water supply 
within the sole jurisdiction of the Slate Board of Health, 1 do not 
regard the local regulations referred to as material upon the matter 
of your inquiry. It is true that local boards may still control and 
abate nuisances which may be found within their jurisdiction, and 
aiK>n or adjacent to great ponds, whether or not such ponds are used 
as sources of water supply (see Stone v. Heath, 179 Mass. 388) ; but 
there is no statutory authority for the establishment by them of any 
permanent rules or regulations relating to sources of water supply. 
Such regulations, therefore, can have no effect upon, the duties of the 
fish and game commission. 

The |X>wer of the State Board of Health to make rules and regula- 
tioDB is conferred in order ''to prevent" the pollution and ''to 
secure" the sanitary protection of great ponds which are used as 
sources of water supply. This is a police regulation, and, in so far 
as such rules and regulations are necessary for the preservation of 
the purity of the water, ihey will take precedence of general statutes 
regulating the rights of the public in great ponds. The fact that a 
great pond has been taken as a source of water supply, however, 
does not in and of itself necessarily deprive the public of the right 
of fishing, or, indeed, of any other right which may be exercised 
without interfering with th& use of the pond as a source of water 
supply (see Rockport't;. Webster, 174 Mass. 385 ; Opinion of Attor- 
ney-General, Dec. 6,1900; Attorney-Generars report, 1900, page 
111). 

It mast be assumed, therefore, that the rules and regulations made 
by the State Board of Health, under authority of Revised Laws, 
chapter 75, section 113, were based upon some finding or adjudica- 
tion by sach Board that the use by the public of the waters so regu- 
lated, for lioating, fishing or taking ice, is or is likely to become a 
source of pollution, and an injury to the water taken therefrom for 
the purposes of water supply, in which case the rules and regulations 
are authorized, and are binding upon the public. 



108 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

It remains to consider the effect of this rule or regulation upon 
Revised Laws, chapter 91, section 19. This statute is mandatory, 
and imposes a duty upon the Fish and Game Commissioners to stock 
the waters of a great pond whenever a petition of the prescribed 
character is addressed to them ; yet, if the requirement of the sec- 
tion is absolute, it would follow, in the case of North Watoppa 
Pond, that upon petition they would be required to stock such pond 
without the authority to use a boat, if a boat were necessary, in 
distributing the fish ; and the petitioners would not .be permitted to 
derive any benefit therefrom unless the permission of the Watuppa 
Water Board of the city of Fall River was obtained. Moreover, it 
is within the bounds of possibility that at any time the State Board 
of Health may absolutely forbid fishing and boating, and thus render 
the operation of stocking such pond not only useless to the public, 
but conceivably injurious to the waters of the pond as a source of 
water supply. 

In view of these contradictions, it seems to me impossible to bold 
that any duty under Revised Laws, chapter 91, section 19, rests upon 
the Fish and Game Commission to stock a pond used as a source of 
water supply, and upon the public enjoyment of w;hich, rules and 
regulations of the State Board of Health similar to those under con- 
sideration have been imposed. In other words, a great pond which 
is set apart as a source of water supply is, in a measure, withdrawn 
from the status of a great pond, and all public rights attaching 
thereto are subordinated to the single use to which the Legislature 
has devoted it. It is true that to a limited extent other public rights 
therein may be still exercised ; but the jurisdiction of the Fish and 
Game Commission is so seriously affected, that> in my opinion, the 
mandatory language of section 19 would not be applicable ; and the 
commission must be permitted to use its discretion in determming 
whether or not, in consideration of the existing rules and regulations 
of the State Board of Health, it is advisable or proper to comply 
with a petition for stocking such a great pond. 

Very truly yours, Herbert Parker, 

Attorney' General. 

In view of this decision by the Attorney-General, it is 
announced that this comniission will decline to stock a great 
pond which is being used as a source of water supply. 

Attention may justly be called to the petitions that liave 
been filed, asking for the stocking of private ponds, that are 
gravely declared to be " great ponds of the State '' by the peti- 
tioners. Whether this is done through ignorance, or with the 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 109 

intent of fraudulently acquiring something from the State, we 
are unable to say ; but there have been cases in which the 
ponds were so clearly not great ponds of the State, that it is 
difficult to have a high conception of the intelligence or the 
honesty of purpose behind the effort to get them stocked free 
of cost. So large a percentage of the applications have been 
for private ponds, that the conmiission has found it necessary 
to Mefer stocking any pond until it has had opportunity to 
examine it, or at least to satisfy itself that it is, naturally, a 
great pond of the State, and entitled to consideration as such. 
We cannot undertake to put fish into any waters where there 
is question of public rights being disturbed by private or cor- 
porate authority, unless the law compels such action. 

Rivern stocked. — Taunton Great River was stocked with 
more than 3,000,000 shad, that number having been put into 
Assowompsett Lake and its tributaries, which are head waters 
and natural spawning grounds of this river. The head waters 
of Parker Biver — Crane Pond — were stocked with exceeding 
3,000,000 of ^shad fry. This is the first time this river has 
been stocked with this species ; but the Taunton Great River 
was stocked two years ago with shad, and it is reasonable to 
assume that we shall shortly learn of adult fish of this species 
appearing in the spring run in increasing numbers. 

Examination of Ponds. — The work of examining ponds, in 
order to secure sufficient data to enable us to stock them intel- 
ligently, was continued as usual. The presentation of peti- 
tions alleging that certain private ponds are great ponds of the 
State, and urging us to stock them, is, as stated elsewhere, an 
additional reason why ponds should be examined before any 
fish are put into them by the State. 

Twenty-two ponds have been visited, and examinations were 
made in every case where a boat was available, and the ponds 
were sufficiently large to justify official consideration of this 
kind. In one case it was quickly seen that three ponds at 
Attleborough were not only small, but artificial as well ; one 
pond that was examined at Sandwich, because the claim was 
urged that it was a great pond of the State, was subsequently 
found to be artificial ; and three ponds in the Blue Hill reser- 
vation of the metropolitan park system were visited, and such 



110 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

examinations were made as seemed necessary to determine 
their leading characteristics, and thus to enable us to decide 
what species of fish ought to be put into them. In five years 
91 ponds have been examined suflBciently to determine (1) 
if they are great ponds of the State, and (2) to acquire suffi- 
cient knowledge of them otherwise to enable us to stock them 
intelligently. In all, more than 100 ponds have been visited. 

Following are notes relating to ponds visited in 1904 : — 

Massapoag Lake, Sharon : This is a fine, oval-shaped pond^ 
of considerable size, the banks being wooded in some places^ 
while in other sections there are cleared &rms or lawns. 
Around the lake are numerous fine cottages and one hotel, also 
a large icehouse. Another icehouse which has been located on 
the edge of the pond was burned shortly before the visit of the 
commission. The principal species of fish are red and white 
perch, black bass, pickerel, catfish, shiners and roach or sun- 
fish. The bottom is soft black mud over large areas, and gen- 
erally in the deeper sections, in which, however, patches of 
clean bottom sand or gravel are found. At the time of examina- 
tion, on May 23, 1904, there was no indication of much vegeta- 
tion in the water, such as pickerel grass and lilies. It is probable 
that pickerel grass is abundant in midsummer, and that a few 
lilies may grow along the edges of the pond. The tempera- 
tures taken indicated that there are springs at the bottom of 
the pond, since the temperature in »ome places is much lower 
than it is in others at the same depth. We were told that there 
are bars across one end, and that in low stages of water in 
midsummer parts of them are dry. The temperatures obtained 
were as follows: air, 80^ F. ; surface, 64^; depth of 12 feet, 
f)40; 17 feet and 20 feet, 62°; 30 feet, 61^; 36 feet, 60^; 39 
feet, 56° ; 42 feet, 58^. 

Upper Shawme Pond, Sandwich : This pond was examined 
on June 20. A careful examination, supplemented by in- 
quiry, developed the fact that it is wholly an artificial pond. 
Thus, although it is now of considerable size, it must be classed 
as a private pond. 

Long Pond, Plymouth: This is a beautiful pond, about a 
mile and a half long and fi:om one-fourth to two-thu-ds of a 
mile or more wide, the width varying considerably, owing to 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. Ill 

coves or bays along the sides of the pond. The shores of this 
pond are generally bold and wooded, although not remarkably 
high at any point. The shores are sandy as a rule, but with 
cobblestones, pebbles and gravel mixed with sand in many 
places. The shores &11 off steeply, with clear, sandy and 
gravel bottom, and depths ranging from 25 to 35 feet not far 
from the land. One brook enters the pond. There are sev- 
eral fine summer houses along the shores of the pond, and 
others which are less pretentious. These residences are em- 

■ 

bowered in trees as a rule, though in some cases there are 
cleared fields. The principal species of fish are white and 
red perch, small-mouth black bass, which are scarce. There 
are a few pickerel. We were told that there were no bull- 
heads or catfish, and no sunfish or shiners, but an abundance 
of minnows. The pond has the greatest depth of any yet ex- 
amined by this commission, and a range of temperature that 
makes it suitable for any species of game fish. The following 
temperatures were obtained on June 21 : surface, 70° F. ; at 
depths of 18 and 25 feet, 68° ; 30 feet, 59° ; HI feet, 54° ; .s2 
feet, 58°. The temperature at the bottom apparently fluctu- 
ates considerably, to such a degree that, as indicated above, 
a temperature may be obtained in one place that is much 
lower than it is in another, even though the depth is greater 
at the latter point. This pond is reputed to have a depth of 
over 100 feet, and no doubt the claim is true. On the occ^a- 
sion when it was examined, however, a threatened squall pre- 
vented a careful search for the deepest water ; l)ut the depth 
and temperatures obtained were of a nature that did not require 
further research for the purposes of this commission. 

Great South Pond, Plymouth : This is a large and nearly 
circular pond, which has been taken as a water supply for tlie 
town of Plymouth. The principal species of fish are blaek 
bass, pickerel, white and red perch, catfish and eels. Shores 
and bottom are sandv. There is a brook which connects Boot 
and Great South ponds, and another between Little South and 
Great South, About twenty cottages arc around this pond, 
the shores of which are considerably varied, being low in some 
places and hilly in others, but generally wooded. There are 
no pond lilies except in some of the coves. The bottom is 



112 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

generally clean, but there is more or 'less 'Silt. The tempera- 
tures obtained on June 21 were as follows : surface, 70^ F. ; 
at a depth of 25 feet, 68° ; at 48 feet, which was the maximum 
depth obtained, temperatures of 60°, 65° and 66° were found. 

Ponkapog Pond, Blue Hill reservation, Milton : This is a 
large, shallow pond, about three-fourths of which is within 
the metropolitan park system at Blue Hill. It has well- 
wooded, low shores, and in places grassy shallows, barely out 
of water, which are covered with a dense growth of reeds, etc. 
It was visited on July 12, but no boat being available, it was 
not practicable to examine it. The following data, however, 
• were obtained from Hon. E. P. Whitney of the Board of 
Metropolitan Park Commissioners. The pond has a soft, 
muddy bottom for the most part, but in some small areas 
there are stones and gravel. It also has abundant aquatic 
vegetation. The depth does not exceed 10 feet in any place 
at the highest 3tages of water, and generally Avill not be over 
8 feet, while a large part of the pond has a depth that would 
not exceed 6 feet. The pond is noted for having large pick- 
erel and some yellow perch and black bass, although the latter 
species is not numerous. It is probable that the temperatures 
in midsummer would range from 75° F. to 80°. 

Turtle Pond, metropolitan park reservation, Hyde Park : 
This is a small, shallow pond, that was formerly known as 
Mud Pond, but is of considerable local value for fishing. It 
is resorted to by those who care to catch pickerel, perch, etc. 
The pond was visited on July 12, but inasmuch as there was 
no boat available, it was not examined. We learn, however, 
that it does not exceed 10 feet in depth, and has a muddy bot- 
tom, with pond lilies and other aquatic vegetation. It is 
probable that the temperature of the water in midsummer is 
not below 70° F., or 75° at the lowest. 

Hoosicwhisick Pond, Blue Hill reservation, Milton : This is 
a fine pond of 50 or 60 acres, on the metropolitan park res- 
ervation at Blue Hill, and in general lias low or sloping bank.s, 
which are well wooded, and as a rule rise gradually from the 
water. The shores are stony, pebbly and gravelly as a rule, 
but in places there are stretches of sand beach. One brook 
flows into the pond, and there is a small outlet which some- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 113 

times dries up in summer. The principal species of fish are 
pickerel,' pout or catfish, small yellow perch, sunfish and shin- 
ers, but the species chiefly sought by anglers are not abundant. 
The bottom in the deeper part of the pond is soft, black mud, 
but there appear to be [)atches of cleaner bottom near the 
odges ; and there is little or no aquatic growth, such as pond 
lilies and other aquatic gi'asses. When the pond was exam- 
ined, on July 12, the following temperatures were obtained : 
surface, 80° F. ; at a depth of 18 feet, (5(5^ ; 22 feet, 62° ; 26 
feet, 52^ ; 40 feet, 56^. The bottom temperatures indicate the 
presence of springs in places. 

Sheep Pond, Brewster : This is a large, natural pond, being 
about one and one-half miles long by one-quarter to one-half 
of a mile in width. For the most part the banks rise in steep 
hills and blufis, some of which are well wooded with scrub 
oaks ; but the majority of the bluffs are bare, and are simply 
steep, sandy hills, rising abruptly from the shore. The 
beaches are sandy, as a rule. There is very little aquatic 
vegetation. There is only one cottage near the pond. This 
pond is evidently deep ; presumably it may have a depth ot 
more than 100 feet, with probably sandy and gravelly bottom. 
It is evidently fed by springs, and presumably the temperature 
in the deepest portions is low. The principal species of fish 
are black bass, pickerel, white and yellow perch, sunfish and 
shiners. At the time this- pond was examined, on July 28, 
the surface temperature was 76^ F. There was no proper 
opportunity to examine the pond, owing to the fact that no 
boat other than a tiny skifi' was available, and she was so small 
that it was dangerous to attempt an examination in the stiff 
breeze that prevailed. However, one sounding was made in 
40 feet, where a temperature of 74° was secured ; but, owing 
to the risk, the thermometer was down only a few seconds, 
and it is probable Jbhat it did not show the exact temperature 
of the water. 

Baker's Pond, Orleans : This is a pond of considerable size, 
^vith densely wooded banks all around it, but no cottages very 
near. There are, however, some shooting blinds. The pond 
has the appearance of being fed by springs. The shores are 
sandy, and it is probable that the bottoii) is also sandy. It 



114 FISH AND GAME, [Dec. 

has the appearance of being deep in the centre. There are a 
few lily pads in the shallow coves. The shores for the most 
part rise more or less steeply, bat are low and marshy in spote. 
The pond was visited July 28, but no boat being available, it 
was impracticable to make a careful examination of it. 

Goose Pond, Chatham : This is a natural pond of approxi- 
mately 150 acres, with generally steep, wooded shores ; bat in 
places there are bare, sandy blufis, rising abruptly from the 
beach, and in a few places the shores are low and boggy. 
The beaches are sandy as a rule, and presumably the bottom 
is the same. The bottom falls off steeply into deep water. 
No brooks empty into the pond, and it is evidently fed by 
springs. There is very little aquatic vegetation, but there are 
a few reeds and other aquatic grasses in shallow places near 
the shore. There are no camps or cottages around this popd. 
The. principal species offish are pickerel, yellow perch, catfish, 
sunfish and shiners. A careful examination of the pond could 
not be made, because no boat was available. 

Deantown Pond, Farmer's and Mechanic's Pond, Attle- 
borough : These ponds were visited by the late chairman on July 
21, and sufficient examination was made to determine the &ct 
that they are all flowed ponds, and are entirely artificial. 
They are all small and shallow, with depths probably ranging 
from 4 to 8 feet. The dams are from 8 to 10 feet high. The 
ponds were evidently originally flowed for milling purposes. 
The commission has on file a petition for stocking these ponds, 
but, inasmuch as the State has clearly no jurisdiction over 
them, no action of this kind could be taken. 

Crystal I^ke, Haverhill : This is a pond of considerable 
size, which was naturally a great pond of the State, but has 
been apparently flowed somewhat to increase its acreage, for 
the purpose of serving as a water supply for the city of Haver- 
hill. In the eastern section the water is shallow and warm, 
with muddy, grass-covered bottom as a rule, though in some 
places there are patches of stone, pebbles and gravel. Here 
there are many lily pads. The water is deepest in the western 
section>f and is reputed to be 70 feet deep in one spot. As a 
rule the bottom in this section is soft black mud, without 
grass ; but there are small patches of hard bottom, and some 
aquatic plants, such as lily pads and pickerel grass, near the 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 115 

shores or in coves where the water is comparatively shallow. 
The shores of the pond are generally stony or pebbly, bat there 
are patches of gravel. The banks rise gently from the water, 
and are well wooded. In ])laces where there are tall trees the 
banks have the appearance of being steep. There are a num- 
ber of cottages around the pond, but not much attempt has 
been made to clear places about them. In spring and fall 
there are two small brooks that empty into the pond, but these 
are dried up in summer. There is also a* small outlet when 
the pond is high. The principal species of fish are pickerel, 
yellow perch, catfish, sunfish, eels and shiners. On July 22y 
when the pond was examined, the following temperatures were 
obtained : surface, 80^ F. ; at a depth of 8 feet, 79° ; 10 feet, 
78^; 12 feet, 63° ; 38 feet, 52° ; 40 feet, 59° ; 46 feet, oG^ ; 
48 feet, 55^. The lastr-mentioned depth was the maximum 
depth obtained. It is evident, from the variation in tempera- 
tures, that the pond is largely or wholly fed by springs. 

Great Pond, North Andover : This is a fine pond of con- 
siderable size, that is used for a water supply. It is clear of 
aquatic vegetation to a large degree, if not entirely. The 
banks of the pond as a rule rise gently. There are some 
cleared areas, but for the most part the banks are well wooded 
down to the water, even where there are camps or summer 
houses, of which there are many. The bottom is chiefly soft 
black mud where the pond is deepest, but there are patches of 
stones and gravel, the hard bottom, however, being more in 
evidence near the shores than elsewhere. The beaches are 
mostly stony and gravelly. The principal species of fish are 
white and red perch, black bass, pickerel, pout or catfish and 
sunfish. It is said that before the pond was stocked with black 
bass, of which there are both the small-mouth and the large- 
mouth variety, shiners were abundant, but that now they are 
scarce. White perch are reputed to be large and abundant, 
and bass are also stated to be plentiful. On August 9, when 
the examination was made, the following temperatures were 
obtained : surface, 77° F. ; in depth of 13 feet, 74° ; 26 feet, 
66^; 30 feet, 650; 29^ feet, 62^; 28 feet, 63^ ; 32 feet, 61° ; 
38 feet, 65°. The fluctuations in temperature indicate the 
presence of springs at the bottom of the pond. 

Pearl Lake, Wrentham : Pearl I^ake, or Whiting Pond, in 



116 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Wrentham, is naturally a great pond of the State, but its area 
has been somewhat enlarged by flowage, caused by the building 
of a dam 3 to 5 feet high at the outlet of the pond. The shores 
are generally stony, pebbly and gravelly, and the banks rise more 
or less gently, although in some places there are steep bluffs. 
At other points there are short stretches of low, marshy shore. 
The banks are mostly well wooded, but there are cleared area^ 
of greater or less extent. The lake is a fitvorite summer resort, 
where people go to enjoy picnics, etc., as well as to spend the 
summer months. There are many cottages and camps around 
the lake, some of which are i-ather pretentious. In the middle 
of the pond are two small islands, on each of which is a cottage. 
There are inlets, some of which are more or less shrunken or 
dry in summer, and an outlet caused by the overflow at the 
dam. The bottom is extremely variable. Patches of hard 
gravel or stones and soft mud alternate at short distances. 
There is some pickerel grass on the l>ottom, but very few lily 
pads except in some of the shallow coves. The cliief species 
of fish are red and white perch, pickerel, l)lack bass, so-called 
''lake trout" (which are brown trout, with which the lake was 
stocked recently), pout or catfish, which are reputed to be 
plentiful, suckers, sunfish and shiners. The following tem- 
peratures were obtained on August 11, on which date the lake 
was examined : surface, 74° F. ; depth of 8 feet, 73° ; 15 feet, 
670; 28 feet, 54^; 22 feet, 62^; 20 feet, 70°; 32 feet, 58°; 
29 feet, 59°. The fluctuations in temperature indicate springs 
on the bottom of the lake. 

iVrchers Pond, "Wrentham : This is a fine, attractive pond, 
situated close to Wrentham Lake, and a tributary to the latter. 
For nine or ten months of the year a small brook runs from 
Archers Pond to Wrentham Lake, but in midsummer, when 
the water siirinks considerably through evaporation, there is 
only a small trickling rivulet (caused chiefly by seepage) that 
suggests connection between the two ponds. Archers Pond 
is a favorite summer resort for the people of the J^ttleboroughs 
and other contiguous manufacturing to\\Tis; is in general 
wooded, with gently rising banks. At one end of the pond 
there is a settlement and considerable cleared land, but gen- 
erally speaking the cottages or camps are built close to the 



1904.J PUBLIC DOCUjVIENT — No. 25. 117 

water s edge, and apparently an eflfort has been made not to 
disturb the foliage of the place. The water is very clear, with 
practically no apparent vegetation. It is reputed to have a 
depth of 70 feet, but this is doubtful. The principal species 
of fish are the red and white perch, black bass, pickerel, sun- 
fish and pout. The following temperatures were obtained on 
August 11, at which time the examination was made : surface, 
76^ F. ; depth of 30 feet, 64° ; 33 feet, oO^. 

Baddacook Pond, (iroton : This is a natural pond of con- 
siderable size, and is held in reserve for a water supply for the 
town of Groton. As a matter of fact, the water supply of the 
town is obtained from a large well close alongside of the pond, 
and the water of the latter is not now used. There is no dam 
or other artificial means of raising the water, so far as was 
seen. The pond has one inlet and one outlet, but is apparently 
largely fed by springs. The banks are divided between low, 
reedy stretches of shore, and coarse rocks, pebbles or gravel. 
The banks as a rule rise more or less gradually, in some places 
rather steeply. 1?hey are about equally divided between 
wooded areas and cleared spaces. There are four farmhouses 
near the pond, also two summer cottages and a pumping sta- 
tion. Aquatic grasses and lily pads are found in a few places 
in the shallow coves, but as a rule are not much in evidence. 
The bottom is generally soft black mud, but an occasional spot 
of hard bottom was found. There is a bar across the south- 
west end of the pond, where there are only 2 or 3 feet of 
water, but in other places the depth was fully up to the aver- 
age for ponds of this class. The principal species of fish are 
pickerel, yellow perch, pout or catfish, sunfish, chiven and 
shiners, and it is said that fish are generally not abundant. 
On September 6 the following temperatures were secured : 
sur&ce, 730 F. ; depth of 29^- feet, 64° ; 20 feet, m^ ; 35 feet, 
550 ; 40 feet, 58°; 42 feet, 54o. 

Crystal Lake, Gardner: This is u natural pond, about one 
and one-half miles long and one-half mile wide. It is situated 
in West Gardner, and is a beautiful and attractive feature of 
the locality. It is the source of water supply of the town, 
which is reputed to have a population of about 12,000. It is 
a favorite resort for boating, and is also utilized to some extent 



118 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

for fishing. We were informed that 'boating and fishing on 
this pond have always been permitted, despite the fact that it 
is used as a water supply. There is a cemetery located on the 
village end of one side of the lake ; on the opposite side is a 
club house and at the south end a pumping station, but there 
are no summer cottages, since the village is so near that there 
seems no occasion for these. The shores rise gently, but in 
some places to a considerable height. They are partly wooded, 
and on the unsettled portion of the banks bordering the pond 
the land is about equally divided between wooded and cleared 
sections. The pond is very clean and exceptionally free from 
lily pads and other aquatic grasses, although these may occur 
to a slight extent in the more shallow sections. Pickerel 
grass was found in depths of 10 to 15 feet. The shores are 
generally rocky, but the bottom is chiefly soft mud with few 
hard spots. There are two little inlets or tiny brooks which 
are dry in midsummer. The principal species of fish are pick- 
erel, black bass, pout or catfish, yellow perch, sunfish and 
shiners. At the time of examination, on' September 8, the 
following temperatures were obtained : surface, 68° F. ; depth 
of 16 feet, 66°; 28 feet, 660; 32 feet, 60°. The maximum 
depth obtained was 32 feet. 

Lake Quannapowitt, Wakefield : This is a large, natural 
pond, which, like Crystal Lake in Gardner, is so near the 
thickly settled portion of Wakefield that it is a much-fre- 
quented resort of the residents for boating and fishing. It is 
a reserve source of water supply for the town, but we are 
informed that it is not used for such a purpose at the present 
time, and fishing and boating have never been interfered with. 
Generally speaking, the banks of the pond are rather low, or 
at least they do not rise to any considerable height. They are 
about equally divided between clearings and wooded sections, 
or at least sections where there are a number of fine shade 
trees. There are many houses around the lake, which is 
practically in the settled section of Wakefield ; on one side, 
however, there is a cemetery. Much of the shore is rocky, 
naturally or artificially, but the bottom is apparently covered 
by soft mud. It is reputed to have one spot in which tliere 
is a depth of 15 to 20 feet, but there is doubt of the exisU^nce 



\ 



^ 1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 119 

of such a place, as many soundings were taken without any 
indication of a greater depth than 10 feet. Pickerel grass and 
other aquatic grasses were common on the bottom, but no 
weeds or lily pads were seen at the sur&ce, although such may 
occur on the surface in isolated shallow spots. The principal 
si>ecie8 of fish are white and yellow perch, big and small mouth 
blsick bass, pickerel, carp, pout, eels, sunfish and shiners. 
Formerly it was a spawning ground for alewivcs. As might 
readily be assumed, the water is warm. The following tem- 
peratures were obtained on September 12, when it was exam- 
ined : surface, 70^ F. ; depth of 8 feet, 70° ; 10 feet, 68°. 

Packard Pond, Orange : This is a natural great pond of the 
State, but is comparatively small in size, perhaps not exceeding 
30 or 40 acres in extent. Its acreage has been slightly in- 
creased by flowage, but not materially, due to the fact that the 
pond is situated in an amphitheatre of hills, and is what some 
of the local people designate as a ^' sink hole." As a natural 
consequence it has steep sides, and the bottom falls off abruptly 
to a depth of 20 to 30 feet close to the shore. The shores are 
gravel, and, so far as soundings were taken, indicated that the 
bottom is hard and generally of this gravelly nature. There 
are two or three camps located near the pond, the banks of 
which are generally well wooded. There is a single inlet and 
one outlet. At the time the pond was examined, on Septem- 
ber 22, the water was low, being down to about a point where 
it was before it was flowed. When it is at the maximum it is 
•about 15 feet higher. The pond is reputed to have a depth of 
45 to 50 feet when high, and this is probably a correct esti- 
mate. Packard Pond is remarkable for being exceedingly 
clean, so far as vegetable matter is concerned. The principal 
species of fish are yellow perch, pickerel, pout and sunfish. 
There are said to be no shiners and very few cattish. The 
following temperatures were obtained : * surface, 60° F. ; at a 
depth of 25 feet, 48° ; 30 feet, 46°. 

Pottapaug Pond, Dana : This is a natural pond of fair size. 
The east branch of Swift River empties into it and leaves it 

* At the time the examination was made there had been two or three days of 
cold weather for the season, and the air temperature at the time was down to 52**, 
- "Which probably influenced the surface temperature of the pond to some extent. 



120 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

as an outlet, but the flow is almost imperceptible, as a rule. 
There are, besides, two good-sized brooks and one small brook 
that empty into it. The shores are low in places and gently 
rising in others, and they are partially wooded, mostly with 
young growth. There is one farmhouse near the pond, and 
one cottage or camp. This is a markedly shallow pond, the 
depth not exceeding 9 feet in any place, so far as the examina- 
tion demonstrated, and a good many soundings were taken. 
The depth for the most part ranges from 4 to 7 feet. The 
bottom is soft mud, but the pond is reputed to have hard hot- 
tom near the shore in one or two places. Examination, how- 
ever, did not disclose anything of this kind. Pickerel graSvS 
or other aquatic grasses are abundant all over it, and there is 
a considerable quantity of lily })ads in the shallowest sections. 
The principal species offish are yellow {)erch, [uckerel, catfish, 
eels and shiners ; sunfish and suckers arc also found, but not 
in abundance. The pond was examined on September 23. 
which was the third of a series of cold days, during which the 
temperature of the air had been down to freezing, and at the 
time the examination was made was 52^. The temperatm-e 
of the surface of the pond was <>0^ F., and at a depth of 
9 feet, 57°. 

According to the report of the United States Fish Comnii>- 
sion for the year ending June 30, 1903, several of our State 
ponds were examined by Mr. Vinal X. Edwards of the Woods 
Hole station, in November, 1902. Inasmuch as the data 
gathered by Mr. Edwards supply the information we want, we 
venture to compile from the published notes such facts as we 
require. In doing this, it is proper to remark that the sur&ce 
temperature of the ponds at the time they were examined by 
Mr. Edwards was undoubtedly several degi'ees lower than it 
would be in summer, but we apprehend that the 1)ottom tem- 
perature had changed little, if any ; it probably remains sub- 
stantially the same tlu*oughout the year. 

Neck Pond, Barnstable : area, i)0 acres ; extreme depth, 
35 feet; 24 feet deep at 100 feet from shore. Gravelly bot- 
tom to depth of 2;') feet ; beyond that depth bottom sandy and 
covered with grass, very thick in places. Little animal life in 
grass. Caught yellow perch and minnows near shore in seine. 
" Other fish found in deeper parts of the pond are brook trout, 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 121 

black basS) several kinds of small fish and landlocked salmon. 
. . . When fishing for a few minutes in the middle of the 
pond with salt water shrimp, two sahnon were caught and two 
others were brought to the surface; then, the shrimp being 
expended and minnows being used, only large yellow perch 
were caught. It is reported that every one who has fished for 
perch with shrimp bait has taken some salmon." The tem- 
peratures obtained November 10 were " 46^ F. at surface, 44^ 
at bottom." 

Michaels Pond, Barnstable : area, 25 acres ; depth, 30 feet ; 
temperature November 11, 53° F. at surface and bottom. 
Shores gravelly, bottom hard, covered with grass ; no shade ; 
water not so clear as in other ponds ; no outlets or inlets ; water 
cannot be drawn off. Pond contains an abundance of yeUow 
peroh, homed pout and minnows. Seven years ago 5,000 
rainbow trout were planted, but none has since been seen. 

Grigsons Pond, Barnstable : length, one and one-quarter 
miles ; width, three-fourths to one mile ; half the pond is 80 
feet deep, the deep water close to shore ; temperature Novem- 
ber 10, 54° F. at surface, 52° F. at bottom ; summer tempera- 
ture said to reach 70°. Little shade ; very clear ; sides gravelly 
to depth of 30 feet, beyond that mostly hard bottom covered 
with grass ; no outlets or inlets ; water cannot be drawn off. 
Black bass, pickerel and yellow perch abundant ; a few brook 
trout said to occur. 

Mortality of Fish in Ponds. — Recently there has been much 
complaint of mortality of fish in ponds, especially in late spring 
and early sunmier. Press accounts have appeared of fish dying 
in ponds, of dead fish floating on the surface of lakes or being 
found in numbers along the shores of inland waters, where 
they soon became a nuisance unless they were quickly disposed 
of. Of course such mortality threatened large depletion of 
fish life in the interior waters, and a consequent diminution 
of the opportunities for sport or the obtainment of food. 
Under the circumstances, it is not remarkable that many of 
those interested in fishing, and naturally apprehensive of the 
result of such an apparent epidemic, should appeal to the com- 
mission for information as to the cause of the mortality, and 
likewise for a remedy, if obtainable. 

Keallzing the importance of the matter, both from an economic 



122 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and scientific point of view, measures were taken as promptly 
as possible * to make in(|uiries regarding it. Dr. George W. 
Field, then biologist of the commission, was sent to the west- 
ern part of the State to examine into the cause of complaints 
which had come from that direction. Much of the trouble had 
then passed, but he was able to discover one supposed cause of 
the fatality. 

After careful and extended search, three fish were found in 
Pontoosuc Lake still showing a slight e\adence of life, but 
lying belly up on the bottom of the pond. Examination of 
these showed a great number of larval cestode worms in the 
body cavity, in the walls of the stomach and in the liver. 
These worms appear to have been migrating from the stomach 
into the tissues, and may have been in such numbers as to 
cause the death of the fish in the same manner as the migration 
of trichinae causes death in man in cases of trichinosis. There 
is no danger to be feared from eating fish infested by these ces- 
todes, since it is not probable that they would live and develop 
in the human stomach and tissues. 

It is possible that these parasitic worms may have been the 
cause of much of the mortality last spring in Pontoosuc and 
Onota lakes and Cheshire reservoir. These waters were ex- 
amined by our biologist, who reported that the mortality was 
not due to the use of dynamite, poison and pollution of the 
water, or to spawning, but possibly to this cestode, about 
which little or nothing is known, and least of all a remedy 
for dealing with the difficulty. 

It has been evident, however, that there is more than one 
cause for the mortality %vhich has been so much in evidence, 
last year and this, in ponds and rivers of this State. Lack of 
reasonable supply of oxygen inr'the water has been one prolific 
cause of death to fishes. Dr. Field referred to this in his 
*« Preliminary report upon the cause of death of alewives in 
Mystic River and the Lower Mystic Lake, during May and 
June, 1908." These notes were published in our last report, 

* No action could be taken to incur the expense incident to an investigation of 
this matter until the money was available to pay for the outlays. Inasmuch, there- 
fore, as the final appropriation was not made until the last day of the legislativ^e 
session, — it became a law June 9, 1904, — it was not possible to investigate thia 
question of fish mortality as early as otherwise would have been practicable. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 123 

and the causes assigned for the conditions can be found 
therein. 

Meantinie, the attention of the commission has been invited 
to another cause of mortality to fish life in our fresh waters, 
viz., an excessive growth of certain forms of algte, their death 
and decay, and consequent diminution of oxygen in the water. 
It seems entirely reasonable that a superabundance of algal 
matter may account in large part for much destruction of 
fish life that would be scarcely explainable upon any other 
hypothesis. Experiments of purifying water by the addition 
of copper sulphate, carried on by Dr. Charles Harrington at 
Massapoag Lake, Sharon, the results of which are now under 
observation by the State Board of Health and by the biologist 
of this commission, are as yet incomplete. The conclusions 
may be discussed in a subsequent report. 

Fv^hicays. — The amendment of section 9, chapter 91 of the 
Sevised Laws, by chapter 365, Acts of 1904, was a long step 
in advance for the preservation of our native fishes or intro- 
duced species, the continued abundance of which depends upon 
the establishment of fishways or fish ladders to enable the fish 
to pass to the head waters of streams for the purpose of spawn- 
insc. The law as it now stands on the statute books is as 
follows : — 

The commissioners may examine all dams upon rivers where the 
law requires fishways to be maintained, or where in their judgment 
fishways are needed, and they shall determine whether the fishways, 
if any, are suitable and suflScient for the passage of the fish in such 
rivers, or whether in their judgment a fishway is needed for the pas- 
sage of fish over any dam ; and shall prescribe by an order in writing 
what changes or repairs, if any, shall be made therein, and where, 
how and when a new fishway must be built, and at what times the 
same shall be kept open, and shall give notice to the owners of the 
dams accordingly. The supreme judicial court, or the superior court, 
shall, upon the petition of the commissioners, have jurisdiction in 
equity or otherwise to enforce any order made in accordance with the 
provisions of this section, and to restrain any violation of such order. 

The hope was cherished that much might be accomplished 
this year in the establishment of new fishways. The demands 
in other directions, however, and the lack of funds to permit the 



124 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

commissioners to travel as much as usual, combined to prevent 
as much activity along this line as was hoped and expected. 
No serious harm is expected to result from the delay, since, 
>vith few exceptions, the most important points where fishwavs 
are needed are on the rivers which have been stocked with 
shad ; and, as the latter will not attain maturity and return to 
the waters where they were planted until they are three or four 
years old, it is anticipated there will be ample time to provide 
means for them to reach the head waters of the streams when 
the impulse of procreation compels them to seek the spawning 
grounds in our rivers. 

Necessary measures have been taken in other cases, either to 
secure the building of a fishway or the repairing of others. In 
one case it is feared the matter will have to be settled in the 
courts. 

Much needs to be done in the way of building fishways, but 
there is reason for anticipating that the near future may see 
satisfiekctory conditions, along this line that were not possible of 
attainment until the revision of the law. 

We have been urged to cause the construction of fishways 
on the Neponset Biver, on the ground that action was to be 
taken to purify the water of that stream. Without consider- 
ing the question that much time may be required for the waters 
of a stream so seriously polluted as the Neponset has been to 
become anything like pure, even if the continuance of pollu- 
tion is suspended, inquiry developed the fact that nothing ot 
importance has yet been done to check the pollution of the 
river. Under these circumstances, it naturally follows that 
we will do nothing in the direction of causing fishways to be 
built there. It would be reprehensible folly to compel the 
erection of fishways in a stream in the waters of which a fish 
cannot live. 

In our last report reference was made to the unsatisfactory 
location of the fishway at Lawrence. It now appears that 
even the passage of lampreys is probably interfered with by 
the sewer at the foot of the fishway. 

Under date of July 18, 1904, Mr. Thomas S. Hohnes ^vrites: 
" I was able to get only 70 lampreys this season, and I wanted 
over 200 to supply the demand." Mr. Holmes is superintend- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 125 

ent of the fishway, and has been for years. He has usually 
collected more or less lampreys for laboratory purposes and for 
investigations of scientific problems, having had our permission 
to do this for the colleges and universities. Ordinarily he has 
been able to easily collect all that were required. He makes 
no conmient on his fiiilure to do so this year, but, while there 
may have been other contributing causes that led to a scarcity, 
the mere statement of fact reported by Mr. Holmes is appar- 
ently sufficient evidence of the unwisdom of putting the foot 
of a fishway in immediate juxtaposition to the outlet of a city 
sewer. 

I^reventton of Stream Pollution by Sawdust. — A serious 
and determined effort has been made to complete this year 
the work of prohibiting stream pollution, so &r as that can 
be accomplished under section 8, chapter 91, Revised Laws. 
The work done along this line in 1903 was felt to be practi- 
cally the limit of accomplishment in this direction. It is 
therefore occasion for gratification that it has been consider- 
ably exceeded the current year, and in consequence has been 
brought substantially to a termination. It is possible that 
there may be a water-driven sawmill here and there which has 
not been visited and the discharge of sawdust from it pro- 
hibited, but it is certain such are rare, if existent. We believe 
the evil is eradicated. 

It is particularly gratifying that, of the large number of 
owners of mills thus enjoined from the discharge of sawdust 
into streams, a large majority have, we believe, found means 
to dispose of the dust, either with a profit to themselves or at 
least so that they suffer no loss by complying with the law. 
Meantime, the fish-supporting potentiality of the streams is 
materially enhanced, and an important natural resource of the 
State is thus made an asset of increasing value. 

Orders prohibiting the discharge of sawdust have been sent 
to the following mill owners in 1904 : Theron Cole, Frederic 
Ward and Perkins & Ward, North Carver; P. J. Holmes, 
Car>-er; Washburn & Soule and Josiah Marshall, Middle- 
borough; Wheeler Bros., Monroe; John Whitely and Joseph 
Holden, Shirley ; David Shores, Pelham ; Dennis Oadwiok, 
Shatesbury ; O. W. Brewer and H. D. & Frank Sisson, New 



126 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Marlborough ; Philip Porter, Rochester ; Andrew Kemp, Peiv 
perell ; G. A. Proctor, Townsend harbor ; the Noble Milling 
Company, Springfield ; Charles Hyde, Southbridge ; Harry 
Evans, Warwick ; John A. Carter, Petersham ; Frank A. Ger- 
main, Charlton ; H. M. Parsons and C. N. Loud & Co., West- 
hampton ; Thomas Welcome, Bemardston ; William E. R^ed, 
Rowe, Franklin County ; Nathaniel K. Angus and Austin 
Thompson, Halifax ; Daniel Ware, Ashby ; Nathaniel Cushing» 
West Wareham ; Kenney & Morse, South Warehara. 

Orders have been sent to mill owners as follows : 1900, to 
15 ; 1901, to 24 ; 1902, to 24 ; 1903, to 27 ; and 1904, to 30. 
The aggregate is 120, and, inasmuch as one order often applies 
to more than one mill, it can readily be seen that the work 
performed was not a small one, especially as the application of 
this law (section 8, chapter 91, Revised Laws) involves visit- 
ing many remote and out-of-the-way places, which can be 
reached only by the expenditure of much effort. 

In one or two cases the orders were temporarily suspended, 
for good and sufficient reasons, but the limit of all such sus- 
pensions has expired. 

PoUution by Acids. — Complaints have come to us of the 
pollution of ponds or streams by acids or other deleterious 
substances discharged from manufactories, and earnest and 
insistent appeals have been made for relief from such condi- 
tions. While it is not diflScult to understand that there is 
occasion for protests and appeals of this nature, it is well for 
the public to understand that we have no authority to correct 
the evils of which they complain . The State Board of Health 
may be able to deal with such matters, if the conditions com- 
plained of are deleterious to health or a menace thereto, but 
we can do nothing. 

Pond and Brook Fishing. — The reports which come to us 
from various sources and from all parts of the State indicate 
fishing conditions in this Commonwealth at the present time 
superior to any that were deemed possible only a compawr 
tively short time ago. For a State so thickly populated 
as Massachusetts, and one in which the pollution of interior 
waters is now only partially stopped, — prevented only so far 
as sawdust is concerned, — there is satisfaction at least in feel- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 127 

ing that the efforts of the commission have produced results 
which might be creditable in a region less thickly settled and 
whose manufacturing was less extensively prosecuted. We 
have knowledge, through the press or otherwise, of catches of 
fish, especially of brook trout, that would have been satisfac- 
tory in New Hampshire, Maine or Vermont. The late chair- 
man knew of a catch of upwards of 30 brook trout, one of 
which weighed 2| pounds, all taken in a brief time from a 
brook in the central part of the State, and he personally par- 
ticipated in tbe pleasure of eating some of them. 

Extracts from the press, reports of deputies, etc., on file at 
the office, convey a rather comprehensive idea of fishing con- 
ditions in various sections of the State, and indicate very satis- 
&ctory and progressive improvement. 

Birds and Mammals. 

Game Birds. — It is the opinion of ornithologists that only 
by very special efforts can the supply of quail in Massachusetts 
be maintained, on account of climatic conditions. It is the 
desire of this commission to co-operate to the fullest possible 
extent with the several game protective associations of the 
State and with individuals in all attempts which promise to 
increase the numbers of game birds and animals. These efforts 
should be directed towards : — 

1. The naturalization of quail about farm buildings, where 
they can be most readily cared for during inclement weather. 

2. The reservation of suitable covers. It often happens 
that the desire to ' * clean up " farms, with the attendant cut- 
ting of hedge rows and underbrush, is most prejudicial to 
quail. To the writer's personal knowledge the cutting of the 
underbrush on one tract of not over two acres was responsible 
during one summer for the destruction of the eggs in three 
quails' nests, and the killing of two of these quails by the 
family cat. 

3. The reservation of clumps of bayberrjs sumac, *' black 
alder" (Ilex verticellata) , red cedar, and other bushes bearing 
fruit which persists during the winter and is not likely to be 
buried by the snow. 

4. The reservation of crowded bunches of cedars, pines, hem- 



128 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

locks and other evergreen trees, as covers where birds may 
find shelter from heavy snows. 

5. Care in avoiding the starting of forest fires. Many fires 
are undoubtedly to be traced to the carelessness of hunters. 

It is a pleasure to know from personal contact that many 
true sportsmen have abstained from shooting quail during the 
hunting season just passed. A closed season on both quail and 
ruffed grouse for a term of several years would make for the 
advantage of the birds, and thus benefit the fiumer and the 
sportsman, unless artificial propagation can be established in 
several sections on an adequate scale. 

In the belief that it is of great importance to save the few 
quail which remain after the severe winter of 1903—04 and the 
heavy snowfall of December, 1904, the commission issued the 
following circular letter to its paid deputies : — 

Boston, Masb., Dec. S7. 1901. 

Dear Sir : — Permit me to call your attention to the importance of 
using every effort to bring through the winter as many qaail as poB- 
sible. 

It is within the duties of the paid deputies of this commission to 
engage actively In this problem, whenever and wherever it does not 
interfere with special detail work. 

You are, therefore, hereby directed and empowered to purchase 
cracked corn, barley, wheat, barn chaff or available grains, when in 
your judgment conditions warrant, and distribute this in the oorers. 
Shovel away snow where necessary. When possible, make the dis- 
tributions daily in reasonable quantities, say a quart or two scattered, 
and so disposed as to be of value to quail, rather than to mice, squirrels, 
crows and jays. This gives an opportunity for individual thought, 
ingenuity and judgment. 

Make careful observations upon the number of quail seen, the num- 
ber of tracks of quail, partridge, fox and skunk which have visited 
the feeding place or immediate vicinity. 

Include in your daily narrative reports the record of these obser- 
vations. 

Yours very truly, George W. Field. 

In general, the purchase of grain is limited to one bushel, 
and is only to be distributed when the snow or ice renders 
the food supply precarious. In response to personal requests, 
notices have been sent to several unpaid deputies, requesting 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 129 

them to look after certain definitely located flocks of quail, and 
provide suitable food when in their judgment it seemed advis- 
able. 

The notable work of the fish and game protective associations 
deserves the interest and support of all loyal citizens. With- 
out the activity of these associations, supplemented by many 
public-spirited citizens, in purchasing and liberating quail, this 
bird, which is well-nigh the most beneficial feathered friend to 
the farmer, might have long ago disappeared from within our 
State. With the alarming decrease in the number of quail in 
the States south and west of us, and the continued adoption of 
laws prohibiting the transportation of game beyond the borders 
of these States, the opportunities to purchase live birds are 
becoming limited. To many it is evident that the necessity 
of propagating our own supply of quail is even now -upon us. 
Under suitable conditions, the birds can be propagated in 
Massachusetts at less cost than is involved in the purchase and 
transportation of live birds from other States. 

As indicative of the great value of the work done by the 
game protective associations, we print the following letter from 
the Massachusetts Association : — 

Mabbachusetts Fi8h and Qamb Pbotegtivb Association, 
216 Wabhinoton Strkbt, Bobton, Feb. 7, 1906. 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman^ Massachusetts Fish and Game Commis- 

sian, Slate House^ Boston, Mass, 

Dear Sir : — lo response to your request for a statement regard- 
ing the work of acclimatization performed in 1904 by the Massachu- 
setts Fish and Game Protective Association, I beg to say that 183 
dozen live quail were purchased by this organization, at an expense 
of $3,000, and were liberated in fifty different localities. 

Generous contributions for this purpose were received from many 
public-spirited citizens, as well as from several sportsmen's clabs in 
different sections of the State. Reports received from persons who 
liberated the birds, and which were rendered in the autumn, furnish 
conclusive evidence that in the great majority of the consignments 
the birds bred and thrived surprisingly well. In two or three cases 
the quail were not found after their release, which, to my mind, indi- 
cates that they either fell a prey to natural enemies, or flew away to 
other localities — probably not many miles — in search of food. 
Respectfully yours, Henrt H. Kimball, 

Secfetary, 



130 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Appearances . indicate that conditions have been favorable to 
the increase of ruffed grouse during the past year. No actual 
data are available as to number of ruffed grouse, quail and 
woodcock killed in the State each year. Such data, if obtain- 
able, would be of great value in determining the eflBciency 
of certain laws, e.g'., the ** no-sale'* law, closed seasons, etc. 
There are obvious difficulties in securing correct voluntary 
reports from individuals, but by co-operation of gunners and 
other interested persons with the deputies of^this commission 
and with various organizations much information of value 
which might approximate to a census of our game bird popu- 
lation might be furnished. Some information of this nature 
has been obtained in certain States; e.g.y in Pennsylvania 
10,000 ruffed grouse were killed in 1903 and in 1904 13,000 
on a territory but twenty miles in diameter. 

In the absence of any exact figures upon which even tenta- 
tive computations can be made, the majority of the written 
and verbal opinions which have come to us indicate a consid- 
erable increase in the numl)er of ruffed grouse, but a smaller 
number of woodcock, upland plover, Carolina doves and wood 
ducks. Our annual report of 1903, pages 148-159, refers to 
the presence of the wild pigeon in Massachusetts. The species 
was probably the Carolina dove, and not the passenger pigeon. 
The passenger pigeon has not been reported in the State since 
1889, while our other native species of wild pigeon, the 
Carolina dove, is rapidly becoming rare in the State, and is 
well worthy of notice and protection. 

•Next to the ignorant immigrant, the most important factor 
in decimating the young game birds and the native insectivo- 
rous birds is the cat, which outside of cities exists in large 
numbers in the woods, and lives to a very considerable degree 
independent of human bounty. Any legislation tending to 
diminish the number of such cats should be looked upon with 
favor by thoughtful people. 

In June, 1904, the biologist of this commission called the 
attention of the late chairman to the desirability of a first-hand 
knowledge of the effect upon game of the increasing nunil)er 
of foxes in the State. In addition to the efforts which have 
been made by the commission, individuals, and particularly the 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 131 

Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Association, have taken 
an active interest in the matter, and are now collecting testimony 
and information which should be of great value when it becomes 
necessary to decide the question of a State bounty on foxes. 

Meantime, this commission will identify and record the con- 
tents of the stomachs of wild foxes. Thpse stomachs may be 
sent to us at our expense. The purpose is to determine the 
economic value of the fox, by ascertaining the proportion of 
poultry, game birds, rabbits, mice and other animals in the 
natural daily food. 

Information is also desired upon the destruction of the 
young of game and other birds (including poultry) by crows. 

Especial eflTorts should be extended to the wood duck and the 
upland plover. The posting and guarding of breeding places 
is especially desirable. 

Breeding Game Birds and Mammals. 

The ruflTed grouse is the chief natural game bird of Massa- 
chusetts, and as such is worthy of more careful attention. 
The accompanying photographs, taken by Prof. C. F. Hodge 
of Clark University, Worcester, from birds reared in cap- 
tivity from the egg, prove that the ruffed grouse may not 
be so unapproachable as our common experience indicates. 
The efforts of Dr. Hodge prove that this grouse can be domes- 
ticated, and the young reared in captivity in larger proportions 
than is usual under natural conditions. At present, however, 
such attempts should be limited to persons who have special 
interest and natural aptitude for such work. The most satis- 
factory starting point is the eggs, rather than the adults. 

The following report was sent to our late chairman by Pro- 
fessor Hodge, detailing the results of his experiments in 1904 
with ruffed grouse under domestication : — 

WORCESTEB, Mass., Not. 25, 1904. 

Mr. Joseph W. Coluns, Chairman^ MassachtMetts Commissioners on 

Fisheries and Game, 8kUe House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — The permit from the Department of Fisheries and 
Game allowed me to take twelve eggs of the ruffed grouse for pur- 
poses of experiment. Five eggs were obtained May 28 and seven 
Jane 1, from nests not less than sixty miles apart, being taken from 



132 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

two nests, in order to avoid the possibility of close interbreeding in 
case the birds reach maturity. The eggs were carried in the crown 
of a felt hat, between a thick pad of cotton batting and the head,— 
the first lot from 9 in the morning until nearly 6 in the evening,— 
and all hatched in apparently perfect condition, proving this to bean 
excellent method of transporting incubated eggs. 

Cochin bantam hens were obtained by the kindness of Mr. Merrill 
from the Sutton hatcheries, and they brought out the respective broods 
May 80 and June 6. Food was supplied, but little was taken doring 
the first day, and the chicks were left undisturbed in the nest At 
the end of this time they were removed to warm nest boxes, placed 
within boxed yards covered with netting, which gave the chicks 
access to grass. 

The weather was stormy and very cold, and despite every precan* 
tion against exposure a number of the chicks were taken sick, ap- 
parently with colds or pneumonia, and five died within the first ten 
days. One was killed in the nest the first day. Subsequently, two 
were snagged by cats which reached through the inch-mesh wire of 
their enclosure, and died in consequence of their wounds. This leaveB 
four of the original stock, and at present writing they are as fine, 
vigorous birds as one could find in the covers. 

About the first of October two wild birds which had flown againat 
windows in the city were added to the flock. These, under the intia- 
ence of the others, rapidly became practically as tame as they, and we 
thus have a stock of six healthy birds, from probably four different 
broods. 

« 

My plan of feeding has been to give the birds the greatest possible 
variety, — as much as practicable like the foods they would be likely 
to find in the woods, — and to study and note their preferences. 
The feeding can probably be simplified when we discover the staples 
and essentials. At first the chicks were given ripe blowfly maggots 
and pheasants' custard.* They were able to pick up the maggots 
from the second day on, and these remained the staple diet until well 
into August. The custard was plastered on rough boards placed on 
edge in the pens, since the chicks seemed to prefer to reach up for it. 
After the first three weeks, however, it could be placed in trays on 
the ground, and they continued to feed upon it as a staple diet until 
about the middle of September ; after that its place was taken by 
live grasshoppers. 

Along with the foods above mentioned, I gave, especially daring 
the first weeks, great abundance and variety of small insects : plant 

* I am again indebted to Mr. Merrill for supplies of maggots, and also for direc- 
tions in regard to making pheasants' custard, viz.: to one pint of fresh milk add 
four fresh eggs, and beat ; then steam or bake until solid. 



RUfFED GROUSE ONE OAV OLD. 



RUFFED GROUSE — THREE DAVS OLD. 



RUFFED GROUSE — SEVEN DAYS OLD 
Photographs from life by C. F. Hodge, 



/..-•. 



RUFFED GROUSE FOUR MONTHS OLD. 
Photograph from life by C. F, Hod^e, October 3, 1904. 



m 
f 



RUFFED GROUSE, 
specimen, captured September 25. ' 
phatOE''Bp^ed November 2, 1904. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 133 

lice, thrips and rose slugs, spiders^ '* ants' eggs," mosqaitoes and 
mosqaito ** wrigglers/' small earthworms, flies and gnats ; also small 
grasshoppers and moths, obtained by sweeping the grass and bushes 
with an insect net. The chicks were also given their freedom, — the 
free run of the lawn and garden as much as possible. 

From the first day I kept the pens supplied with fresh chickweed, 
and the chicks began eating it on the second or third day. They also 
ate dandelion seeds, and were fond of the green heads of June grass. 
All kinds of fruits were offered them, and none of the native and com- 
mon garden fruits was declined (with the exception of pears and 
peaches, which were scarcely more than tasted), from strawberries in 
June to apples in October. Raspberries, blackberries and mulberries 
were eagerly eaten, and blueberries and huckleberries formed a staple 
food during their seasons. Thorn apples, barberries and black alder 
berries were not refused, but were not taken in large quantities. 
Grapes of all kinds were greatly relished, especially Delawares. 
Chokecberries and especially black cherries were eaten in great 
quantities. 

Although liberally supplied with green cabbage and fresh chickweed 
and generally lettuce, all of which the young birds ate daily, they 
also took quantities of all sorts of leaves (except grape, snowball, 
artichoke and Eosa mgosa) of the trees and other plants which grew 
in their enclosures : hawthorn, cherry, black cherry, apple, hackberry, 
chestnut, plantain, rhubarb, yellow dock, ozalis, all kinds of clovers 
and many others. Early in September they began to develop procliv- 
ities for budding, and were often seen nipping' and tugging at small 
twigs. They ate chestnuts and acorns eagerly through October and 
up to the present. 

The first moult occurred chiefly in August, and the adult feathers 
appeared in September, along with '* snowshoes " and leggins. Soon 
after attaining their fall plumage they began to strut, after the fashion 
of the turkey gobbler. The tail is spread, the wings are dragged on 
the ground and the ruff is thrown out around the head, and a great 
deal of bowing, shaking the ruff and hissing is indulged in. The 
male and female of the ruffed grouse are not distinguished by any 
marked differences in plumage. I supposed at first that strutting 
was definite indication of male sex, but doubt if this is the case with 
young birds. With turkeys the young of both sexes strut. At any 
rate, all the birds that I have reared from the egg have strutted more 
or less, and still, from their size and other characteristics of head and 
neck, I am inclined to think that three of them are females. Neither 
of the wild birds have shown any signs of strutting, although apparently 
perfectly at home witb the others. 

As far as domesticability is concerned, our ruffed grouse are tamer 



134 FISH AND GAME. [Deo. 

than most barnyard fowls. They have not evinced instincts of fear 
at any time to any remarkable degree. They feed readily from the 
hand, and will hop npon the knee — even the wild ones — to dose. 
They have not drammed as yet, but it is to be hoped they will in the 
spring. The outlook is good for nests and broods next season, if 
present health and vigor of the birds can be taken as any indication 
of future possibilities. 

C. F. Hodge. 

Winchester. — The breeding and rearing of game birds and 
animals were carried on at this station as usual, although the 
results were unfavorably influenced by conditions beyond our 
control. Everything practicable was done to secure a record 
output ; Commissioner Brackett gave his almost undivided at- 
tention to the supervision of the work ; but human skill and 
care were not suflScient to successfully overcome such natural 
and artificial obstacles as were encountered. ConcerniDg 
these, more detailed mention will appear under the following 
heads. 

Pheasants. — The long-continued cold of last winter affected 
the vitality of the pheasant eggs. There was also a falling off 
in the number of eggs, there being upward of 700 less than 
the previous year. Similar results were also apparent in the 
breeding potentialities of common domestic fowl. 

The early young pheasants were unusually weak, and many 
of them died ; but as the season advanced, and green food 
could be supplied to the breeding birds, this condition disap- 
peared, and the latter part of the season the results were 
better. 

As the age of the breeding birds and the deterioration con- 
sequent upon close confinement may have had some effect in 
producing the results of the past season, it may be desirable 
to turn out a part of the old birds each year, as, by giving 
them their freedom, change of food, etc., they will quickly 
recuperate. 

The disease introduced by the foreign birds two years ago 
has been cheeked, appearing in only one locality this year, 
and in a mild form ; we lost only a few birds from it. Every 
effort has been made to eradicate it; among the remedial 
measures taken has been repeated treatment of the ground 
with heavy dressings of air-slaked lime, well spaded in. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 135 

An unasuai occurrence took place during the past year. 
Apparently all the rats in the neighborhood combined in an 
attack on the birds and rabbits. They swarmed in the barn, 
pheasant coops and stone walls ; it was a veritable pestilence 
of rats. Every available means, such as guns, traps and 
strychnine, were employed to get rid of the rodents. Between 
200 and 300 were shot or trapped. The number destroyed by 
IK>ison is unknown. Some were remarkably large ; one meas- 
ured 17 inches from nose to tip of tail. He did not hesitate 
to attack a full-grown bantam hen. 

The blasting at the adjacent quarry was unusually heavy, 
rendering the incubators useless. The effect .on the eggs 
under hens was partially overcome by making deep nests of 
straw, which more or less broke the sudden jar. 

The pair of birds which are a cross between the Mongolian 
and golden pheasant hatched late last year, and moulted while 
the other birds were breeding, which may account for their not 
showing any inclination to breed this year. They are remark- 
able for their beauty of foi*m and color, and they excel in 
these particulars any variety of pheasants bred for game we 
have seen. Six more young birds have been added this year, 
— 4 males and 2 females. It is believed they will unite the 
hardihood of the ring-necked pheasant with a combination of 
the rich plumage of the ring-necked and golden pheasant, — a 
wonderful blending of beauty. If it is found that this cross 
will breed, a new game bird will have been added to our farms. 
Of Mongolian pheasants there have been 208 distributed from 
this station this year (to November 1) ; 136 young, 69 old 
and 8 of the cross are now on hand, housed for the winter. 

Commissioner Brackett thinks the work at Winchester has 
1)een more or less handicapped because the hares and pheasants 
were in the same enclosure. 

Behjian Hares, — The rabbits grown old in captivity became 
less j)rolific, and the stock is gradually being changed to younger 
and more virile individuals. Under conditions even more severe 
than they would be subject to in their wild state, they renlain per- 
fectly healthy and vigorous. There is, probably, no other strain 
of what is known as the Bela:ian hare that will successful! v with- 
stand such extreme exposure. This has been accomplished by 
careful selection and breeding. The ** hundred-dollar prize 



136 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Belgian hare " presented to the commission has been exposed 
to the same conditions as the others , and, with the exception of 
a slight attack of snuffles, has so far remained healthy. She is 
a beautiful animal, and if she breeds it is hoped that the increase 
may be used to improve the present stock, and thus secure a 
more perfect type of the Belgian. 

One hundred and forty rabbits, were distributed previous to 
November 1 , leaving 34 for breeders and also 20 young ones. 

Sutton. — The following is the report of the superintend- 
ent of the Sutton hatchery, detailing the results of breeding 
pheasants and Belgian hares for distribution : — 

WiLKnr80irYii.LE, Mass., Dec. 12, 1904. 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Oame^ State House^ Boston^ Mass, 

Gentlemen: — The brood stock of pheasants was increased this 
season to 48, — 8 cocks and 88 hens ; but was reduced before the 
breeding season was over by the loss of 8 hens, 4 dying and 4 escap- 
ing by breaking throagb the lath tops of the older pens. 

The average number of eggs per bird was about the same as last 
year, — about 30; but the total was much larger, — 1,227. On two 
occasions when the pheasants in certain pens had ceased laying they 
were moved to new quarters, and as a result these began laying again. 
One pen of 7 birds had laid 131 eggs and seemed to have completed 
their litters, when they were moved to the largest of the winter pens* 
which had an abundant growth of green food ; they resumed laying) 
and during the balance of the season laid 174 eggs. Another pen of 
5 birds that had entirely ceased laying were given the run of three pens, 
and laid 60 eggs additional. The pens ordinarily used for breeding 
pens are too small to give the best results. The hatching and rear- 
ing gave less satisfactory results than usual, due to uncertain causes, 
but in part to less fertile eggs, and in the case of rearing to cold, wet 
weather. Several lots were wholly lost, and of the birds reared one- 
half came from one lot that was favored by exceptionally fine weather. 
The necessity of meeting the conditions imposed by the unfavorable 
weather led to much experimental work on the coops and runs and in 
the care of the birds, and many improvements were devised, some of 
permanent value. 

It was found to be of considerable advantage to darken the coops 
in chilly weather, and it was so arranged that this could be done ; 
also to confine the hens in semi-darkness, while the chicks could ran 
into the yard. This close confinement, besides inducing the hen to 
hover the chicks more, checked much of the loss from too vigorous 
scratching on the part of the hen. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 137 

Of the other improvements, the most important was the construc- 
tion of yards that woald hold the yoang when quite small, and keep 
them under conditions for rapid, healthy growth. These were made 
possible by a large amount of fish netting sent to the hatchery, which 
was used to cover low enclosures of fine mesh wire, two to three feet 
high being found to be high enough ior the sides, and this was secured 
by using wire two feet wide, with a board at the bottom. The top 
netting was stretched tent like, supported by poles and ropes, and 
tall bushes in the enclosure were covered without cutting. The 
chicks, when past the tender age, grew more vigorously than any 
season heretofore ; and the only fatality that was plainly unavoidable 
occurred in August, when 28 were found dead or sick in various de- 
grees of helplessness from a malady never before experienced ; 5 
recovered and 18 died. 

Twice rats attacked the pheasants, and killed 24. Rats have 
always been abundant here, but this year they increased to an un- 
nsaal extent, and did much damage in various ways. Nearly 100 
were shot or trapped ; but poison was not effective, owing, doubtless, 
to the amount of food available for them. Whenever their holes 
could be reached, bisulphide of carbon proved very deadly, and all 
that lived under the hen houses with cemented floors were killed ; bt)t 
the larger number living under the barn, hatchery and meat house 
could not be reached. Bisulphide of carbon was also used success- 
fully in redacing the number of skunks about the place, and as soon 
as all other holes can be located these animals will be practically 
exterminated in this vicinity. Other vermin, except snakes, was 
perhaps less destructive than usual, because the chicks were better 
protected in the new pens. 

It is probable that no snakes visited the pens when the birds were 
small, as none were seen then. Later, when the birds were grown, 5 
large black snakes, 48 to 57 inches in length, were killed in and about 
the pens. Crows and cats gave no trouble after the birds were put 
under the netting, but it is possible that the latter may learn to tear 
through when the netting gets old. The improvements recommended 
last year that have not been made are now still more urgently needed. 
A make-shift cook house was extemporized from spare lumber, but it 
was not very convenient or satisfactory, and the work done in it must 
be lai^ely increased another year. The proposed basement under the 
bam is no longer a project for the future, but is needed for present 
use, especially for storage of the rapidly increasing equipment used 
for hares and pheasants, and for the accommodation of such in- 
cubators and brooders as must soon be adopted. Better houses and 
more yards should be provided for the hens that are kept for rearing 
the pheasants. During the present season the proceeds of the sale 



138 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of bens' eggs and poultry have supplied all the grain used for feeding 
the hares and pheasants, as well as their own grain, and in addition 
have provided other supplies, the whole amounting to nearly $200. 
It would be easily possible to do much better than this with a moderate 
expenditure for better quarters. 

Early in May B dozen western quail were received for breeding and 
experimental purposes. They came in good condition, but without 
notice ; and, as no preparations had been made to receive them, tbey 
were put into an empty pheasant pen until suitable quarters could be 
provided for them. The non-arrival of material resulted in a long 
delay in making the pens, and before these were ready the birds bad 
weakened and many died, all of the lot eventually dying, except sev- 
eral that were separated soon after they were received. These were 
put in the large pheasant pens, in hopes that they could be left there; 
but the mesh was not small enough to hold them, and they escaped. 
Most of these were later recaptured and returned to the large lot. It 
is believed that at least one pair bred near the hatchery, as they were 
seen during the summer, and later a flock of young was discovered. 
One female quail escaped from the large pheasant pen, but entered an 
adjoining pen and lived there all summer with the pheasants. At one 
time it left the pen, which it could easily do, but returned, seeming to 
prefer living with the pheasants. It was found in September dragged 
into a rat hole, evidently having been killed by the rats. There is no 
reason to think that it died from any natural cause, or was sick when 
the rats captured it, for it was as active as any wild bird, and seemed 
as healthy and strong as the pheasants with which it lived. The only 
thing proved by the experience with this lot of birds is that they can- 
not be closely confined or left in large numbers. It was the aim in 
building pens to separate them into small lots, no more than a pair in 
some pens, and in building pens to enclose brush-covered grounds, 
where they could find good cover. The pens were constructed, bat 
the loss of the birds nearly as soon as they were finished gave no 
opportunity to test them. The experience with the bird that lived 
with the pheasants under conditions similar to those proposed for 
the others makes it evident that some good results might have been 
achieved if the pens could have been ready for the birds as soon as 
they arrived. 

Bearing Belgian Hares. — This was the first season that Belgian 
hares were bred at this station. The work was attempted on a small 
scale, more to acquire a stock of breeders and practical experience 
than to breed for distribution. It is, however, probable that a large 
distribution can be made another season, as a well-selected stock of 
breeders is on hand, and the location is suitable for the work. Sixty- 
two were liberated (including 10 in the woods near the hatchery), and 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 139 

20 were reserved for breeders. The stock was improved by a back 
and 2 does presented by Deputy Shea. The progeny of these will 
form a large part of the brood stock for another season. Most of ^ 
the hares were wintered in a large yard and lived in two barrows, 
which they excavated after a start was made for them by putting a^^r 
piece of tile pipe through the frozen ground. A number were keptf 
in a small run, but allowed to make a burrow after a start was made 
in the same way. One of the burrows was traced in the spring for 
aboat thirty feet and to a depth of over ten feet. Eight hares lived 
in the large yard and bred there in the spring. No evidence appeared 
that the young were interfered with in any way. When the frost left 
the gronnd they made no attempt to escape by burrowing under the 
fence, although no precautions were taken against this. During the 
summer the hares were bred in small runs, but the results were not 
altogether satisfactory, as at times they seemed to breed very slowly,, 
and several litters were lost through causes that seemed due to the 
restricted quarters. There is a decided lack of economy in the use 
of the small pens. There is a greater waste of food, much coarse 
food that would be available in a run or warren cannot be utilized, 
and the labor in caring for them is vastly increased. It is not certain 
that ther^ is any good reason for using the small pens here. In many 
trials keeping the buck and the doe together did not result in the loss of 
any young killed by the buck ; and it ought to be possible to devise 
a yard where a colony of 6 to 10 will live and breed together, thus 
effecting a saving in the food used and labor in caring for them, with 
probably better results from more rapid breeding and more vigorous 
stock. It may be suggested that the close confinement of the hares 
in the pens in use will not produce the best stock for taking care of 
Itself when set at liberty. Stock bred in large yards should be more 
vigorous, and if in yards where it could be made to subsist partly on 
brush and other growth in the enclosure, it ought to be in better con- 
dition to take care of itself when liberated. For the ensuing winter 
the hares have been divided into several lots, some allowed to make 
barrows and some in the ordinary boxes with a protection of leaves ; 
bat the greater number have been placed in a yard containing large 
piles of brush and leaves, under which it is expected that they will 
borrow and live. One pile is of great size, and has accumulated for 
several years from hard- wood brush cut in leaf when clearing land. 
Burrows are furnished as well as the regular breeding boxes, in order^ 
to provide for any failure to use the brush heaps. 

A very limited amount of supplies has been purchased for the 
hares ; the grain used has been paid for by the hens kept for hatch- 
ing pheasants. Other food has been produced on the grounds. 
Clover was grown in considerable quantities, lawn clippings were 



140 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

saved, and hay was cat and used when half grown, thus secarlngthe 
proper fineness ; leaves were raked in large qaantities in the fall and 

« fed through the winter. The hares eat these as freely as any food 
offered them. Daring the summer large quantities of sprouts and 

\ leafy twigs were cut and cured. All kinds of roots suitable for 
feeding and many forage plants were grown, and an ample supply 
for winter and summer produced ; carrots and sugar beets, mainly 
for winter, and nearly all the common forage plants for sammer. 
Rape and corn were found to be the most satisfactory for summer 
use, and will be grown largely in the future ; but practically every- 
thing grown in a garden can be utilized, and it is possible that the 
hares thrive and breed better with a suitable variety of food. 
Respectfully submitted, Arthur Merrill, 

Superintendent Sutton SUUion. 

It is hoped that the commission may soon undertake ac- 
tively, even if on a limited scale, the propjigation of the two 
chief game birds of Massachusetts, — the ruffed grouse and 
quail; thus 'in time it may be no longer necessary to depend 
upon a precarious source of supply in other States, — a sup- 
ply becoming annually smaller and more expensive. There is 
no reason to doubt that birds can be reared in Massachusetts 
sufficient to stock our covers at less expense than they c<*in be 
purchased and brought here from other States. As a general 
biological principle, the greater attention should be given to 
the maintenance, by artificial propagation and protection, of 
our native game birds, e.<7., the ruffed grouse, quail, wood- 
cock, upland plover, wild pigeons and wood duck, all of which 
are suffering, some to the very verge of extinction, from over- 
huntinff and other unfavorable conditions. Suggrestions have 

C DO 

come to us that the commission should undertake the propaga- 
tion and distribution of certain European game birds, e.g., the 
capercailzie, black cock, European quail, red-legged partridge, 
etc. ; but the writer believes that attention should first be de- 
voted to our native game birds, which are beyond a doui)t 
adapted to our covers and to our methods of hunting. If it 
seems advisable to introduce other game birds, might not the 
prairie chicken (the pinnated grouse) prove most suitable to 
our more open sections, particularly in the farming sections of 
the State? It is the opinion of many ornithologists that in 
the past the pinnated grouse inhabited southern Xew England, 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 141 

InteUic;ent fostering and feeding are likely to make this region 
again a suitable environment for this noble game bird. Or- 
ganized attempts to rear the pinnated grouse in captivity 
should be welcomed by the people of Massachusetts. 

The Fish and Game Laws and their Enforcement. 

In spite of the fact that many complaints of the non-enforce- 
ment of the game laws have reached this office, either directly 
or indirectly, there is abundant evidence that commendable 
results have been obtained by our deputies. It is not the pur- 
pose of the commission to make merely a record number of 
arrests, convictions, or fines imposed. The attempt is made to 
enforce the laws without prejudice or spite ; to deal sharply 
with wilful law-breakers, leniently with ignorance and uninten- 
tional violations, and squarely with all. The deputy should be' 
in a large measure an educator ; he should impart a knowledge 
of game and woodcraft ; he should carry the spirit of justice 
and the breadth of view which contact with nature furnishes, 
and he should not descend to petty considerations. To the 
habitual violator of the game laws he should be an implacable 
and untiring enemy, with whom no compromise is possible. 
More than ever before this ideal has been before us, but we 
hope to make still more substantial advances. 

There are large areas of the State where the deputies can 
rarely penetrate. With the gradual increase in the number of 
deputies and the improved transportation facilities, these con- 
ditions are constantly improving. Even the occasional appear- 
ance of* a deputy in a section has a restraining influence on 
would-be violators. 

The increased number of sportsman's clubs is of advantage 
to the State ; they can do much to mould public sentiment in 
their neighborhood, and by example and precept make for 
greater respect for law and the rights of the various classes of 
the community. These clubs not only do much to actually 
provide game for the covers, but they inculcate an intelligent 
int^erest in the fish and game problems of the State. 

Of the new laws, the right-of-search law has, on a year's 
trial, proved its value. However, the anomalous condition 
still obtains that the satisfactory enforcement of fish and game 



142 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

laws is demanded, when the officer has no right to require a 
person, whose pockets, game bag or creel may be full of illegally 
taken game, to show whatever game he may have on his person. 
Such a condition puts a premium upon "spotter" methods, 
and is to be deplored. 

The present paid force consists of fourteen deputies, located 
at the following places : North Adams, Ware, Spencer, Palmer, 
Ayer, Franklin, Gloucester, Lynn, West Quincy, Hyde Park, 
North Cambridge, East Boston, South Boston and Harwich. 

Experience has shown that the most satisfactory method of 
enforcing the fish and game laws is by a number of young, active 
men, having a special knowledge of fish and game, in addition 
to some detective and executive abilities, — a body interested 
in the special objects and duties of the commission, in addition 
•to responsibilities as police and detectives. The State, rather 
than the county, city or town, is the unit. Any deputy may 
be sent to any part of the State, and the deputies are so located 
that at least two men can be present in any part of the State at 
short notice. Thus each particular section gets the benefit of 
the entire force when necessary, in addition to the local force 
of police and constables which may be called upon to co-operate 
with the deputies. 

There is need of two additional paid deputies in the western 
half of the State, one located at Springfield and the other at 
Pittsfield, and the necessary provisions for these should be 
made this year. The methods of selecting paid deputies by 
competitive examinations should be continued. It has been 
proven that the special knowledge of fish, game and df locali- 
ties adapted for the various species, together with a personal 
acquaintance among the class of people most interested, make 
the deputies the most efficient agents in the distribution of the 
fry, fingerlings and game birds and animals which comes within 
the scope of the work of this commission; The work of en- 
forcement of laws and the stocking is done at far less expense 
to the State, and with a greater degree of efficiency both as to 
actual distribution and the subsequent observations of the re- 
sults of the stocking, when carried on by the same force. Our 
deputies are, therefore, able to give attention to several duties 
on the same trip : the distribution of live fish or game ; gath- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 143 

ering statistics or information on subjects pertinent to the 
work, which are made subject to special reports, or are incor- 
porated in the daily narrative reports filed weekly at the office. 
At all times, on whatever duties, they are on the watch for 
offenders. In cases of unwitting violators the culprit is usu- 
ally given advice and warning ; in general, only flagrant cases 
are placed under aiTcst. The best results are to be expected 
when the officers who enforce the laws are in close contact 
with the commission which is placed in charge of the fisheries 
and game of this Commonwealth. In any event, if the laws 
are not enforced the responsibility therefor is readily fixed. 

The number of instances where sawdust is discharged into 
the State waters, to the injury of the fish, is happily dimin- 
ishing, as a result of the activity of our late chairman. Cap- 
tain Collins, and the deputies under his direction. 

On September 6 he in person visited TarbelPs sawmill, 
near Massapoag Pond, at East Groton. Complaint had 
reached the commission that proper care was not being ex- 
erpised at this mill to prevent the discharge of sawdust into 
the stream. Earnest promises were made, however, that 
everything practicable would be done to insure proper condi- 
tions, so that no sawdust should get into the stream hereafter. 

Also, on September 7 he visited the so-called Shaker saw- 
mill at Ayer, and found there was sufficient opportunity to 
blow out the sawdust made or to cany it away by building a 
small bridge of such waste material as the saw mill would pro- 
dace, and also making a pen under the mill. 

On the same date the two mills of Andrew Kemp, in Pep- 
perell, were visited, where it was seen that there was an excel- 
lent opportunity to blow out the dust or to haul it out on 
carts, as the owner might prefer. 

Satisfactory arrangements were made in the above cases. 

The following towns have accepted the provisions of section 
68, chapter 91 of the Revised Laws : Cohasset, Charlton, Dud- 
ley, East Bridgewater, Freetown, Groton, Harvard, Holden, 
Liynnfield, Lakeville, Millbury, Pembroke, Peabody, Shrews* 
bury. Way land, Wakefield, Webster and Westhampton. 

In some cases where the deputies enforced this law the in- 
habitants found an unexpected state of affairs ; as in the case 



144 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of Assowompsett Lake, that part within the town of Lakeville 
could be fished only with one line, held in the hand (according 
to section 68) ; but in the portion of the lake within the limits 
of Middleborough ten hooks could be used, according to chap- 
ter 308, Acts of 1904. These conditions depended upon tlie 
fact that Lakeville accepted section 68, while Middleborough 
did not. This state of affairs has led to considerable local 
friction and uncei*tainty among the people as to their rights. 
The commission has advised in many cases, and where ix)s- 
sible has shown leniency to those who showed no disposition 
to intentionally violate the laws. 

With the rapid increase in the number of deer, there has 
been a multiplication in the arrests in connection with the kill- 
ing of deer, and the ownership or possession of dogs which 
chase deer with the knowledge and consent of their owner. 
There is at present a conflict of interests betw^een the owners 
of fox hounds, on the one hand, and those interested in deer 
and game birds. It is desirable that dogs which are inclined 
to run deer should not be permitted to run at large. It is also 
proper that fox hunters should not be hampered in their sport, 
or their dogs become liable to be killed by irresponsible parties. 
There is abroad a misconception in regard to the killing o( a 
dog found chasing a deer. A careful reading of chapter 92, 
section 18, Revised Laws, as amended by Acts of 1902, chapter 
154, indicates that the dog should not be killed unless he is 
used for hunting deer with the knowledge and consent of the 
owner. It is difficult, in most cases impossible, to prove the 
•'knowledge and consent;" yet, as has sometimes happened, 
irresponsible persons have killed dogs found chasing deer. This 
may cause hardship to owners of valuable fox hounds, though 
intended to deal chiefly with such owners and dogs as habit- 
ually break the laws. 

The deputies of this commission have been instructed to kill 
no dog (under the above laws) without the consent of the 
owner. 

Upwards of 50 specific instances have been investigated dur- 
ing 1904 where dogs had chased deer, and in at least 12 cases 
it resulted in the death of the deer. With the rapid increaj^e 
of deer such instances are likely to be multiplied. A few fines 
of $20, in accordance with chapter 92, section 18, Revised 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 145 

Laws, as amended by chapter 154, Acts of 1902, would tend to 
awaken certain dog owners to a proper sense of their respon- 
sibilities. 

Complaints still come to this oflSce that our deputies are 
*'iiot enforcing the Sunday fishing laws^" In reply to such, 
we continue to call attention to the decision of the late 
Attorney-General Knowlton, that the enforcement of the laws 
against Sunday fishing (section 12, chapter 98, KevisedLaws) 
• does not properly come within the sphere of activities of this 
commission, but belongs to the local police. During the past 
year 55 arrests have been made for Sunday hunting. Sunday 
hunting, particularly during the shooting season, is still prev- 
alent in the remoter sections of the State ; but beyond question 
it is less obtrusive than formerly, and causes less annoyance to 
law-abiding people. The largest number of arrests have been 
for Sunday hunting. An even greater number might have 
been made for Sunday fishing, were it not fc^r the fact that our 
deputies have been ordered not to enforce the Sunday fishing 
laws, for the reasons given above. 

In regard to the snaring of partridges, we again call atten- 
tion to the fact that the snaring of rufied grouse or partridge, 
now permitted by law on one's own property, should be com- 
pletely prohibited. 

The second season of the naphtha launch " Scoter" has con- 
firmed the value of this type of equipment for enforcing the 
laws regarding fishing and shooting along the coast. The 
opinion that this one boat, by reason of its mobility, is equal 
in law-enforcing efficiency to a hundred men stationed along 
the coast, is borne out by facts. The most important feature 
of the work of the *' Scoter" is the restraining influence of the 
knowledge of the boat's presence in the neighborhood. To 
secure conviction, the short lobsters must be in actual posses- 
sion. If the lobsters are thrown overboard, even before the 
very eyes of the deputy, but before they can be seized, no con- 
viction can be made. From the daily reports of the work of 
the ** Scoter," it appears that her presence among the fishing- 
boats is directly responsible for the freeing of from 200 to 
5,000 short lobsters daily during the fishing season, when the 
weather permits lobster fishing, — an aggregate of not less than 
600,000 short lobsters. Attention has elsewhere been called 



r-^* 






K'T^.r 



146 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

to the fact that the present lobster laws are extremely difficult 
of enforcement, chiefly on account of the measurement features. 
Yet, in spite of this fact, 19 arrests and 18 convictions were 
made from the ''Scoter" in Boston harbor or vicinity: 390 
short lobsters were seized, and the aggregate fines imposed 
were $846. 

The system of appointing unpaid deputies continues to grow 
in public favor. No efforts will be spared to dignify the service 
which these men furnish to the Commonwealth. Manybusi-' 
ness and professional men of highest character and attainments 
have enrolled themselves in this work. While to a certain 
degree the ranks of the unpaid deputies serve as a training 
ground from which the paid deputies may be selected, many of 
the unpaid deputies serve without expectation of other com- 
pensation than the personal satisfaction of having properly per- 
formed certain duties and responsibilities of citizenship. It is 
a privilege to refer to the hearty co-operation evident between 
deputies, and frequent setting aside of personal interests for 
general good. 

As during 1903, the paid force of deputies has continued to 
work in unison for the advantage of the Commonwealth. In- 
stances of personal bravery in the discharge of duty, cases 
of undaunted exposure of life and limb to secure results, of 
cool judgment under trying conditions, have been noted. In 
general, the commission and the Commonwealth are to be con- 
gratulated upon the personnel of its force of paid deputies. 
It comprises representatives of many interests and diverse 
ancestries; but all unite in zeal, in unselfish co-operation or 
'*team work," and have again proved themselves well worthy 
of the confidence of all the people of the State. 

The report of Deputy John F. Luman, who for the past year 
served most faithfully and with intelligent efficiency as chief 
deputy, follows : — 

B08T0N» MiLSS., Jan. 10, 1905. 

Dr. Geobge W. Field, Chairman, Fish and Oame Commission, Boston^ 

Mass, 

Deab Sir : — I herewith submit my annual report for the year 1904, 
as follows : — 

The greater part of the year I have been engaged at work in the 
office at Boston in the capacity of chief deputy, in charge of the lav- 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 147 

enforcement work, with the exception of a few months daring the 
spring and summer, when I was engaged in the distribution of fish 
and animals, and also field work. 

7}rout Fishing. — Trout fishing during the past year has been yery 
satisfactory, especially in the central and western sections of the State. 
Large fish and plenty of them have been taken, which shows that the 
stocking of the streams year after year by this commission with fry 
and fingerlings has not been a waste of time or money, and the work 
is now beginning to show for itself in no mistakable manner. I beg 
leaye to call the attention of the Board to but one of several remark- 
able catch of trout in the town of West Brookfield in Worcester 
County, made by two well-known citizens, James Haskins and Calvin 
Perry, who took from the waters of that town 11 trout, the largest 
fish weighing 1^ pounds, while 7 of the larger trout tipped the scales 
at 8 pounds. This only tends to show what continued restocking of 
the streams will do. The reports submitted by the various deputies 
relative to trout are also very encouraging. 

Chfnxe Birds, — Woodcock have held their own, and in and about 
Fitchburg an unusual number have been reported. Quail have been 
very scarce, due to the extreme cold weather of the past year. There 
has been reported in different sections of the State now and then a 
flock, but these are thought to have been the imported ones which 
have been liberated by clubs and private individuals. Partridge 
shooting, notwithstanding all predictions before the season opened, 
has been very good, particularly in the western section of the State, 
where the birds have been as numerous, in fact, as at any time in 
the past three years. 

A large number of birds have been left over from the season Just 
closed, and with a good hatching season 1 am quite certain that birds 
will be found in abundance at the opening o/ the season of 1905, if 
repor^ from various sections of the State are true. From the re- 
ports of several sportsmen and others who have hunted in the western 
section of the State of Massachusetts, all are united in the opinion 
that western Massachusetts is certainly the bird section. 

SmaU Game, — Such, including squirrels, rabbits, hares and pheas- 
ants, has held its own, and in some localities has increased. Pheasants 
have increased wonderfully in the eastern section of the State. Hares 
are reported scarce. 

Deer. — From nearly every section of the State deer have been re- 
ported as seen, and there is no doubt that they are rapidly increas- 
ing. They have been seen in numbers in certain sections, namely, 
in Palmer, North Adams and Templeton. There have been several 
illegally killed in the State. Deer have been run by dogs in many 
towns, and it seems that something must be done to prevent this 



148 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

yiolation, which has become very freqaent daring the past year. 
Where dogs were found chasing deer, and were known, notice has 
been sent to the owners, informing them of the fact, and asking 
them to try to prevent a fatnre occarrence. Deer killed in the 
woods and bearing evidence of having been shot were fonnd in Pitts- 
field, Concord, Coldbrook, Winchester, Ballardvale and Plymouth ; 
on^ found with a broken leg at Cheshire, December 31, bad to be 
killed ; one found at Still River, March 2, legs cut off by railroad 
train, had to be killed ; one struck by train at Hoosac Tunnel had 
to be killed; one killed by train at Lunenburg, March 17; one at 
Pittsfield injured by dogs so that it had to be killed ; one killed at 
Greenfield by dogs, February 13 ; two killed at Sterling, having been 
chased by hounds, February 24; one killed at Harvard by dogs, 
March 2 ; one killed at Petersburg mountain, March 12 ; one killed 
by dogs at Rowley, February 24; one killed by dogs at Greorge- 
town, March 21; one killed by dogs at Boxford, March 7; ooe 
chased by dogs, April 1, at Quisset, drowned; one chased by dogs 
into Ipswich Bay and drowned. May 22; one found dead in the 
canal of the Ludlow Manufacturing Company, at Ludlow, March 1, 
having been chased upon the ice by dogs and drowned. Complaints 
were received from the following towns that dogs were chasing 
deer, all of which were investigated: Westfield, Russell, Fairfield, 
Huntington, West Ware, Monson, Palmer, Georgetown, Sandwich, 
Rowley, Leominster, Sterling, Plymouth, Hardwick, Winchendon, 
Gardner, Brimfield and Rowley. In several instances the owners 
of the dogs were unknown. To the owners of dogs, when the 
owners were known or could be learned of, the following notice was 
sent : — 

Dear Sir: — Complaint comes to this department that your dog chases 
deer. Chapter 92, section 18, Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 154, Acts 
of 1902, makes this offence punishable by a fine of $20. I call your«atten- 
tion to the matter, in the hope that you will see that it does not occur again. 
Trusting that jou will receive this letter in the same friendly spirit in which 
it is sent, I remain. 

Yours very truly, John F. Luman, 

Chief Deputy 

There is nothing to prevent a person inclined to kill a deer in Massa- 
chusetts from doing so, and saying that it was sent to him by a friend 
in Vermont, Maine or New Hampshire. A law making it a penalty 
to have deer or parts thereof in possession without a tag, bearing the 
date when it was killed, by whom killed, and where, would greatly 
facilitate the disposition of such cases. A large number of deer were 
found killed by unknown hunters in the State. Something mast be 
done to prevent further killing. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 149 

The new search law, bo far as it goes, is all right, but it does not 
give the deputies sufficient chance to bring the guilty ones into court. 
I would suggest a law which would give the deputies the right to 
approach any person who is hunting or fishing, and, after making his 
office known by displaying State shield or badge, ask him, in the name 
of the Commonwealth, to show his fish or game, if he has any ; if 
such person refuses to do so, give the deputy the right to take him to 
the nearest police station or lock-up, and there search him ; if nothing 
illegal is found, let the person go, without making or holding the 
deputy liable. 

Little or no snaring of birds has been reported, although some 
snaring is being done by persons on their own land. The sale of 
partridge, we have reason to believe, from information received, is 
being carried on to some extent. This offence is one of the hardest 
oar deputies have to contend with, from the fact that the person buy- 
ing is as guilty as the person selling ; therefore, information is not 
forthcoming. I believe that the laws have been better enforced this 
year than any previous year. Citizens seem to feel in harmony with 
the commission, and appear willing to assist in every way possible. 
I would recommend a new law relative to the dogs found chasing 
or hounding deer, as the present law is not adequate to meet the 
increasing offences in this line. 

The work done by the paid deputies during the past year has been 
mach in advance of the work done by them in any previous year since 
^e commission was organized. The force of deputies consisted of 
14 paid men, who served nearly the whole year. In addition, there 
have been employed 8 special deputies, who were on salary during 
the hunting season in October and November. The specials have 
done good work in connection with the regular paid force, and I 
think the scheme is advisable and advantageous. The total number 
of arrests during the year 1904 was 265 ; number of convictions, 227 ; 
total amount of fines, 84,297.90, — an increase over last year of 
$1,872.90. 

Respectfully, John F. Lumax, 

Qhwf Deputy. 

The following figures indicate briefly some of the facts con- 
nected with our enforcement of the game laws. No reference, 
however, is made to the ill-founded complaints which have been 
investigated, or of the cases where "in the opinion of the com- 
mission a proper warning would meet the purpose of the law, 
where no violation was intended. 



150 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



SUHMART. 

Number of arrests for Sunday hunting, 55 

Number of arrests for fishing closed waters, .... 41 

Number of an'esls for possession of short lobsters, ... S7 

Number of arrests for taking shellfish illegally, ... 28 

Number of arrests for owning or keeping dogs that chase deer, 22 

Number of arrests for killing deer, i 

Number of arrests for shooting song birds, .... 24 

Per cent, of offenders of foreign birth (judging by names), . 46 

Total number of cases taken to court, S65 

ConTictions, 227 

Cases discharged, 35 

Cases placed on file, 48 

Fines from arrests made by unpaid deputies, .... $1368 40 

Fines from arrests made by paid deputies, 2,929 50 

Total fines imposed 4,297 90 

New Legislation. 

We respectfully recommend the following additions and 
changes in the fish and game laws. 

We urge, in the interest of uniform legislation, the follow- 
ing laws, which the delegates from the lobster-producing States, 
at the convention held in the State House, Sept. 23 and 24, 
1903, voted to recommend to their respective Legislatures : — 

1. All lobsters or parts of lobsters sold for use in this state, or for 
export therefrom, mast be sold and delivered in the shell, under a 
penalty of twenty dollars for each offence ; and whoever ships, boys, 
sells, gives away or exposes for sale lobster meat after the same shall 
have been taken from the shell, shall be liable to a penalty of one 
dollar for each pound of meat so bought, sold, exposed for Bale, 
given away or shipped. Any person or corporation in the business 
of a common carrier of merchandise, who shall knowingly carry or 
transport from place to place lobster meat after the same shall have 
been taken from the shell, shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars 
upon each conviction thereof. All lobster meat so illegally bought, 
shipped, sold, given away, exposed for sale or transported, shall be 
liable for seizure, and may be confiscated. Nothing contained herein 
shall be held to prohibit the sale of lobsters that are legaUy canned 
and hermetically sealed. 

2. No person or corporation shall engage in the lobster fishery in 
this state without a permit from the fish and game commissioners, 
which permit shall be furnished free of cost to the applicant, and 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 151 

Bhall contain a copy of the laws for the protection of the lobster. 
Any person who engages in lobster fishing withoat a permit from the 
fish and game commission shall forfeit not less than one handred dol- 
lars, or be liable to imprisonment, or both fine and imprisonment, at 
the discretion of the coart. The above shoald not apply to individ- 
aals taking a small number (not exceeding five daily) for their own 
Dse and not for sale. 

A person holding a permit, who is convicted of a violation of any 
of the lobster laws, shall surrender his permit to the fish and game 
commissic^n, and it shall not be reissued within one year from the 
date of its surrender. Failure to surrender a permit will make the 
bolder liable to a penalty of not less than fifty dollars, and the con- 
fiscation of the pots and boats used by him for lobster fishing. 

There is no law upon the statute books so difficult of enforce- 
ment as the present lobster laws. Persons so inclined keep 
the short lobsters where they can be readily dropped overboard 
on the approach of the deputies ; or they are held until oppor- 
tunity offers to transport them to Rhode Island or to New 
York, where they are salable. Yet there is abundant evidence 
that fear of the '* Scoter " checks, to a very considerable degree, 
the possession of short lobsters in Boston harbor and the waters 
adjacent. Several persons who dealt very largely in short lob- 
sters have already been driven out of business, having found 
that the profits of the business are jeopardized by the activity 
of the *' Scoter." Thirty-seven arrests were made during the 
past year for the possession of short lobsters, so that what was 
formerly carried on to a very great extent, even if not with im- 
punity, is now attended with considerable hazard. There is 
need, however, of some means whereby the fisherman who has 
no respect for the law, or for his own benefit, or for the inter- 
ests of his fellows, could be constrained by some powerful and 
readily applicable measure. Such a means is possible by the 
requirement of a permit for the catching of lobsters for sale. 
Such permit should not be necessary to a resident of the Com- 
monwealth catching a small number of lobsters for personal use. 
This permit should be given without expense to the law-abiding 
fishermen, but should be taken from those convicted of break- 
ing the lobster laws. The barring of such individuals from the 
benefits of the lobster fisheries would react to the advantage of 
those willing to abide by the laws. 



152 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

It would be to the advantage of the people of this Common- 
wealth if suitable provisions could be made for extending chap- 
ter 408, Acts of 1904, with a suitable appropriation to rear the 
lol>ster fry to such a stage where it is practically free from 
the ravages of enemies. In the opinion of this commission, 
the experiments carried on by the Rhode Island Fish Commis- 
sion and by the Canadian government on this line have been suc- 
cessful to a degree which warrants the adoption of the method 
by the State of Massachusetts. 

The scallop laws (section 84, chapter 91, Revised Laws) fail 
to define a seed scallop, and are therefore defective. It is a fact 
that the scallop eggs are laid in May and June. The young 
hatched from these eggs become mature and lay eggs the follow- 
ing May and June, and the majority of these scallops die during 
the succeeding winter, after producing a single litter of eggs. 
The scallops which are less than one year old should be defined as 
seed scallops, since these are the main source of eggs for the fol- 
lowing spring. The size of scallops is usually an indication of 
age, and the writer knows of no more satisfactory criterion by 
which to define a seed scallop than that furnished by measure- 
ments. This commission is qualified to make the necessary 
microscopical examinations, and to propose a proper and defi- 
nite statement as to what should be considered a seed scallop. 

It is obviously for the interest of the inhabitants of those jwr- 
tions of the State remote from the seashore, as well as of those 
living in proximity to clam flats, that the supply of clams should 
be such that an excessive amount of time or labor should not 
be consumed in digging. At present there are very large areas, 
between tide marks, and properly belonging to the Common- 
wealth, which have in the past produced great quantities of clams 
and quahaugs, but now, from neglect or from unsystematic dig- 
ging, are producing fiir less than their natural capacity. 

This commission is qualified, by knowledge and practice, to 
institute a system of clam propagation which will benefit the 
diggers, the dealers and the consumers in all parts of the State, 
and multiply several fold the wealth at present derived from 
the shellfish industries within this State. We therefore beg to 
call attention to conditions now existing, to the scarcity and 
high price of clams and quahaugs, and to submit the following 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 153 

tentative plan for consideration as the basis of a law in the 
interests of clam and quahaug industries : — 

1. Make a survey and plot of such public areas as appear to 
l>e available for cultivation of clams and quahaugs. 

2. These areas shall be divided into two approximately equal 
portions. One of these portions shall be leased for periods of 
five or ten years to applicants who shall actively use the area 
for the commercial propagation and production of clams or 
quahaugs, under such regulations as the Commission on Fish- 
eries and Game may impose from time to time. 

The leased area in general shall not exceed 50 per cent, of 
the total area suitable for growing clams and quahaugs. The 
moneys derived from the leased areas shall be devoted to the 
stocking and improvement of the unlcasable area, which shall 
be open to the public for the taking of shellfish, and shall be 
subject to such regulations as in the opinion of the Commission 
on Fisheries and Game are for the l)est interests of the Com- 
monwealth. 

The attention of this commission has been called to a pecul- 
iar case. By chapter 158, Acts of 1901, Lake Quinsigamond 
was closed to fishing between September 1 and April 1 until 
March 14, 1906. The people in that neighborhood now wish 
to terminate the provision of this act. They advance the state- 
ment that they wish to increase the number of trout in the lake. 
They have established a trout hatchery upon waters tributary 
to the lake, and subscribed a large suui of money to further 
the work. They claim that the pickerel are enemies of the 
trout, and that the number of pickerel in the lake limits the 
number of trout. They therefore seek the opportunity to re- 
duce the pickerel by fishing or other legitimate means, for the 
purpose of making conditions more favorable for their efforts 
for increasing the number of trout in the lake. 
We therefore recommend, if it appears that the majority of 

the people directly interested are in favor of trout in the lake 

rather than pickerel, that the Legislature take such action as 

appears desirable in this case. 

We are of the opinion that black bass should be given some 

protection, especially during the season when they are guarding 

the nest. 



154 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The conditions connected with the protection of game and 
insectivorous birds are still unsatisfactory. The most promi- 
nent difficulty arises from the newly arrived immigrant, both 
adult and minor. Other States find that an alien license law 
is satisfactory and practical. The chief provisions cover the 
prohibition of hunting by unnaturalized inhabitants who are 
not provided with a license issued by the chief of police in the 
town or city where the hunting is done. The fee for such 
licenses should be at least $10, and be provided with a photo- 
graph or satisfactory description of the proper holder of the 
license. The law should also require, when demanded by the 
owner or lessor of the land or by a person properly authorized 
to enforce the laws of the Commonwealth, the exhibition ^of 
the license and of the birds or animals killed or held alive. 

At present there is nothing in the statutes to prevent any 
one having in his possession a deer killed in Massachusetts, 
claiming that the deer was sent to him. The law (Acts of 
1903, chapter 245) refers to hunting, chasing, wounding or 
killing, but fails to cover possession. This might be obviated 
by an amendment, providing a penalty for having deer or 
parts thereof in possession without a tag, bearing the date and 
locality of killing, and by whom killed. 

The new search law (chapter 367, Acts of 1904) upon the 
first year's trial has shown that the efficiency might be in- 
creased, without actually subjecting the hunter or fisherman 
to the personal indignity of a search. The suggestion is that 
the law give the commissioners and their deputies the right to 
approach any person who appears to be hunting or fishing, 
or killing or snaring birds or mammals, contrary to the laws 
of the Commonwealth, and, after making proper explanations, 
with the exhibition of tokens of authority, to make foniial 
demand in the name of the Commonwealth to display all the 
game, fish and birds and mammals protected by law then in his 
possession. In case of refusal, the commissioner or deputy 
should have the right to take the person to the nearest police 
station or lock-up, where the search may be made, without 
incurring personal liability. 

This same chapter (chapter 367, Acts of 1904) should also 
provide for the right of search for the bodies or feathers of 
certain birds referred to in Acts of 1903, chapters 244 and 329. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT— No. 25. 155 

f 

We beg to call attention to the following slight but impor- 
tant modifications : — 

1. Chapter 162, Acts of 1903, fourth line, after the word July, 
insert '^a Bartramian sandpiper^ also called vpland plover;*' and 
after the word pigeon, insert '' a Carolina or mourning dove" 

The passenger pigeon and the Carolina dove are two distinct 
species, and are the only wild pigeons likely to be found in 
^lassachusetts. Both are on the verge of extinction ; they 
require and deserve protection. 

2. Chapter 176, Acts of 1904, sixth line, after possession, insert 
^^each" and cause to read, ^* each wild or game bird or animal pro- 
tected by law/' 

3. Chapter 92, section 20, Revised Laws, first line after fines, add 
** and forfeitures " 

Suggestions 2 and 3 have come fi'om judges dealing with 
cases under these acts. 

4. Section 11, chapter 92, Revised Laws, fourth line, after game 
bird, insert words ^^ a wild or undomesticated bird^ not exempt under 
Acts of 1903, chapter 329, and Acts of 1902, chapter 127 r 



39 



The Acts of 1902, chapter 165, should be so amended that 
its provisions should not apply to quail kept or sold for prop- 
agating purposes. . 

It comes to our notice that many persons, mainly Italians, 
snare and trap game and insectivorous birds. Some more 
definite check should be placed upon this practice. The 
deputies very properly assert that the law should cover the 
possession of snares, bird lime, etc. 

I also respectfully call attention to the limitations placed 
upon the work of the commissioners and deputies through lack 
of provision for the service of warrants by the commissioners 
or deputies. It often happens that in isolated places time and 
opportunities to secure convictions are lost through the frequent 
impossibility of finding a local police officer to serve the war- 
rant. 

Attention is respectfully called to the fact that on Feb. 13, 
1905, according to section 16 of chapter 92, Revised Laws, the 
law for the protection of pheasants ceases to be operative. 



156 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

We respectfully suggest that the following be embodied in a 
section relative to the ownership or possession of ferrets : — 

Owners or possessors of ferrets shall notify in writing the commis- 
sioners on fisheries and game of the fact that one or more ferrets are 
in possession. The owners or possessors of such ferret shall alio 
notify in writing the commissioners on the day that a ferret or ferreU 
leave the possession of the former owner or possessor, and shall, at 
the same time, give the name of the owner or possessor into whose 
possession the ferret passes. Ferrets which are not thus accoonted 
for are liable to confiscation. 

A case where one of our deputies suffered bodily harm when 
attempting to make an arrest for violation of fish and game laws 
brousrht out the fact that the rio:ht of the Commissioners on Fish- 
eries and Game to appoint deputies is not stated with sufficient 
definiteness in the statutes as to preclude a difference of opinion 
among judges. A similar difference of opinion exists as to the 
rights of the deputies to call for assistance in making an arrest 
and to protect themselves from personal violence. These points 
are of prime importance in securing the proper enforcement of 
the fish and game laws, and we do not wish to have more cases 
thrown out of court on this ground. We therefore suggest the 
amendment of section 4, chapter 91, Revised Laws, so as to 
read as follows : — 

Section 4. The commissioners are empowered to appoint depaties, 
and the commissioners and their deputies shall, for the enforcement 
of the fish or game laws, have the same powers as all ofiScers qnalified 
to serve criminal process, including the right to call in the name of the 
commonwealth for assistance according to section 31, chapter 210, 
Eevised Laws, and may arrest with or without warrant any person 
whom they find violating any of the fish or game laws ; except that 
persons engaged in the business of regularly dealing in the buying 
and selling of fish and game as an article of commerce shall not be 
arrested without a warrant for having in possession or selling game at 
their usual places of business. 

We recommend that some provisions be made so that towns 
which have accepted section 68, Revised Laws, can have power 
to reconsider their action. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 157 

Courtesies. 

The commission has received from the United States Bureau 
of Fisheries, Department of Commerce and Labor, consign- 
ments of eggs of brook and rainbow trout, landlocked salmon 
and pike perch, also a shipment of shad fry. We have like- 
wise received from the Bureau statements of its fish cultural 
work in this State, and various of its publications, including 
monthly statistical statements of the fish landed from fishing 
vessels at Boston and Gloucester. 

The post-ofBce authorities and others have permitted the dis- 
play of posters containing abstracts of the fish and game laws. 

The railroads within the State, notably the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, the Boston & Albany and the Boston & 
Maine, have, as formerly, carried free shipments of fish, birds 
and animals intended for distribution or propagation. The 
aathorities of the Boston & Maine Railroad were especially 
courteous to Deputy A. M. Nichols, stopping two trains at 
stations so as to allow him to look after a deer which had been 
hit by H train, and to attend court on the same day, which he 
otherwise might not have l)een able to do. 

Mr. O. T. Olsen of Grimsby, Eng., has furnished us with 
important information about the management of an otter trawl ; 
also illustrations of an otter or trawl board, and a phm of a 
trawl, which are printed again in this report, on account of the 
interest in and value of the otter trawl. 

On June 9 the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries of Rhode 
Island courteously invited the Massachusetts Commissioners on 
Fisheries and Game to visit Rhode Island and inspect the lob- 
ster and clam propagation labbratories at Wickford, R. I., con- 
ducted by the Rhode Island Commission under the immediate 
direction of Dr. A. D. Mead. This invitation was accepted l)y 
our late chairman, Capt. J. W. Collins, and by Dr. George W. 
Field, who was then biologist to our commission. 

Practically the entire day was si)ent in the company of the 
Rho<ie Island Commission of Fisheries and their distinguished 
guests from all sections of Rhode Island, including His Excel- 
lency Governor .Garvin and staff, in inspecting and studying the 
methods and results of the investigations upon the artificial 



158 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

propagation of clams and lobsters. Methods have been de- 
vised by Dr. H. C. Bumpus and by his successor, Dr. A. D. 
Mead, which have placed the artificial propagation of clams and 
lobsters beyond the experimental stage. These methods, with 
very slight modifications, can and should be applied immedi- 
ately to Massachusetts shores and waters. For this reason the 
observations made by us on that day may be of great value to 
Massachusetts. The bountiful hospitality of the Rhode Island 
ofiScials was characteristic, and was thoroughly appreciated. 

The commission is indebted to JHon. E. P. Whitney for cour- 
tesies in driving our late chairman through the Blue Hill Res- 
ervation, with the special object of examining certain of the 
ponds therein situated. 

We are indebted to Capt. Robert E. Conwell of Province- 
town for courtesies extended by him to our late chairman in the 
matter of furnishing a power launch, line, bait, etc., for troll- 
ins: for horse mackerel off Provincetown and Truro. 

The following, from the Cape Ann ''News" of Jan. 16, refers 
to the two elegant vases received from the Japanese government 
by our late chairman, as a token of the appreciation of his 
efforts in furthering the interests of the fishery industries : — 

Much to his surprise and delight, Captain Collins, chairman of the 
Massachusetts Fish and Game Commission, has received recognition 
from the Japanese government for helping the students who visited 
this locality two years ago to observe the American method of fishing 
and curing. Two Cloisonne vases, representing an art in which the 
Japanese excel, have been sent to him from the Imperial Fisheries 
Bureau at Tokio, with notes explaining the gift. 

Japan's interest in the fishing industry is natural, inasmuch as there 
are j)robably more than 2,600,000 fiShermen in the country, and aboal 
4,000 boats engaged in the industry. 

The commission has been privileged to extend courtesies in 
the following instances : — 

To the United States Bureau of Fisheries, permitting the 
collection of egg-bearing lobsters ; the operation of two ix)und 
nets for scientific purposes, etc. 

We have continued to assist Prof. W. E. Castle of Harvard 
University in securing and holding in confinement material 



I 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 159 

necessary for the conduct of special scientific researches. The 
following letter was received while the report was in press : — 

Cambridge, Mass., March 6, 11K)5. 
Dr. Georoe W. Field, Chairman^ Commission on Fisheries and Oame^ 

SlcUe House^ Boston^ Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I wish to make gratefal acknowledgment of the ex- 
cellent facilities affoixled me daring 1904 hy the department of fisheries 
and game for a continued study of certain problems in heredity among 
brook troat. With the valuable assistance of Mr. Arthur Merrill, the 
superintendent of the Sutton hatchery, I was enabled to carry these 
studies through two successive generations of trout. The results 
obtained, it is hoped, will soon be ready for publication. The good 
management of the officers of the department made it possible to carry 
oat these experiments without interfering in any way with the regu- 
lar work of the hatcheiy, or incurring any additional expense. An 
iDvestigation of considerable scientific interest was thus successfully 
executed, one which was necessarily time-consuming, and would have 
been expensive had it not been possible, through the cordial spirit of 
co-operation shown by your department, to utilize facilities already 
in operation in the practical work of fish hatching. 

I am indebted to your department also for supplying me with two 
wild ** cotton-tail" rabbits, with which to institute experiments in 
hybridization with the European rabbit. The results of these experi- 
ments are thus fa^ negative. 

Yours very truly, W. E. Castle, 

Assistant Professor of Zodlogy, 
Harvard University. 

Through our late chairman, we had pleasure in extending 
courtesies to Prof. H. Henking of Hannover, Germany, Secre- 
tary-General of the German Sea Fisheries Association, and Mr. 
Heidrich of Memel, Germany, Royal High Fish Master, who, in 
consequence of the publication of extensive extracts with illus- 
trations from our annual report of 1902, were sent to this 
country by the German government to study the fisheries of 
Massachusetts, with special reference to the extensive utiliza- 
tion of naphtha fishing boats. 

We were also privileged to supply to Hon. Chr. Ravn, 
Consul-General of Sweden and Norway at New York, cer- 
tain information regarding fishing craft which was required in 
Norway. 



160 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The commission had pleasure in supplying the Italian gov- 
ernment, through its consulate in Boston, with certain publica- 
tions and other information regarding the fisheries of this State. 

One hundred brook trout fry, five hundred eggs and twenty- 
five fry of the rainbow trout, the latter with sacs attached, and 
one three-year-old brook trout, were given to Mt. Holyoke 
College for the students to use in their scientific studies. 

Permission was given to Mr. Thomas S. Holmes, 9 South 
Broadway, Lawrence, Mass., to collect sea lampreys as material 
for scientific study for Prof. Raymond Pearl, instructor in 
zoology. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Permits have been issued to the following parties to collect 
birds and eggs for scientific purposes : Homer L. Bigelow, 
Boston; John W. Bailey, Boston; Dr. C. F. Hodge, Worces- 
ter; J. B. Richards, Fall River; Albert E. Jewett, Clinton; 
Roberto. Morris, Springfield; A. C. Bent, Taunton; Geo. 
H. Maokay, Nantucket ; Alfred E. Preble, Wilmington ; Fred 
H. Kennard, Boston ; F. B. McKechnie, Boston ; Owen Dur- 
fce. Fall River ; John H. Hardy, Jr., Boston ; Chas. R. Harte, 
Jamaica Plain ; Ira T. Ward, Sherborn ; FredH. Scott, West- 
field; L. C. Jones, Maiden; F. E. Waterman, Fall River; 
Frank S. Aiken, Fall River; Chester A. Reed, Worcester; 
James P. Porter, Worcester. 

Permits to take sand eels for bait have been issued to the 
following: Paul Jones Lowell, Joseph Thurlow, William H. 
Simmons, Richard E. Pierce, Samuel P. Dow, E. L. Perkins, 
Chas. F. Lattimc and Albion P. Hilton of Xewburyportj 
Robert J. Sweeney and John F. Sweeney of Salisbury; C. A. 
Leet, S. W. Caswell, H. T. Mackinney, Edward E. Wells and 
James E. Carter of Ipswich. 

In addition to the permits furnished to Superintendents 
Corliss and Locke of the United States Fisheries Bureau, per- 
mits to collect and hold in confinement effsr-bearinor lobsters 
have been given to the following : Allen B. Robinson, Bay 
View; Chris Nelson, Beverly; Thomas Neville, Beverly 
Farms ; F. C. Leonard and Albert A. Nightingale, Bourne- 
dale ; Julius E. White, H. W. Tolman and Henry Hewin:?, 
Brant Rock; Wright & Willis, John G. Cox & Co., Massa- 
chusetts Lobster Company, Joseph P. Serrilla, Manuel Surelia. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 161 

Frank Rosa, John Sandstroniy Manuel Rosa, Jule Rose, Anto- 
nio Silva, Christopher Costa, John Pinto and Frank Brenzola, 
Boston; J. K. Ferreira, East Boston; George W. Bloomer, 
Chatham; Antone Grassie, John Eltmann, M. S. Thomas, 
Manuel E. Salvadore, Levi Cadose, O. H. Reamy, Manuel 
Oliver, Antoine Figueriedo, O. Hanson, R. Ainslie and Charles 
Anderson, Cohasset ; F. E. Wardsworth, South Duxbury ; 
William L. Grew, North Falmouth ; Alvin F. Bourne, West 
Falmouth; Melvin Parsons and Peter Knutson, Gloucester; 
Daniel Souther, Ambrose Mitchell and R. M. Cleverly, Hull ; 
Frank C. Chandler, Island Creek; R. C. Hiller, Geo. K. 
Hanson, Jr., R. T. Millett, E. T. Phillips, J. I. Phillips, 
Frank Dennis and Clarence K. Stone, Marblehead ; Daniel B. 
Gould, East Orleans; Charles S. Brown and John A. Dunn, 
Salem Willows; Charles H. Parker, Sandwich; J. Frank 
Cushman and Thomas S. S. Turner, Scituate; C. H. Pratt, 
Xorth Scituate ; Hon. E. L. Bonney, Scituate harbor ; Joseph 
Safrine, Spectacle Island; C. H. Collins, North Truro; W. 
W. Freeman, South Tmro; A. H. Vedeler, Woods Hole; F. 
J. Cain, North Weymouth. 



On Dec. 9, 1904, our respected colleague, Capt. Joseph W. 
Collins, passed away, after a very brief illness from pneutnonia 
complicated with Bright's disease. 

In October, 1899, Captain Collins returned, as chairman of 
this commission, to Massachusetts, his port of hail during his 
early manhood. Under his able direction the work of this 
commission prospered. His personality endeared him to all 
thot$e associated with him as commissioners and deputies. The 
following resolutions, passed by the present Board, are a sin- 
cere expression of the esteem of those with whom he had been 
intimately associated for the past five years : — 

Whereaf^ God, in his infinite wisdom, has removed from the coun- 
cils of this Board oar esteemed colleague, Hon. Joseph W. Collins, 
who for the past five years has so remarkably advanced the scope 
and value of the work of the commission, and whose reputation 
extends far beyond the confines of this Commonwealth and the 
United States ; and 



162 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Whereasj The passing away of our colleague has taken from this 
Board one of broad experience and a wise counsellor, whose loss 
falls not alone upon us personally, but upon the Commonwealth and 
the nation, therefore — 

Be it resolved^ That, while bowing reverently to the will of God, 
the undersigned members of the Massachusetts Commission on Fish- 
eries and Game deeply deplore the loss that has come to them in the 
death of their honored chairman, and that they extend to Mrs. Col- 
lins and other members of the family their most heartfelt sympathy. 

Resolved^ That these resolutions be spread upon the records of 

this commission, and a copy thereof be sent to the widow of our late 

colleague. 

George W. Field. 

E. A. Brackett. 

John W. Delano. 

Joseph William Collins was born at Islesboro, Me., Aug. 
8, 1839 ; son of David, Jr., and Eliza (Sawyer), grandson of 
David and Elizabeth (Barter), and great-grandson of John 
Collins, who was born at Castine, Me., about 1765. He was 
brought up a fisher boy, and had few educational advantages. 
At the age of ten he went to sea on a fishing craft, and there 
began to gain the general knowledge that fitted him for his 
life work. 

.' His tenth birthday was spent at sea, on board a fishing ves- 
sel. 'His early education was obtained at a country school 
during the w^inter. He took up* the study of mathematics and 
/the higher English branches later, while on shipboard. He 
w^as appointed to the command of a fishing vessel before he 
reached his majority, and for many years was master of some 
of the finest schooners out of Gloucester, Mass. 

In 1879 Captain Collins's practical knowledge of the eco- 
nomic aspects of the fisheries and his interest in the scientitic 
study of the inhabitants of the sea attracted the attention of 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird, at that time the great pioneer scientist 
of the United States fisheries industries ; and through the 
interest of Professor Baird he actively entered the service of 
the United States, being employed by the United States Fish 
Commission to make a statistical report upon the New Eng- 
land fisheries for the tenth census. This was an important 
task, for then, as now, the New England fisheries were the 
most important in the United States. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 163 

In the spring of 1880 he was sent by the government, on 
the staff of the United States Commissioner, to the Inter- 
national Fisheries Exposition at Berlin. In December, 1880, 
he returned to Washington, and resumed work on the prepa- 
ration of those masterly reports which were published by the 
United States Fish Commission in the volumes covering *' The 
Fisheries and Fishing Industries of the United States." 

He rapidly attained distinction as a writer in this line, and 
also exhibited great facility in preparing models and illustra- 
tions of fishing Craft and fishing scenes, the details of which 
were thoroughly familiar to him. In 1883 he was one of the 
commission sent by the United States to represent this country 
and to ipake a display of its fisheries and fishery resources at 
the great International Fisheries Exposition held at London in 
that year. The intimate knowledge of the fisheries and their 
needs which Captain Collins possessed made it possible for 
him to offer many impoi*tant suggestions for their improve- 
ment, — suggestions which have been adopted, to the great 
profit of those industries. The marked change, in recent 
years, in the fishing vessels of New England, whereby their 
speed and sea-going qualities have been materially enhanced, 
and the winter fisheries divested of much of the horror that 
formerly characterized them, is due to his efforts. In 1886 
he put his ideas to practical use in designing the schooner 
** Grampus " for the United States Fish Commission. This 
vessel was the pioneer of a new type. Her advent, added to 
the previous writings by her designer, had a great influence. 
The " Grampus " is considered one of the most seaworthy 
vessels afloat. Captain Collins was in command of the 
••Grampus" from 1886 to 1888. 

He made many cruises of investigation on the vessels of the 
United States Fish Commission, the results of which have ap- 
peared in numerous papers, printed in the reports and bulletins 
of the commission. In 1887, while on a cruise of observation 
to Newfoundland, Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
he obtained a large collection of the remains of the great auk 
(Plautus impennis) ^ more bones of this extinct species being 
procured than were previously possessed by all the museums 
of the world. In the winter of 1887-88 he was called to 
Washington for consultation by the Federal International Com- 



164 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

mission, which was then negotiating the fishery treaty with 
Canada, and was of much assistance to the American commis- 
sioners. In 1888 he was appointed in charge of the division 
of fisheries of the United States Fish Commission. In the 
same year he was in charge of the Fish Commission's exhibit 
at Cincinnati. In 1884 Captain Collins organized, in the 
United States National Museum, the section of naval archi- 
tecture, and from that date he was its honorary curator. The 
collection of models, pictures, photographs, etc., was brought 
together by him. A large percentage of the models, including 
those of the ''Mayflower" of the Pilgrims, and Capt. Jotn 
Smith's ship "Sally Constant," were constructed under his 
personal supervision, and some are from his own designs. In 
1893 he was appointed curator of the section of fisheries, and 
for a short time in 1889 was special agent of the eleventh 
census, in charge of the section of fisheries, but on account of 
I the pressure of other duties resigned that position. In 1890 

he was appointed by President Harrison as the representative 
of the United States Fish Commission on the Government 
Board of Management and Control at the World's Columbian 
Exposition, and was chief of the department of fisheries from 
February, 1891, to the close of the exposition ; but after com- 
pleting the preparation of the commission's exhibit, which was 
installed in the government building, he resigned this position 
and his connection with the Fish Commission in December, 
1892. 

Captain Collins was a prolific writer on matters relating to 
the commercial fisheries, and may appropriately be styled the 
historian of American fisheries. In addition to the various 
papers and reports which he has published under the auspices 
of the gov^ernment, Captain Collins was a frequent contributor 
to newspapers and magazines. He was one of the contributors 
t; to the " Century Dictionary," and during the progress of the 

World's Fair at Chicago was a member of the staff* of the 
"Fishing Gazette," assuming the duties of editor-in-chief. He 
was United States Commissioner to the International Fisheries 
Exhibition at Bergen, Norway, in 1898. 

Probably no one man ever connected with the fishing indus- 
try was so widely known and so universally esteemed as Captain 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 165 

Collins. Many of the practical ideas introduced by him into 
the routine work of the United States Fish Commission and 
of the Massachusetts department of fisheries and game have 
proved invaluable. Some of them are in use at this time, and 
show their worth by the results obtained. 

Captain Collins deserves a high place among the notable 
benefactors of the human race for the results of his life work. 
He contributed more than any one man to making the deep-sea 
fishing industry less hazardous to life and property. The fol- 
lowing paragraph, written by him in 1882, gives a statement 
of his greatest life purpose and interest : — 

Every fisherman who goes forth to brave the perils of the deep, 
whose success and life itself depend upon the merit of his vessel, 
should be well informed in regard to which is the safest model and 
the best rig ; every woman, patiently and hopefully watching for the 
retani from sea of those she loves, should at least have the consola- 
tion of knowing that those she waits for have sailed in the very best 
vessel that human skill can . devise ; every merchant who sends his 
fleet to sea should feel that everything has been done which can be 
done to relieve him of the enormous burden of insurance, which for 
years has so handicapped the Gloucester fisheries. If* what I have 
written has any influence in bringing about a result so much to be 
wished for, then I shall be amply repaid for my labor. 

The success of the vessels constructed on the type of his 
models was actual and not theoretical. The direct result was 
the loss of fewer vessels. More than that, the greater speed 
of the vessels made possible a greater earning capacity for the 
labor and capital involved in the enterprise. Yet further, the 
application of power (both steam and naphtha) to large fishing 
vessels, to eatboats and to dories, is another great advance in 
the same direction, and multiplies the productive capacity of 
the labor and capital applied to the deep-sea fisheries. Even 
on these lines alone 'Captain Collins's work was sufiScient to 
enroll his name high on the list of the benefactors of mankind. 

Although the great central fact of his life work has led to 
making the deep-sea fisheries less hazardous to life and prop- 
erty, the subsidiary results of the application of his scientific 
knowledge to the method of capturing and marketing fish were 



166 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

no less noteworthy. As the results of his studies in economic 
biology, he furnished the knowledge which made possible the 
development of the Pacific halibut fisheries. By Massachu- 
setts capital, by Massachusetts vessels and Massachusetts men 
and methods Boston now receives most of its fresh halibut 
supply in refrigerator cars over the Canadian Pacific from 
Vancouver. This fishery has arisen during the past five 
years, and is still increasing rapidly. It already yields an 
annual catch of more than 25,000,000 pounds, at first-hand 
value of over $1 ,000,000. 

Captain Collins was earlier largely instrumental in establish- 
ing the New England halibut fishery ofl^ the coast of Iceland. 
The utilization of the whiting or silver hake (Merlucius biltn- 
earis)^ a fish taken in large quantities in the pound nets, but 
formerly considered of no value, is now sold in large quantities, 
fresh and pickled. He introduced and developed in the United 
States many and various methods of fishing, such as, for example, 
the trawl fishery. Among other important services to the fish- 
eries industry, he w^as instrumental in securing a wider market 
for American cod livers. He was the first to advocate the use 
of cod roe iti making caviar, to replace sturgeon roe, now 
rapidly becoming scarce. 

He was the promoter of the Convention of Representatives 
of the Lobster-producing States and of the Maritime Provinces, 
which met at the State House, Boston, Sept. 23 and 24, 1903, 
for the purpose of securing better protection of the lobster. 

I* Captain Collins presided as chairman, and also prepared the 

report of the convention, which was printed by the Common- 
wealth. 

He brought to the chairmanship of the Massachusetts depart- 
ment of fisheries and game a knowledge of the practical side 
of the work, and a capacity for organization which greatly 
developed the value of this commission in all its branches. 
He proved to be wise in counsel, a sympathetic friend to those 
deserving his consideration, and a stern disciplinarian to law- 
breakers and imposters. 

He was made Chevalier of St. Olaf by the Norwegian gov- 

11 ernment, 1898 ; awarded diploma for invention, Berlin, 1880; 

^* two silver medals for invention and diploma for special ser- 



'■: all 

1: 









I it 



.-tr 



»'5 



11 

V. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 1G7 

vices, London, 1883 ; special gold medal of honor by German 
government, 1894 ; and honor medal, 1893, as *' one of the 
makers of the World's Columbian Exposition." 

He was elected an honorary member of various scientific and 
fisheries societies of Europe and the United States. He came 
to be recognized as the historian of the American fisheries, and 
as a fisheries statistician. He edited the <' Fishing Gazette," 
and, in addition to reviews in ** Fisheries and Fishery Indus- 
tries of the United States," he wrote '* History of the Tile 
Fish;" '*The Introduction of Gill Nets in the American Cod 
Fishery;" *'The Beam Trawl Fishery of Great Britain;" 
" Reports on the Fishing Grounds of the Gulf of Mexico ; " 
** Suggestions for Improvements in Fishing Vessels ; " '*The 
Construction and Equipment of the Schooner ' Grampus ; ' " 
** Report on the Cruise of the 'Grampus' to Newfoundland, 
Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in 1889;" «' The 
Fisheries of the Pacific Coast;" "Statistical Review of the 
Coast Fisheries of the United States for 1887 and 1888 ; " 
** Report upon the Fishing Vessels and Boats of the Pacific 
Coast;" ** Notes on the Oyster Fishery of Connecticut;" 
** Fisheries of the United States;" '* Decadence of the New 
England Deep-sea Fisheries;" "Evolution of the American 
Fishing Schooner; " and many other papers. The part of this 
report, up to and including the chapter on the " Deep-sea Fish- 
eries," pages 1-82, was the last work completed. Other chaj> 
ters were outlined, and notes were left which have been used in 
its completion. Captain Collins left voluminous notes, which 
are of much value to this commission, as they mainly pertain 
to the work of this Board. 

Captain Collins cherished an ambition which led him onward 
to continually higher ideals. He developed and trained, by 
dint of hard labor and in spite of grinding conditions, a natural 
capacity for gathering and setting forth in an interesting and 
valuable manner the details of the fishing industries of the 
world. He established himself as an acknowledged world 
authority in his chosen line. His position is well-nigh unique, 
— at once the father and the historian of the deep-sea fisheries, 
for the development of which he has done more than any one 
man in America. 



168 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 1904. 

His life on sea and land was beset by storms and sore trials, 
but through all he maintained the calm dignity of the strong 
man, confident in his ability to ultimately conquer difficulties. 
He acquired a character above reproach ; an exemplary hus- 
band and father ; a Christian man ; a citizen who trained his 
capacities, and ever devoted them unflinchingly to the service 
of the humble as well as of the powerful, to the State and to 
the nation. 



Upon the death of Captain Collins, Mr. Delano became act- 
ing chairman. On Dec. 21, 1904, George W. Field, Ph.D., 
of Sharon, was nominated by Governor Bates; on December 
28 this nomination was confirmed by the Council; on Jan. 
2, 1905, Dr. Field was elected chairman of the commission. 

GEORGE W. FIELD. 
EDWARD A. BRACKETT. 
JOHN W. DELANO. 



APPENDICES. 



- / 



[A.] 
List op Commissioners. 



United States Bureau op Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

George M. Bowers, Commissioner. 

Hugh M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner. 

Irving H. Dunlap, Chief Clerk. 

Barton W. Evermann, Assistant in charge of Division of Inquiry respecting 

Food Fishes. 
John W. Titcomb, Assistant in charge of Division of Fish Culture. 
Alvin B. Alexander, Assistant in charge of Division of Statistics and 

Methods of the Fisheries. 

SuperirUendenU of United Slates Fisheries Stations, 

Charles G. Atkins, Craig Brook, East Orland, Me. 

E. E. Hahn, Boothbay Harbor, Me. 

Waldo F. Hubbard, Nashua, N. H. 

E. N. Carter, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

C. G. Corliss, Gloucester, Mass. 

E. F. Locke, Woods Hole, Mass. 

C. K. Green, Fish Ponds, Washington, D. C. 

L. G. Harron (in charge), Bryan's Point, Md. 

George A. Seagle, Wytheville, Va. 

R. K. Robinson, White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. 

Alexander Jones, Erwin, Tenn. 

S. G. Worth, Edenton, N. C. 

J. J. Stranahan, Cold Spring, Bulloch ville, Ga. 

G. H. H. Moore, Tupelo, Miss. ^ 

Livingston Stone, Cape Vincent, N. Y. 

S. W. Downing, Put-in-Bay, O. 

Frank N. Clark, North ville, Mich. 

S. P. Wires, Duluth, Minn. 

R. S. Johnson, Manchester, la. 

Dr. S. P. Bartlett, Quincy, 111. 

H. D. Dean, Neosho, Mo. 

M. F. Stapleton, Mammoth Springs, Ark. 

John L. Leary, San Marcos, Tex. 

De Witt C. Booth, Spearfish, So. Dak. 

W. T. Thompson, Leadville, Col. 

James A. Henshall, Bozeman, Mont. 

H. O'Malley, Baker Lake, Wash. 

C. Wallich, Clackmas, Ore. 

Giles H. Lambson, Baird and Battle Creek, Cal. 



172 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



^ 









'J 



r I 

iJi 



Arizona. 

Fish and Oame. 

T.S. Bunch Saflford. 

W. S. Pinney, Secretary, Phcsnix. 

Jean Allison, Jerome. 

Caupornia. 

H. W. Keller, President, Santa Monica. 

W. W. Van Arsdale, San Francisco. 

W. £. Gerber, Sacramento. 

Charles A. Vogelsang, Chief Depaty, .... San Francisco. 

Colorado. 

Charles H. Harris, Denver. 

A. A. Gordon, Secretary, Denver. 

T. J. Holland, ... Denver. 

CONNEOnCUT. 

George T. Mathewson, President, Thompsonville. 

Robert G. Pike, Middletown. 

E. Hart Geer, Secretary, . ' « • . . . Hadlyme. 

Delaware. 

£. G. Shortlinge, Wilmington. 

J. Thomas Lowe, Little Rook. 

Florida. 

John Y. Detwiler, President, New Smyrna. 

John G. Ruge, Secretary, Appalachicola. 

Charles R. Walker, Sanford. 

Georgia. 
A. T. Dallis, Superintendent of Fisheries, . . .La Grange. 

Idaho. 

William V. Irons, Hagerman. 

Iluxois. 

Nathaniel H. Cohen, President, Urbana. 

S. P. Bartlett, Secretary, Quincy. 

Adolph Gartz, Chicago. 

Indiana. 

Z. T. Sweeney, Columbus. 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



173 



Iowa. 

Fish and Onme Warden, 
George A. Lincoln, Cedar Rapids. 

Kansas. 
D.Trovin, Pratt. 

# 
4 

Maine. 

Inland Fisheries and Oame, 

L. T. Carleton, Chairman, Winthrop. 

Heniy 0. Stanley, Dixfield. 

Edgar £. Ring, Orono. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries. 
A. R Nickerson, Boothbay Harbor. 

Maryland. 

Charles F. Brooks, Sandy Springs. 

James D. Anderson, Deals Island. 

Massachusetts. 

George W. Field, Chairman, Sharon. 

£dward A. Brackett, Winchester. 

John W. Delano, Marion. 

Office, State House, Boston. 

Michigan. 

F. B. Dickerson^ President, Detroit. 

C. D. Joslyn, Detroit. 

George M. Brown, Saginaw. 

Seymour Bowers, Detroit. 

George D. Muzzey, Secretary, Detroit. 

Minnesota. 

Oame and Fish, 

Uri L. Lamprey, President, St. Paul. 

W. P. Hill, Fairmount. 

D. W. Meeker, Secretary, Moorhead. 

H. G. Snoith, Winona. 

B. F. Fullerton, St. Paul. 

Missouri. 
John W. Revelle, Lutesville. 

. i^w^*i'^a' '■'^-1,1 ..^ 



174 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Nebraska. 

John H. Mickey, Lincoln. 

New Hampshire. 

Fish and Qame. 

Nathaniel Wentworth, Chairman, Hudson Centre. 

W. H. Shurtleff, . Lancaster. 

C. B. Clark, • . . Concord. 

New Jbrset. 

Benjamin P. Morris, President, Long Branch. 

R. T. Miller, Camden. 

D. P. McClellan, Morristown. 

P. H. Johnson, Bloomfield. 

New York. 

Forest, Fish and Game. 

De Witt C. Middleton, Commissioner, .... Watertown. 

John D. Whish, Secretary, Albany. 

Ohio. 

Fish and Qame. 

J. Lyon Rogers, President, Colambus. 

Paul North, Cleveland. 

Duflf W. Greene, Dayton. 

Thomas B. Paxton, Cincinnati. 

George W. McCook, Steubenville. 

George C. Blankner, Secretary, Columbus. 

Oregon. 

Governor, George E. Chamberlain, .... Salem. 

Secretary of State, F. I. Dunbar, Salem. 

1 State Treasurer, C. S. Moore, Salem. 

\ H. G. Van Dusen, Master Fish Warden, . . Astoria. 



II 



Pennsylvania. 

I Fisheries Commission. 

S. B. Still well, President, Scranton. 

W. E. Meehan, Secretary, Philadelphia. 

H. C. Demuth, Treasurer, Lancaster. 

John Hamberger, Erie. 

James W. Correll, Easton. 

Game Commission, 

William M. Kennedy, President, Pittsburg. 

C. K. Sober, Lewisburg. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 175 

James H. Worden, Harrisburg. 

William H. Myers, Williamsport. 

Charles B. Penrose, Philadelphia. 

J. 0. H. Denney, Ligonier. 

Joseph Kalbfas, Secretary, Harrisburg. 

Rhode Island. 

Inland Fisheries, 

Henry T. Root, Providence. 

William P. Morton, Johnston. 

J. M. K. Soathwick, Newport. 

Charles W. Willard, Westerly. 

Adelbert Roberts, Woonsocket. 

Albert Davis Mead, Providence. 

William H. Boardman, Central Falls. 

Commissioners of Shell Fisheries, 

James M. Wright, Foster. 

Herbert N. Gardiner, . . . . . . Harrington. 

Philip H. Wilbour, Little Compton. 

George W. Hoxie, Charlestown. 

John H. Northup, Warwick. 

James C. Collins, Clerk, North Providence. 

Commissioners of Birds. 

John N. Flanagan, Providence. 

W. Gordon Reed, 2d, Warwick. 

Edwin R. Lewis, Westerly. 

William H. Thayer, Bristol. 

Alexander O'D. Taylor, Newport. 

Utah. 

John Sharp, Salt Lake City. 

Vermont. 

H. G. Thomas, Stowe. 

£. A. Davis, Bethel. 

VmoiNiA. 

John W. Bowdoin, Chairman, Bloxom. 

Seth F. Miller, Secretary, .... . . . Foster. 

George B. Keezell, • . Keezelltown. 

Henry M. Tyler, Richmond. 

Robert J. Camp, Franklin. 



176 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Washdiqton. 

Governor, Henry McBride, Olympia. 

State Treasurer, C. W. Maynard, . , . . . Olympia. 

T. R. Kershaw, Commissioner, ..... Whatcom. 

Wisconsin. 

Governor, Robert M. LaFoUette, ex officio, . . . Madison. 

Edwin E. Bryant, President, Madison. 

William J. Starr, Eau Claire. 

Calvert Spensely, Treasurer, Mineral Point 

James J. Hogan, La Crosse. 

Henry D. Smith, Appleton. 

Currie G. Bell. Bayfield. 

Edward A. Birge, ex officio, Professor of Zoology, 

University of Wisconsin, Secretary, .... Madison. 

James Nevin, Superintendent, Madison. 

WrOMING. 

D. C. Nowlin, State Game Warden, .... L#ander. 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



177 



[B.] 
Distribution of Food Fish. 



Brook Tbout. 

Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery during the Months of April and 

May, 1904, 



Applicamt. 


Name of Brook. 


Town. 


Number. 


Alfred Re«d. 


Little River, .... 


Weatfleld, 


4,000 


L. H, Bowera, . 


Jacks, 


Weatfleld, 




4,000 


C. A. Pierce, 


Cold Spring, .... 


West field. 




4,000 


W.A. Sop«r, . 


Great, 


Weatfleld, 




4,000 


W.L.Nwh. 


Mama, 


Weetfleld, 




4,000 


L. C Cobaro, 


Powder Mill 


Weetfleld. 




4,000 


H. R.8Ulei, 


Slab 


Weatfleld, 




4.000 


W.E.Clark. . 


Hollleter, 


Weatfleld, 




4,000 


Bobert L. Soper. 


Powder's Hollow, . ... 


Weatfleld, 




4,000 


W. 8. Marsh, . 


Timber Swamp 


Weetfleld, 




4,000 


R. K. ADdrewt, 


Great, 


Weetfleld, 




4,000 


H.T.Snow, 


Oak Orchard, . . . . 


Weatfleld, 




4,000 


Marr«y C. Damoo, . 


Mammoth, 


Leomlneter, 




10.000 


Mnmy C. Damon, . 


Heywarda, 


Sterling, . 




6,000 


Morray C. Damon, . 


Chlael 


Lancaater, 




6,000 


E.T.CaDDlDgham, . 


Greenbaah, 


Lancaster, 




4,000 


Neltoo 8. True, . 


Coyote, 


Lancaater, 




4,000 


A. J. Ray, .... 


Moor's, 


Westminster, , 




6,000 


J.E.Stewart, . 


Weir Meadow, .... 


Westminster, 




6,000 


F. N. Carpenter, 


Tophet, 


Westminster, 




6,000 


L.9.MUler. 


Warren and Jobe*8eaver, . 


Westminster, . 




6,000 


Cbarlea Qrlmee, . 


Taney, 


Hubbardston, 




4,000 


Stewart K. Pierce, . 


Haamore, 


Hubbardaton, , 




6,000 


Charlen N. Dyer, 


Hobbardaton, .... 


Hubbardeton, . 




6,000 


B.P.Pierce. . . 


Ragged Hill 


Hubbardaton, 




6,000 


G.H.PIagg, . . . 


Hosmer 


Hubbardaton, , 




4,000 


L.L.Mardock. . 


Maaon, 


Hubbardston, . 




4,000 


M.R.Ooddard, . 


Cole Meadow, .... 


Gardner, . 




6,000 


M.R.Ooddard, . 


Ooprna Mines, .... 


Gardner, . 




6,000 


W.H.Froft. . . . 


BUenwood, 


Athol, 




6,000 


W.H.Prort. . . . 


Popple Camp, .... 


Athol, 




6,000 


U.C.Needham. . 


Parker, 


Colebrook, 




4,000 


M.C.Needham. . 


Bell 


Barre, 




4.000 


WiliiaiD R. Spooner, . 


Paige, 


Barre, 




4,000 


Fnwjk Kdwarda, . 


Carney and Ragglea, . 


Barre, 




4,000 


C.P.Cowdry, . 


Cattacoowamac, .... 


Fitchbnrg, 




8,000 


n.H.Ramaey. . 


Pool, 


New Salem, . 




4,000 


Artbnr B. Fitch, 


Thayer, 


Palmer, . 




4,000 


J. P. Harlnett, . 


Hartnett, 


Palmer, . 




4.000 


J. P. Loman, 


Law lor 's, 


Palmer, . 




4,000 


A. D Norcroae, . 


Conant, 


Monaon, . 




4,000 


C. W. EKgleatOD, 


8now, 


North Brookfleld, . 


8,000 


Steams OroolKs, . 


Mad, 


North Brookfleld, . 


8,000 


Ix>nis Haroeae, . 


Penny, 


Brlmfleld, 


4,000 


F- X. Lawrence, . 


Mill 


Brimfleld, 




4,000 


W. U. Brigham, . 


Stone, 


Marlborough, 




4,000 


H. C. Badaon, . 


Saw-mill, 


Marlborough, 




4.000 


W. D. Tapper, . 


Jerlco, 


Marlborough, , 




4,000 


0. H. Derry, 


Clark and Gannett, . 


Sharon, . 




6.000 


0. H. Derry, 

D. FraniK Cfrane, . 


Beayer Hole, .... 


Bbaron, . 




3,000 


Char lea Brlgga, .... 


Norton, . 




4,000 


C.V.Dudley, . 


Burt, 


Northbrldge, . 


4,000 



178 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fry distributed from the StUion HcUchery, etc. — Concluded. 



Applicant. 



M. H. Coffin, 
W. L. Taft, . 
George L. Gill, . 
George B. Whitehead 
George Pogue, . 
Horace Adams, . 
William F. Brown, 
William Gillespie, 
T. F. Mathews, . 
K. J. Cole, . 
N.J.Cole, . 
C. L. Allen, 
Dom Pocal, . 
Walter H. Edgerly, 
Fred H. Hill, 
C. H.Laselle, 
C. B. Bdwards, . 
Murray J. Bowen, 
Fred 8. Bonle, . 
John W. Delano, 



Name of Brook. 



Town. 



Nanber. 



Purgatory, . 

Poor Farm, . 

Carpenter, . 

McCracken and Hall, . 

Carroll and George, . 

Adams, 

Cold Spring, 

Despean, 

Muddy, 

Cemetery and Taylor, 

Houghton*s, . . 

Barber, 

Goodell, 

West Meadow, . 

Sweden, 

Burpee, • . . . 

Ford's 

Palmer River, 
High Brook, 
Doggett's, . 



Northbrldge, 
Nortbbridge, 
Northbrldge, 
Millbnry, 
Grafton, . 
Grafton, . 
GraftOD, . 
Grafton, . 
Mendon, . 
South Acton, 
South Acton, 
Worcester, 
Southbridge, 
West Bridgewater, 
Attlebo rough. 
Sterling, . 
Franklin, . 
Rehoboth, 
West wood, 
Rochester, 



4,000 



4,000 
4.000 
8,000 
4,000 
4.000 
4,000 
4,000 
10,000 
&.000 
4.0U) 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4.000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 

S31,000 



Fry distributed from the Winchester Hatchery during the Months of April 

and May, 1904. 



I 



t' 



i 



I 

l| 



II 



ii 



1, r^: 



Charles B. Taylor, 
L. A. White, 
Frank W. Ames, 

C. W. Ames, 
George H. Damon, 
E. E. Wood, 

D. F. Mcintosh, . 
Edward Payson, 
Frank P. Slmonds, 
Abbott S. Mitchell, 
H. M. Munroe, . 
C. A. Currier, 

N. J. Hardy, 
George P. Winn,. 
A. C LaBreque, 

E. 8. Farmer, 

O. W. Whittemore, 
A. 6. Harrimao, . 
E. N. Schofield, . 

A. L. Kobinaon, . 
C. P. Abbott, 
Edward N. Enmes, 
Arthur E. Roberts, 
E. A. Uarriii, 
Joshua D. Upton, 
Alva Morse, 

B. F. Wilder, 
Frank Shaw, 
Caleb L. Smith, . 
O. F Flies, . 
Charles A. Luot, 
B . J. Cnle, . 
W. 8. Mitchell, . 

A. H. Coffin, 

B. B. Tlrrell, 
8. Nickerson, 
Luther Bailey, . 
Henry A. Phillips, 
Williara E. Badger, 
M. E. Leahy, 

W. F. Holmes, . 
Clifford Poor, . 
Clifford Poor, . 



Cutler's, 

Ames, .... 

Keyes, .... 

Reading, 

Lincoln, . . . 

Content, 

Vine 

Grassland, . 

Slmonds', 

Brown's, 

Shaker Glen, 

Vine, .... 

Coz, .... 

Beaver, .... 

Winn 

Merrlam, 

Mill, .... 

Read's, 

Argella, 

Greendale and Nash, . 

Morrill, 

Lubber's, 

North, .... 

Gould, .... 

East 

Penn, .... 
Pengree Farm, . 
Blodgett, 

Blind 

Smallpox, . 

Tan House, . 

Hawk's, 

Fuller's, 

Alewlfe, 

Old Swamp, . 

Herring, 

Shaving, 

Herring, 

Prospect and Hoods, . 

Long, .... 

Monatiquot, . 

Brandy brow and Snow, 

Pearl 



Wobum, . 

Wobum, , 

Woburn, . 

Woburn, . 

Woburn, . 

Blllerica, . 

Bedford, . 

Liezington, 

Lexington, 

Lexington, 

Lexington, 

Lexington, 

Winchester, 

Belmont, . 

Belmont, . 

Blllerica, . 

Arlington, 

Arlington, 

Groveland, 

Groveland, 

Groveland, 

Wilmington, 

Reading, . 

Reading, . 

Reading, . 

Georgetown, 

Georgetown, 

Chelmsford, 

Chelmsford, 

Salisbury, 

Rowley, . 

Methuen, . 

Middleton, 

Gloucester, 

Weymouth, 

Chatham, . 

Mlddleborough 

Harwich, . 

Tewkubury, 

Randolph, 

ELandolph, 

Haverhill, 

Boxford, . 



4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 

4.«ie 

4,000 
4.000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 

4,tW 
4,000 

4,'>30 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
5,000 
6.000 
8.000 
4,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,ft)0 

4,0^ 
4,iV0 
4,000 
4.t«0 
4,0« 
4.i>.« 

4.000 

4.000 

s.*io 

8,500 
4.M5 
8,itf 

S.0« 

a,oiX' 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



179 



Fry distribtUedfrani the Winchester Hatchery, etc. — Concluded. 



APPLICAHT. 



Name of Brook. 



Town. 



Number. 



Alb«rt W. Lewli, 
Oeorge L. HontooD, 
J.E.tfllli, . 
Frank M. CtuM, 
Siaoley A. Aldrieh, 
Dana C. Ererett, 
Nathan B. Everett, 
A. H. Gardner, . 
George P. MeCann, 
U. A. Cuooiminge, 
Samuel Hyde, 



Noquochoke, 

Double, 

Golden CoTe, 

KJrby, . 

(JopicDt, 

Ledge, . 

Corwell, 

Sblngle leland, . 

Moitaer'a, 

Bread and Cheese, 

Cress, . 



West port, 
Drscut, . 
Chelmsford, 
Weskport, 
Fall Klver, 
Assonet. . 
Central Village, 
Hlcksvllle, 
Freetown, 
Westport, 
Fall River, 



3,»)0 
4.U00 
4,000 
3,600 
3,500 
3,600 
8,600 
3,600 
3,600 
3,600 
8,600 



203,600 



Fry disirilnUed Jram the EadUy Hatchery during the Months of April and 

May, 1904. 



J. p. Page, . 

J. L Page, . . 

Edvard B. Dleklnson 

A. F, Bardwell, . 
T. F. Buckley, . 
J.B.Page, . . 

B. £. Bliss, . 

A. W. Hoffman, , 
Oeorge Hoffman, 
P. K. While, 
Charles H. Sawyer, 
Samuel Spencer, 
Thomas Abeam, 
Louis Gaylor, . 
Edward Miller, . 
PeierMcHogb, . 
JoKph D. Poontaine, 
Joseph D. FoontaiDe, 
H B. Bailey, . 
John Robertson, 
William A. Barber, 
Edfirsrd J. Brannigan 
E.W.Lswton, . 
H. Pf . Plftherdlck, 
I>enni* P. Shea. . 
P. E. Hswkes, . 
W. A. Smith, . 
John Doherly, . 
J. J. Drltcoll, . 
M. e. Walsh, . 
A. F. Dubuque, . 
J. R B«aadoln, . 
Joel Martin, 
i^oos W. Boise, , 
OeofRe W. Fowler, 
William H. Fowler, 
George A. Smith, 
H.fi.Day, . ! 
A.P.Pierce, 



Dickinson, 

Taylor, . . . . • . 

Russell, 

Pelham, 

Maple, 

Elmer, 

Leaping Well, . . . . 
Leaping Well, . . . . 

Buttery, 

Stony, 

Broad, 

Robert's Meadow, 

Ahearn, 

Parsons, 

Loudville River, . . . . 
Running Ontter, . . . . 
Punch and Bardwell, . • 

George Nos. 1 and 2, . 
Bennett's Meadow, 

Morey, 

Green, 

Newton, 

Muddy, 

Flat. 

BIwell. ...... 

Rogers, 

Packard, 

Highland 

Wlllimansett, . . 
Cooley, . . . . 

Fuller, 

Poor, 

Black and Gibbs, 
Potash and Freeland, . 

Kenney, 

Skunk 

Ward lot, 

Dry, . . . 

Day, 



Amherst, . 
Amherst, . 
Sunderland, 
Montague, 
South Hadley, 
South Hadley, 
South Hadley, 
South Hadley. 
South Hadley, 
South Hadley, 
Northampton, 
Northampton, 
Sunderland, 
Baethampton, 
Easthampton, 
Hatfield. . 
Greenfield. 
Shelburne, 
Greenfield, 
Ley den, . 
Leyden, . 
Hnrdwick, 
Ware, 
Ware, 
Hardwlck, 
Goshen, . 
Goshen, . 
Goshen, . 
Chicopee. 
Cbicopee. 
Chicopee, 
Chicopee, 
BIwndford,* 
Russell,* . 
Chester,* . 
Chester,* . 
Chester,* . 
Chester,* . 
Chester,* . 



6,000 
6.000 
6.000 
6.000 
6.000 
6,000 
6,000 
6.000 
6.000 
5,000 
5,000 
6,000 
6.000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
10,000 
10,000 
6,000 
6,000 
5,000 
6,000 
5.000 
5,000 
5,000 
6,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5.000 
5,000 
5,000 
10,000 
6,000 
5.000 
5.000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



210,000 



* The Blandford, Russell and Cheater lota were all brown trout. 



180 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fry distribtUed from the Adams Hatchery during the Months of April and 

May, 1904, 



Applicant. 



Name of Brook. 



To WD. 



Number. 



4,000 
5,'JOO 
10,'WO 
5,000 
5,000 

5,000 

10,'M) 

10,000 

IS.Oi'O 

lO.fW 

5,C*!U 

5,iM) 

lO.OCO 

5,000 

5,00(1 

5,I>H 

5,0i« 

5,.W 

5,000 

5,006 

5,0^.' 
15.000 

lo.oa 

5,000 
5,000 
5,00fl 

9,aov 
io,(«o 

5.000 
J10,000 



William A. Burns, 
William K. Henry, 
William K Henry, 
James M. Bams, 
H. W. Larabee, . 
Edward H. Pratl, 
Edward H. Pratt, 
8. Q. Tenney, 
Wiilard B Koyk, 
W. S. Qabb, 
W. 8. Qabb, 
W. S. Hathaway, 
L. H. Randall, . 
F. H. Pierce, 
F. H. Fierce, 

B. L. Bird, . . 
W. M. Niles, 
L.J Hall, . 
CI. Leslie, 

F. W. Wbitlock, 
Edgar R. Gillett, 
A. B. Sumner, . 
Francis O'Neil, . 
Francis O'Neil. . 
George F. 8ayles, 
William F. MarUn, 
H. B. Burdicic, . 
F. L Snow, 

C. H Sage, . 
L. B. Moore, 



Yokum, 

Unctaamett, . 

Brattle and Saokett, 

Tokam, 

Cold Rlyer, . 

Sherman and Tunnel* 

McNamara, 

Sweet, . 

Buxton, 

Clark, Cole and Bbaw, 

Crosby and Buxton, 

Storks, . 

Drowned Land, 

Pierce and Torrey, 

Steep Bank, 

Hollis. . 

Bozrab, 

Rice, . 

Benton, 

Clam, . 

Read, . 

Underwood* 

Topbot, Miller and Dry, 

Fisk and Bassett, 

Dry, 



Mark Jenke, 
McDonald, . 
Whitford Rock, 
Konkapot, . 
Hop, . 



Richmond, 

Pittsfield, 

Piitofleld, 

Lenox, 

Florida. . 

North Adams, 

North Adams, 

Wllliamstown, 

Williamstown, 

Cammlngton, 

Cummington, 

Savoy, 

Sayoy, 

Windsor, . 

Windsor, . 

Windsor, . 

Charlemont, 

Charlemont, 

Otis, . 

Sandisfleld, 

Heath, 

Heath, 

Adams, . 

Adams, 

Adams, . 

Cheshire, . 

Cheshire, . 

Cheshire, . 

Great Barrington, 

Tyrlngham, 



Finger ling Brook Trout Plants. 



•i 

I 

■ 

:! 



Charles Grimes, . 
Henry H. Hollock, 
G.H.Flagg, 
A. C. Murdock, . 
Geo. F. Parsons, 
C.L.Allen,. 
John F. Daniels, . 
Frank L. Pike, . 
C. F. Oowdry, . 
Dom Pocal, . 
Joseph P. Love, . 
W. L. Taft, . 
Geo. L. Gill. 
C.V.Dudley, . 
M. H. Coffin, 
Michael J. Shea, . 
A. B. Snow, 
A. D. Putnam, . 
J. S. Amen, . • 
Chas. A. Brown,. 

A. W. Pratt, 
Myron R. Goddard, 
L. J. McKnight, . 
F. J. Pierce, 
Allen G. Buttrick. 

B. T. Cunningham, 
Nelson S. True, . 
Geo. W. Cook, . 
J. F. Barrett, 
John S. Rice, 
William F. Brown, 
George Pogue, . 
William Gilllsple, 
Charles Adams, . 
Horace Adams, . 
C.S.Howe,. 



Cook, . 

Tanyard, 

Hosmer, 

Mason, . . 

Natty, . 

Weasel, 

Nigger and Streeter, 

Richardson Stevens, 

Mulpus, 

Walker, 

Potash and Freeman, 

Poor Farm, . 

Daniel Day, . 

Prentiss, 

Prentiss, 

South Street, 

Howe, . • 

Newell, . 

Lovewells, . 

Ragged Hill, 

Bailey, . 

HubbardstoD, 

French, . . 

Reed, . 

Four Palds, . 

Green bush, . 

Coyote, . 

Mullet, . 

Paige, . 

Paige and Prince, 

Cold Spring, 

George and Carroll, 

Despeau, . 

Misco, . 

Adams, . . 

Whiting, 



Hubbardeton, 

HnbbardstOD, 

HnbbardstOD, 

Habbardston, 

Hubbardston, 

Worcester, 

Pazton, . 

Charlton, . 

Fltchburg, 

Souihbrldge, 

Webster, . 

Northbrldge, 

Northbrldge, 

Northbrldge, 

Northbrldge, 

Warren, . 

Spencer, . 

Spencer, . 

Hubbardston, 

Hubbardston, 

Gardner, . 

Gardner, . 

Templeton, 

Gardner, . 

Lancaster, 

Lancaster, 

Lancaster, 

Barre, 

Barre, 

Barre, 

Grafton, . 

Grafton, . 

Grafton, . 

Grafton, . 

Grafton, . 

North Brookfleld, 



90 
200 

» 
300 

300 
SB 
»0 
500 

9» 
900 
400 
90 
500 

300 
JOB 

joe 

soo 

90 

3» 
>» 

>« 

5* 

¥f 

** 

JflF 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



181 



Fingerling Brook Trout Plants — Continued. 



Appucaxt. 



Name of Brook. 



Town. 



Number. 



Snett h. Cor bio, 
C. L. Bush, . 
Bteveos Crooks, . 
G. W.CowiM, . 
C.E.Bill*, . 

J. B. llMkiDfl, . 

C. H. Clark, 
J 0. 8. Uackley, 
C. H. UMeUe, . 
Geo. P. Prevear, . 
Geo. F. Prereftr, . 
Geo. P. Prevear, 
M.C.Wood, 
W. G. Koiberham, 
H. J. Sawyer, 
J. M. HlKto, . 
Frederick Bpeooer, 
J. ^ Oatbooae, . 
John P. Hood, . 
0. W. Wright, . 
Cbaa. H. KoberUoD, 
fi. A. AthertOD, . 
C.E.BaM, . 
C. H. Roaaell, . 
Michael 8Uva, . 
HeDry A. Barton, 
P. H. Clarriaey, . 
Wm.e. Carey, . 
F. N. Oroeebeck, 

E. W. Htoekwell, 
J. 8. Moore, 
FrtDk C. Backne, 
J. K. Morgan, 

F. W. Whlilock, 
C.J. LeeHe, 

H 8. Dean, 
Geo D. Ureggory, 
H.S.MaDleyr . 
F. M. 8mUh, 
F.E While. 
A. W. Hoffman, . 
8.8. BliM, . 
GtK). Hoffman, . 

E. B. Diekenaon, 
•J.F.Page, . 

C. F. Branch, 
T 8. Pa«e, . . 
C. L. Lyman, 
M. L. 8omborger, 
Geo. F. Pearaon, 
Albert A. dmltta, 
Caleb L. Smith, . 
H. W. Boynton, . 
Wm. A. Lang. . 
Cba. M. Griffin, 
F.A Griffin. . 
G«o. W. Olcott, . 

C. N. Hargravee, 

F. R. Newton, . 
F. B. Barrett, 

H. P. ADdrewe, . 
Wm. Whiimore, 
Frank L. Blood, . 
H.C. Wheeler, . 
J. F Piper, . 
J. F. P^Per, . 
W.A.Kemp, 
Cbaa. M. Kimball, 

D. L. Ball. . 
W.S.Sheldon, . 
LoDic Uarnees, . 
F. N. Lawrence, . 
A. D. Norcroas, . 
A. D. Norcroaa, . 
A. D. Norcroea, . 
John P. Loman, . 



Town Farm, 

Mad, . 

Mad, . 

Kent Meadow, 

White, . 

Bodlah, . 

Allen, . 

Pieroe, . 

Oagood, 

Hey ward, . 

Fort Pond, . 

Maasapoag, . 

SampaoD, 

Drake, . 

Apple Valley, 

Bear RWer, . 

Clark, . 

Avery, . 

Fall River, . 

Branch of Swift RiTer 

Hlbbard, 

Fall River, . 

Mount Oraee, 

Thatcher, 

WaeonaFalia, 

Bt-nton, 

Cady, . 

Cleveland, . 

Benton, 

Umpacheenee* 

Bltae, . 

Bhaker, 

Jaeschke, 

Oreen River, 

Green River, 

Pegnr, . 

Bmlth, . . 

Moreley, 

BHcbelor, 

Leaping Well, 

Btony, . 

Goepeif 

Kellogg, 

Taylor, 

Baat Street, . 

Rnaaeil, 

Diekenaon, . 

Mooae, . 

Joe Wright, 

Black, . 

Golden Cove, 

Blind, . 

McClnree, 

Wright, 

Great, . 

Mine, . 

Woods, 

Rattlesnake, 

Bo wd Itch, . 

Baiting, 

Hog, 



Cherry, 
Baddacook, . 
Virginia Road, 
Pearl Hill, . 
Barberry and Bixby, 
Nokee, 



Taylors, 
Becond Division 
Trap Falls, . 
Penney, 
Mill, . 
Conant, 
Conant, 
Toby, . . 
Lao lore, 



North Brookflel 


d, . 200 


North Brooktlel 


d, . 200 


North Brookael 


d, . 200 


West Brookfieh 


i, . 200 


West Brookfieh 


1, . 200 


West Brookfieh 


1, . 200 


West Brookfieh 


i, . 200 


West Brookfieh 


i, . 200 


Lancaster, 


200 


Lunenburg, 


800 


Shirley, . 


300 


Shirley, . 


400 


Ware, . 


200 


AahUeld, . 


200 


Aahfield, . 


200 


Conway, . 


200 


Bockland, 


200 


Charlemont, . 


200 


Gill, . 


200 


New Balem, . 


200 


Ley den, . 


200 


Bernardston, . 


200 


Warwick, 


200 


Greenfield, 


200 


Dalton, . 


. 1 


Dalton, . 


. 


Dalton, . 


. . V 1,200 


Dalton, . 




Dalton, . 
New Marlboroi 




igh, . 200 


West Stookbric 


Ige, . 200 


Hancock, . 


200 


Adams, 


200 


Great Barrlngt 


on, . 200 


Great Barringt 


on, . 200 


Great Barrlngt 


on, . 200 


Bandisfield, . 


200 


Bandisfleld, 


200 


Booth Hadley, 


400 


South Hadley, 


200 


South Hadley, 


200 


South Hadley, 


200 


South Hadley, 


200 


Amherst, . 


200 


Amherst, . 


200 


Amherst, . 


200 


Amherst, . 


200 


Southampton, 


200 


Williamsburg, 


200 


Lowell. . 


200 


Chelmsford, 


200 


Chelmsford, 


200 


Chelmsford, 


200 


Chelmsford, 


200 


Westford, 


200 


Westford, 


200 


BiUerica, . 


200 


South Framing 


bam, 200 


South Framing 


ham, 200 


South Framing 


ham, 200 


Hudson, . 


200 


WestoD, . 


200 


Groton, . 


200 


Concord, . 


200 


Townsend, 


•iOO 


TowDseod, 


200 


Pepperell, 


200 


South Acton, 


400 


Concord Junct 


ion, . 200 


Aabby, 


200 


WestBrimfieh 


d, . 200 


West Brlmflel 


d. . 200 


Wales, . 


200 


Monson, . 


200 


Monson, . 


200 


Palmer, . 


200 



182 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fingerling Brook Trout Plants — Concluded. 



Applicant. 



Name of Brook. 



Town. 



Nomber. 






Arthurs. Fitch,. 
M.H. Waleh, . 
Ja0 R. Beaudolo, 
Robert L. Soper, 
W. A. Soper, 
H. R. Siilee, 
Alfred Read, 
W. E Clark, 
R. K. Uollister, . 
C. A . Pierce, 
H. T. Snow, 
W.J. Morton, . 
O. T. Fllei, . 
W. F. Holmee, . 
M. E. Leahy, 
J. E. Emeraon, . 
O. H. Derry, 
N. B Everett, . 
A. W. Lewie, 
N. H. Wood, . 
M.J. Bo wen, 
M. A. Cumrolnge, 
W. C. Woodward, 
W. C. Woodward, 
Stanley Aldrich, 
Geo. T. Parker, . 
I«aac V. Braley, 
F. B. Trunchey, 
Cha«. F. Pfelflfer, 
Oeo. H. Sweetman, 
F. MCarthy, 
G.W. Piper, 
David a. Wheelton, 
Clifford Poor, . 
Cha*. A. Lant, . 
F. M. Palmer. 
Abbot S. Coffin, . 
T. J. FitZKerald, 
C. P. Abbot, 
A. C Groves, 
Henry W. Uill, . 
F. L. Biebee, 
W. H. Thayer, . 
L. W. Sears, 
Henry Bnssett, . 
W. H. Frost, 
F. L Hager, 
Louis H. Ruggles, 
Timothy Page, . 
Wm. G. Rice, . 
Chas. H. Sawyer, 
Wm. G. Bassett, 
Peter McHugb, . 
Arthur Day, 
Kdward Miller, . 
Philip Lnngdcn, . 
Samuel Spencer,. 
Louis F. Gaylor, 
Chas. A. Foster, 
Wm. H. Carter, . 
James DriscoU, . 
F.n. Pierce, 
F. N. Hasklns, . 
J. E. Ctidagon, . 
O. H. Sage, . 
Fred U. Miller, . 
P. M. Woodward, 
Chas. Cummlngs, 
Cyrus Borton, 
James J. Driscoll, 
J F. Hartnett, . 
Chas. Sugden, 
Claude A. Tarbox, 
Seth Damon, 



Thayer, 

Cooley, 

Poor, . 

Blat, 

Powder Mill, 

Timber Swamp, 

White, . 

Cold Spring, 

Holllsier, . 

Mums, . 

Oak Orchard, 

Jacks, . 

Smallpox, . 

Nonatlquol, . 

Noraway, . 

Woodwards, 

Beaver Hole, 

Ledge, . 

Noquochoke, 

Tuckers, 

Branch of Palmer River, 

Bread and Cheese, 

Fall and Shearing, 

Raven and Bennettf, 

Mothers, 

Acuehnet, 

Keenes, 

Noanel, 

Clay, . 

Smith, . 

Hawks, 

Fosters, 

Wheeltons, 

Pearl, . 

Tanhouse, 

Cuba, . 

Alewlfe, 

Woods. 

Mill, . 

Mill, . 

Blake and BuUard, 

Bradford, 

Farnsworth, 

Hunt, . 

Hartwell, 

Brigham, 

North, . 

Moose, . 

Powers, 

Stevens, 

Broad, . 

Roberts Meadow, 

Running Gutter, 

Lead Mine, . 

Pomeroy, 

Sandy Hill, . 

Turkey Hill, 

Parsons, 

LoudviUe, west branch, 

Loudvllle, east branch, 

Tyler, . 

Savoy branch, 

Hasklns, 

McDonald, 

Konkapol, 

Beechwood, 

Black Fly. 

Woburn, 

Black, . 

Willimansett, 

Hartnett, 

Ludden, 

Wheeler, 

Mill River, 



Palmer, . 

Chlcopee, 

Chloopee, 

Weatfleld, 

Weatfleld, 

West field, 

Weatfleld, , 

Westfield, 

Weatfleld, 

Westfleld, 

Westfleld, 

Westfleld, 

Salisborv, 

Randolph, 

Randolph, 

Franklin, . 

Sharon, . 

VVestport, 

Westport, 

Norton, . 

Reboboth, 

Fall River, 

Middieborongb, 

Middleborongh, 

Asaonet, . 

Acushnet, 

Acnshnet, 

Dover, 

Dover, 

Bedford, . 

Methuen, 

Methuen, 

Mlddleton, 

Boxford, . 

Rowley, . 

North Andover, 

Gloucester, 

Andover, . 

Groveland, 

Middlefield, 

Williamsburg, 

Williamsburg, 

Williamsburg, 

Huwley, . 

Charlemont, 

Orange, . 

Bald win vllle, . 

Hardwick, 

Hardwick, 

Worthlngton, . 

Northampton, . 

Northampton, . 

Hatfield, . 

Easthampton, . 

Easthampton, . 

Northampton, . 

Northampton, . 

Northampton, . 

Westhampton, 

Westhampton, 

Windsor, . 

Windsor, . 

Savov. 

Cheshire, . 

Great Barrlngton, 

Hlngham, 

Medway, . 

Woburn, . 

Lowell, . 

Chlcopee, 

Palmer, . 

Spencer, . 

B\' field, . 

Weymouth, 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. ' 



183 



Pottds restocked, 1904. 



Namx or Pond. 


Town. 


Brown Trout 
Flngerlinga. 


Pike Perch 
Pry. 


Landlocked 
Smelt Bgga. 


Adult 
Brook 
Trout. 


North, .... 
Foreit Lake, 
RooDd, .... 
MaMapoag, . 
Spectacle, . 

Fort 

Qaabbln Lake, . 
Laorel Lake, 

WWle 

Hampioo, 

Chaaba oagnngamaug. 
Pearl Lake, . 
Cranberry, . 

Roek 

Neck 


Orange, . 
Palmer, 
Palmer, . 
Oroton, 
Littleton, . 
Littletou, . 
Oreenwlcta, 

J-ivOf • • • 

Concord, . 
Weetfleld, 
Webater, . 
Wrentham, 
Spencer, . 
Gfieorgetown, . 
Barnatable, 


1,000 

1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

1,000 


800.000 
800,000 
800,000 
800,000 
300,000 
800,000 
800,000 


2,000,000 
S,000,000 

2,000,000 
2,000,000 

2,000,000 
2,000,000 
4,000,000 


180 
112 




6,000 


2,100,000 


10,000,000 


242 



Ponds stocked but not closed, 1904. 



Nun OY POKD. 


Town. 


Rainbow Trout 
Flngerlinga. 


Adult Brook 
Trout. 


Hooaicwhlaick, .... 
Lake Qoineigamond, 


Blue Hill reeervation, . 
Worcester, .... 


1,000 


06 



Fonds stocked and closed in Accordance wUh Section 19 <, Chapter 91, Re- 
vised Laws, 1904. 



Njois of Pond. 


Town. 


Brown Trout 
Flngerlinga. 


Rainbow 
Trout 


Landlocked 
Salmon 


Pike 
Perch 






Flngerlinga. 


Flngerlinga. 


Fry. 


Maaaapoag, . 


Sharon, 


^ 


^ 


^ 


600,000 


Pleaaant, 


Weotaam, . 


- 


- 


- 


300,000 


Long 


Tewkabury, . 


- 


- 


- 


800,000 


LoDg and Little Long, 


Plymoutta, 


1,000 


- 


- 


800,000 


Greal, .... 


North Andover, 


- 


1,000 


•. 


- 


QoaDoapowltt, 
Packard, 


Wakefield, 


- 


1,000 


- 


.. 


Orange, 


> 


- 


1,200 


- 


Baddacook, . 


Oroton, . 


- 


1,000 


- 


- 


Forett Lake, 


Palmer, 


- 


1,000 


- 


- 


Sheep, .... 


B re water, . 


. 


1,000 


- 


. 


Bakera, .... 


Orleana, . 


1,000 


— 


. 


. 


Gooie, .... 


ChaUiam, . 


1,000 


- 


- 


~ 


Long, .... 


Freetown, . 


1,000 


- 


> 


- 


Great Herring, 


Plymouth, 


1,000 


- 


- 


. 


BilltDgton Sea, 


Plymouth, 


- 


1,000 


— 


- 




5,000 


0,000 


1,200 


1,600,000 



184 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[C] 
Distribution of Pheasants, 



Pheasants were liberated in the covers in various sections of 

the State, as indicated in the following list, which also em- 
braces the names of applicants for birds : — 

A. J. PuringtoD, Palmer. 

Dr. Frederick H. Saunders, Westfield. 

A. H. Jefts, Athol. 

Clarence C. Russell, Greenfield. 

Rufus B. Dodge, Worcester. 

Heman S. Cheney, Southbridge. 

£. J. Norman, Lee. 

F.F.Baldwin, HopkintoD. 

F. W. Smitli, South Hadley. 

Oliver H. Derry Sharon. 

£. B. Sherman, Franklin. 

Selectmen, Bridgewater. 

H. H. Gabeler, Worcester. 

C. C. Russell, Greenfield. 

C. F. Cowdrey, Fitchborg. 

S. G. Poole, Gloucester. 

C. M. Kimball, South ActOD. 

William Trautman, Ballardyale. 

Edward Joyce, Lawrence. 

LfOuis P. Howe, Marlborough. 

Hon. G. H. Doty, Waltham. 

Hon. Sanborn G. Tenney, Williamstown. 

John M. Van Huyck, North Adams. 

F. S. Stockwell, Millbury. 

A. D. Barnes Southbridge. 

Cbas. M. Kimball South Acton. 

Henry P. Andrews, Hudson. 

Frnest N. Schofield, Groveland. 

F. C. Johnson, East Saugus. 

Thomas Williams, Attleboroagh. 

Henry M. Knowles, New Bedford. 

S M. Fuller Rock. 

W. F. Holmes, M.D., Randolph. 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 185 

Walter H. Edgerly, Bridgewater. 

J. M. Burke, Provincetown. 

C. F. Lynch, Lawrence. 

Bernard J. Callahan, Lowell. 

James £. Bums, Lowell. 

Franklin S. Stockwell, West Millbury. 

Henry L. Crane, Bridgewater. 

Fred S. Lufkin, Gloucester. 

W. H. Reynolds, Braintree. 



186 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



[D.] 
Distribution of Belgian Hares. 



A. J. PuringtoD, Palmer. 

Andrew Bryson, Ware. 

James F. Soott, Ballardvale. 

Edward Miller, Northampton. 

F.M.Smith, Sooth Hadley Falls. 

C. M. Fettingill, Cummington. 

Leo Clark, Millville. 

P. A. Dowd, Worcester. 

F. H. Saunders, Westfield. 

W. H. Frost, Athol. 

£. B. Sherman, Franklin. 

Oliver H. Derry, Sharon. 

W. H. Reynolds, Braintree. 

Edward Shattuck, Andover. 

Thomas Le Saeur, Gloucester. 

Ezra O. Bradford, Athol. 

Thomas B. Rounds, Somerset. 

Fred H. Hill, Attleborough. 

F. C. Johnson, East Saugus. 

Henry M. Knowles, New Bedford. 

James M. Burke, Provincetown. 

Hon. Sanborn G. Tenney, .... Williamstown. 

Edwin C. Hotchkiss, Gloucester. 

Charles M. Kimball, South Acton. 

Edward Miller, Northampton. 

A. H. Jefts, Athol. 

Leo Clark Millville. 

F. H. Saunders, Westfield. 

Edward W. Hunt, Weymouth. 

E. H. Morse, Petersham. 

W. N. Frost, Athol. 



i 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEMT — No. 25. 



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190 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec\ 



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Levi Burgess,* 
Edward Benoit,* 
Francis Bertin,* 
Charles Broadbent,* 
Luke Dagan,* . 
Samuel Dion,* 
Louis Dion,* . 
Napoleon Ricards,* 
Bozie Pairry,* . 
Philip Gogan.* 
Manuel V. Perry,* . 
Andrew Olsen,* 
Mike Hewitt,* . 
Walter E. Nickerson, 
William H. Gould, . 
William F. Curtis, . 
Leroy S. Isley, 
John C. Heyer, 
James H. Brad ley, f 
James Shorton, 
Oren Kidder, . 
Michael McNiff, . 
James E. Worcester, 
Ernest Shelters, 
Georp;e A Cooper, . 
John W. Snngor, 
Cicorgo II. Muor», . 



i 



1901.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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192 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



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[F.] 
Legislation. 



Acts of 1904. 

[Ghaptbb 116.] 

An Act to authorize the taking of shiners for bait in the 

connecticut river during certain months. 
Be U enacted, etc., as follows : 

SicnoN 1. SectioQ eighty-one of chapter ninety-one of the Re- 
vised Laws is hereby amended by striking out the word "river", 
in the third line, and inserting in place thereof the words : — and 
ConnecticQt rivers, — so as to read as follows : — Section 81 . During 
November and December any person may, for the purpose of taking 
Bhiners for bait, draw a net or seine at any point in the Merrimac and 
Connecticut rivers except within four hundred yards of any fishway ; 
and if any other fish so caught are immediately returned alive to the 
waters from which they were taken, the penalties prescribed in sec- 
tions forty-six, forty-seven, forty-nine, seventy-eight and seventy- 
nine shall not apply to the taking of such fish. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
February 27^ 1904. 

[Ghaptbb 118.] 
An Act relative to fisheries in the waters of pleasant bay 

ANB its tributaries IN THE TOWN OF ORLEANS. 

Bt it enacted, etc, as follows : 

Section 1. No purse or sweep seines, set nets or gill nets, for 
the taking of fish shall be set, drawn, used or maintained in the 
waters of Pleasant bay or its tributaries in the town of Orleans ; but 
nothing herein contained shall be construed to forbid or make unlaw- 
fnl the maintaining of traps, pounds or weirs under licenses granted 
in accordance with section one hundred and sixteen of chapter 
ninety-one of the Revised Laws. 

Section 2. Any person who shall set, draw, use or maintain a 
purse or sweep seine, set net or gill net in violation of this act shall 
be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than five 



200 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

hundred dollars, or by impriaonmeiit for a term not exceeding six 
months. 

Section 3. Chapter one hundred and sixty- three of the acts of 
the year nineteen hundred and one is hereby repealed. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. {^Approved 
February 27, 1904. 



[Ghaptrb 132.] 

An Act to authorize the arrest withoitt warrant of persoxs 

UNLAWFULLY FISHING IN PALHER'S RIYER. 

Be it enacted^ etc.^ (is follows : 

Section 1. Th^ sheriff of the county of Bristol or any of hu 
deputies, or any constable or fish warden of either of the towns of 
Swansea and Rehoboth, may without a warrant arrest any person 
whom he finds in the act of taking herring, alewives or shad from the 
waters of Palmer's river in either of said towns in violation of tlie 
provisions of chapter one hundred and thirty of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and thirty-six, or of chapter ninety-two of the acts 
of the year eighteen hundred and fifty-two, and may detain such per- 
son in a place of safe keeping until a warrant can be procured upon 
a complaint against him for said offence : provided, that the detention 
without a warrant shall not exceed twenty-four hours. 

Section 2. Whoever violates the provisions of either of said 
chapters shall, in addition to the forfeitures therein provided, forfeit 
the seines or nets used in such unlawful taking of herring, alewives 
or shad. [^Approved March 6, 1904. 



[Chaptbb 176.] 

An Act to provide for better protection of birds and wild 

animals on the lord*s dat. 

Be it enacted^ etc.^ as follows : 

Section one of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by inserting after the word '^ birds ", in the second line, tbe 
words: — wild animals, — and by striking out all after the words 
* liable to", in the third line, and inserting in place thereof tbe 
words : — a penalty of not less than ten nor more than twenty dollais 
in addition to any penalties for taking, killing or having in posses- 
sion birds, wild animals or game protected by law, — so as to read as 
follows : — Section 1. The Lord's day shall be close season. Who- 
ever hunts or destroys birds, wild animals or game of any kind on 
the Lord's day shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten nor 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 201 

more than twenty dollars in addition to any penalties for taking, kill- 
ing or having in possession birds, wild animals or game protected by, 
law. [Approved March 22^ 1904, 



[Ghaptkr 223.] 

An Act eklative to the taking of black bass. 
Be U enacUd^ etc., as follows : 

SEcnoN 1. Section sixty-nine of chapter ninety-one of the Re- 
vised Laws, relative to the taking of black bass, is hereby repealed. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
AprU .9, 1904. 

[Chaptbb 232. J 

An Act to permit the taking of alewives or herring in hum- 
mock POND IN the island OF NANTUCKET. 

Be U enacted^ ele.^ as follows : 

Section 1 . The inhabitants of the island of Nantucket may take 
alewives or herring with seines or nets in Hummock pond, south of the 
bridge in the said island, from the tenth day of March to the thirty- 
first day of May, inclusive, in each year ; but all fish, other than 
alewives or herring, caught or taken in such seines or nets shall 
immediately be put back in the water whence they were taken. 

Section 2. Any person violating the provisions of this act, by 
failing to put back immediately as aforesaid fish other than alewives 
or herring caught or taken as aforesaid, shall be punished by a fine 
of not less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars. 

Section 3. So much of section twenty-six of chapter ninety-one 
of the Revised Laws as is inconsistent herewith is hereby repealed. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April J5, 1904. 

[Ghaptbr 269.] 

An Act to provide for the protection and cultivation of qua- 

HAUGS in the towns of EA8THAM, ORLEANS AND WELLFLEET. 

Be it enacted^ elc.^ as follows : 

Section 1. No person shall take quahaigs from their natural 
beds, or wilfully obstruct or interfere with such natural beds, within 
tbe towns of Eastham, Orleans and Wellfieet, except as hereinafter 
provided. 

Section 2. No inhabitant of said towns shall sell or offer for sale 
little neck clams or quahaugs which measure less than one and one 



202 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

half iDches acroes the widest part, and no person shall in any of aaid 
towns sell or offer for sale little neck clams or qnahangs which measare 
less than one and one half inches across the widest part. 

Section 8. The selectmen of any one of said towns may give to 
any inhabitants of any of said towns permits in writing to take qua- 
haugs from their beds in the town which the selectmen represent, at 
snch times, in such quantities and for such uses as they shall deem 
expedient. Such permits shall be good for such time as the select- 
men may determine, not exceeding one year. Any inhabitant of the 
Commonwealth may without such permit take from the natural beds 
in said towns quahaugs for the use of his family, not exceeding in 
quantity one bushel, including shells, in any one day ; and any fisher- 
man may without such permit take quahaugs from the natural beds in 
his own town for bait for his own use, not exceeding in quantity one 
bushel, including shells, in any one day. 

Section 4. The selectmen of the said towns may, in their respec- 
tive towns, grant licenses or permits for such periods, not exceeding 
two years, and under such conditions as they may deem proper, not 
however covering more than seventy-five feet square in area, to any 
inhabitants of the town to bed quahaugs in any waters, flats and 
creeks within the town at any place where there is no natural qaahaog 
bed, not impairing the private rights of any person or materiallj 
obstructing any navigable waters. It shall be unlawful for any 
person, except the licensee and his agents, to take any quahaugs in 
or remove them from the territory covered by any such license. 

Section 5. Whoever violates any provision of this act or of any 
regulation made by the selectmen under authority hereof shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars or by 
imprisonment for not more than six months, or by both such fine 
and imprisonment. 

Section 6. So much of section eighty-five of chapter ninety-one 
of the Revised Laws as is inconsistent herewith shall not apply to the 
said towns. 

Section 7. This act shall take effect in any of said towns only 
upon its acceptance by a majority of the voters thereof present and 
voting thereon at a meeting called for the purpose. [^Approved April 
28 y 1904. 

[Ghaptkb 282.] 

An Act relative to the propagation ajto cultivation of 

shellfish. 
Be it encuUedf etc., asfoUotva : 

Section 1 . Cities by a two thirds vote of each branch of the city 
council in cities having a common council and a board of aldermen, 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 203 

or by a two thirds vote of the board of aldermen in cities not having 
a common council , and towns by a two thirds vote of the voters 
present and voting thereon at any town meeting called for the pur- 
pose, may appropriate money for the cultivation, propagation and 
protection of shellflsh. The mayor and aldermen of cities, and the 
selectmen of towns, when so authorized by their respective cities and 
towns, may declare from time to time a close season for shellfish for 
DOt more than three years in such waters or flats within the limits of 
their respective cities and towns as they deem proper, and may plant 
aDd grow shellfish in such waters and flats : provided^ that no private 
rights are impaired; and provided^ further^ that when any close 
season, declared as aforesaid, shall have ended, the flats and waters 
so closed shall be opened subject to the provisions of section eighty-five 
of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws, and of any special laws. 

Section 2. Whoever takes shellfish in violation of the provisions 
of this act shall forfeit not less than three nor more than fifty dollars. 
Any officer qualified to serve criminal process, and special constables, 
designated under the provisions of section one hundred and thirty- 
four of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws, shall have power to 
enforce the provisions of this act, with all the powers conferred by 
said section. 

Section 3. District courts and trial justices shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction with the superior court of all ofl'ences under this act. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
April 30, 1904. 



[Chaftbr 301.] 

An Act to PERBnT the taking of bait in the waters op the 

town of edgartown. 
Bt U enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The selectmen of the town of Edgartown, or any two 
of them, may issue to any inhabitant of said town holding a permit 
for the taking of eels by means of pots, permits for the taking of 
bait for his own use only from the waters of said town by means of 
nets or seines. Such permits shall not be issued for the use of nets 
or seines more than one hundred and fifty feet long, or of a size of 
mesh of more than three fourths of an inch, and shall be issued for 
the taking of such bait only between the first day of June and the 
fifteenth day of December in each year. The provisions of this act 
shall not affect the rights of the persons designated in section twenty- 
three of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws, or the corporate 
rights of any fishing company. 
Section 2. So much of section one hundred and twenty-seven of 



204 FISH AND GAME. [I)e<-. 

chapter ninety-ooe of the Revised LawB and of any other act as is 
incoDflisteDt herewith is hereby repealed. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Apprtrnd 
May 6y 1904. 

[Chaptkb 308.] 

An Act to provide further for the protection of fish w 

PONDS. 

Be it enacUd^ etc.^ as follows : 

Section twenty-six of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Lavs, ss 
amended by chapter two handred and ninety-fonr of the acts of tbe 
year nineteen hundred and three, is hereby further amended by strik- 
ing out the whole of said section and inserting in place thereof tbe 
following : — Section 26, Whoever draws, sets, stretches or oses t 
drag net, set net, purse net, seine or trawl, or whoever sets or uses 
more than ten hooks for fishing, in any pond, or aids in so doiDg, 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty nor more than 
fifty dollars. The provisions of Ibis section shall not affect the 
rights of riparian proprietors of ponds mentioned in section twenty- 
three or the corporate rights of any fishing company. [^Approved 
May 6, 1904. 

[Chaptbb 319.] 

An Act to provide for the election of fish wardens by the 

town of ed6art0wn. 

Be U enacted^ etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The town of Edgartown is hereby authorize<1 to 
choose at any annual town meeting, or at any meeting duly called 
for the purpose, fish wardens, in such number and with such compen- 
sation as the town may determine, who shall be sworn to the faitbful 
discharge of their duty, which shall be to enforce the fishery laws in 
that town ; and for this purpose the fish wardens so chosen shall 
have the powei's which the district police now have or shall hereafter 
have for tbe enforcement of the fishery laws of the Commonwealth. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
May 9y 1904. 

[Chapter 321.] 

An Act further to protf.ct and perpetuate a certain alewifi 

fishery in the town of sandwich. 
Be it enacted^ etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Levi S. Nye and John A. Holway, their heirs and 
assigns, shall have for the term of ten years from the date of tht 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 205 

passage of this act, the exclusive right to take and catch alewives in 
the stream known as '^ Mill River", from its sources in the ^' Shawme 
Lakes or Ponds", so-called, through the marshes in the town of 
Sandwich to the waters of Cape Cod bay : provided^ that the said 
Nye and Holway, their heirs and assigns, shall construct and maia- 
taiD a good and sufficient passageway over or around the dam or 
dams which now are or may hereafter be erected upon said stream to 
enable fish to enter the ponds above such dam or dams, and shall 
keep such passageway open and unobstructed from the first day of 
April to the fourteenth day of June, inclusive, of each year. 

Sechon 2. Said Nye and Holway, and their heirs and assigns,' 
may catch alewives during two thirds of the period specified in sec- 
tion one, that is to say, upon fifty days out of the seventy-five days 
between the first day of April and the fourteenth day of June, inclu- 
sive, of each year. 

Sechon 3. Any person or persons taking alewives in said Mill 
river or in the said lakes or ponds without the written consent of the 
said Nye and Holway, or of their heirs and assigns, shall, upon the 
complaint of said Nye or Holway, or of their or any of their heirs or 
assigns, or of any person in their behalf, forfeit not less than ten 
nor more than twenty dollars for each offence. Half of every such 
forfeiture shall be paid to said Nye and Holway or to their heirs or 
assigns. [^Approved May 5, 1904. 



[Chapter 32J).] 

Ax Act to provide further for the protection of pickerel. 
Be U tnaeied, etc,^ as follows : 

Section sixty-seven of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws is 

hereby amended by striking out the words '* the county of Berkshire *\ 

in the first and second lines, and inserting in place thereof the words : 

—this Commonwealth, — by striking out the words " in said county ", 

in the third line, and by inserting after the word *^ taken ", in the 

fifth line, the words : — held in possession, — so as to read as follows : 

— Section 67, Whoever takes from the waters of this Common- 

wealth a pickerel less than ten inches in length, or sells or offers for 

sale, or has in his possession with intent to sell any such pickerel, 

shall forfeit one dollar for each pickerel so taken, held in possession, 

sold or offered or exposed for sale ; and in prosecutions under the 

provisions of this section the possession of pickerel less than ten 

inches in length shall be prima facie evidence to convict. \_Apj)ro\)ed 

May 13, 1904. 



206 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[Ghaptbb 364.] 

An Act to require town clerks to notify the board of com- 
missioners ON fisheries and game of the acceptance of cer- 
tain PROVISIONS OP LAW RELATIVE TO THE TAKING OF PICKEREL. 

Be it enacted, etc., cu follows : 

It shall be the duty of the town clerk of any town which bas 
accepted, or which shall hereafter accept, the provisions of section 
sixty-eight of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws, which restricU 
the taking of pickerel to the use of a hook and hand line, to send 
notice of such acceptance to the commissioners on fisheries and game. 
Such notice shall be sent within thirty days after any future accept- 
ance of the said provisions by any town, and within sixty days after 
the passage of this act in the case of every town which has heretofore 
accepted said provisions. A town clerk who violates the provisions 
of this act shall be subject to a fine of ten dollars. [^Approved 
May 23, 1904. 

[Chapter 365.] 

An Act relative to the- building of fish ways by the board of 

commissioners on fisheries and game. 
Be it enacted, etc, asfollotvs : 

Section nine of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by inserting after the word '^ maintained", in the second 
line, the words : — or where in their judgment fishways are needed* 
and they, — by inserting after the word " rivers ", in the fourth line, 
the words : — or whether in their judgment a fishway is needed for 
the passage of fish over any dam, — and by inserting after the word 
'^ therein", in the sixth line, the words: — and where, how and when 
a new fishway must be built, — so as to read as follows : — Sedion 9. 
The commissioners may examine all dams upon rivers where the law 
requires fishways to be maintained, or where in their judgment fish- 
ways are needed, and they shall determine whether the fishways, if 
any, are suitable and sufficient for the passage of the fish in snch 
rivers, or whether m their judgment a fishway is needed for the pas- 
sage of fish over any dam ; and shall prescribe by an order in writing 
wMiat changes and repairs, if any, shall be made therein, and where, 
how and when a new fishway must be built, and at what times the 
same shall be kept open, and shall give notice to the owners of the 
dams accordingly. The supreme judicial court, or the superior court 
shall, upon the petition of the commissioners, have jurisdiction in 
equity or otherwise to enforce any order made in accordance with the 
provisions of this section, and to restrain any violation of sach 
order. \_Approved May 23, 1904, 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 207 



[Chaftkb 366.] 

Ax Act to provide fob the better protection op game in the 

COUNTY OP BRISTOL. 

Be it enacted^ e^c, as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever in the county of Bristol hunts, takes or kills 
a gray squirrel between the fifteenth day of December and the first 
day of November following, or a rabbit or hare between the first day 
of March and the first day of November of any year, shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of ten dollars. 

Section 2. Whoever in the county of Bristol hunts, takes, kills 
or has in possession, or buys, sells or offers for sale a quail, wood- 
cock, or ruffed grouse, commonly called partridge, between the fif- 
teenth day of December and the first day of November following, 
whenever or wherever such bird may have been taken or killed, shall 
be punished by a fine of twenty dollars for each bird. 

Section 3. This act shall not be construed as modifying the pro- 
Tisions of section three of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws, 
as amended by chapter one hundred and sixty-five of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and two, relative to the sale of quail, nor as 
modifying the provisions of section nine of chapter ninety-two of the 
Revised Laws, relative to the sale of rabbits. 

Section 4. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. [^Approved May 23^ 1904, 



[Chapter 367.] 

An Act relative to the rioht op search by the commissioners on 

pisheries and game and their deputies. 
Bt U enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any commissioner on fisheries and game, deputy 
commissioner on fisheries and game, member of the district police, 
or officer qualified to serve criminal process, may, with a warrant, 
search any boat, car, box, locker, crate or package, and any building, 
where he has reason to believe any game or fish taken or held in vio- 
lation of law is to be found, and may seize any game or fish so taken 
or held, and any game or fish so taken or held shall be forfeited : 
provided^ however^ that this section shall not authorize entering a 
dwelling house, or apply to game or fish which is passing through 
this Ck>mmonwealth under authority of the laws of the United States. 
Section 2. A court or Justice authorized to issue warrants in 
criminal cases shall, upon complaint under oath that the complainant 
believes that any game or fish unlawfully taken or held is concealed 
in a particular place, other than a dwelling house, if satisfied that 



208 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

there is reasonable cause for such belief, issue a warrant to search 
therefor. The search warrant shall designate and describe the place 
to be searched and the articles for which search is to be made, and 
shall be directed to any officer named in section one of this act, com- 
manding him to search the place where the game or fish for which he 
is required to search is believed to be concealed, and to seize such 
game or fish. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
May 23, 1904. 

[Chaptbb 369.] 

An Act to provide further for the protection of shore, maizsh 

and beach birds. 
Be U enctcled, etc,, as follows : 

Chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws is hereby amended by 
striking out section six and inserting in place thereof the following: 
— Section 6. Whoever buys, sells, exposes for sale, or has in pos- 
session any of the birds named in and protected by section five or 
section seven of this chapter, during the time within which the taking 
or killing thereof is prohibited, whenever or wherever such birds may 
have been taken or killed, shall be punished by a fine of ten dollars 
for each bird ; but a person, firm or corporation dealing in game or 
engaged in the cold storage business may have in possession, for 
storage purposes only, the so-called shore, marsh and beach birds 
during the time within which the taking or killing of them is pro- 
hibited. [^Approved May 23 y 1904. 



[Ghaptrb 408.] 

An Act to provide for the protection of lobsters with eggs 

attached. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1 . The commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized and empowered to purchase, at a rate not exceeding 
twenty-five per cent above the market price, lobsters with eggs 
attached, caught along the shore of this Commonwealth. Whoever 
catches any such lobsters with eggs attached may, after receiving a 
permit from the commissioners on fisheries and game, safely store 
the same in lobster cars or sections of cars used for that purpose 
only, and may keep them separate from other lobsters until such time 
as the said commissioners or some person or persons designated by 
them can gather and pay for them. The commissioners and their 
agent shall liberate them in the vicinity of the location where they 



1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 209 

were caaght ; or they may at their discretion sell any portion or all 
of them to the officer in charge of the United States fish hatchery for 
artiOcial propagation, the proceeds to be applied to the appropriation 
made for the enforcement of this act. 

Section 2. The sum of three thousand dollars, or so much thereof 
as may be necessary, may be expended at the discretion of the com- 
missioners for carrying out the provisions of this act in the year 
nineteen hundred and four, and the sum of four thousand dollars, or 
80 much thereof as may be necessary, in the year nineteen hundred and 
five. 

Section 3. For purchasing, equipping and maintaining a suitable 
boat to be used by the said commissioners in enforcing the provisions of 
tins act, a aum not exceeding four thousand dollars may be expended. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
June 3, 1904. 



210 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 



[G.] 
Statistics. 



The following tables show the statistics of the shore net and 
lobster fisheries of Massachusetts as reported to this commis- 
sion for the year ending Oct. 1, 1904. 

The statistics are divided into three tables, specifying the 
number of men employed, the number and value of boats, 
pound and trap nets, seines, gill nets and fyke nets, lobster pots 
and shore property ; also, the numl)er in pounds and value of 
the different species of fish. As compared with the year 1903, 
there is a falling off of 134 men, principally in Essex, Barn- 
stable and Dukes counties. The number of boats, pounds, 
seines, gill nets and lobster pots show a slight falling off, 
with a total decrease in values, including shore property, of 
$1,708.60; and the total of 19,045,492 pounds of the differ- 
ent species of fish shows an increase over 1903 of 1,180,"2«S3 
pounds, with a decrease in value of $2,550.04. 



Table 'So. 1. — Shotving^ by Counties, the Number of Men employed in the 
Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries of MasstichuseUs in 1904. 



OOUNTIXB. 

• 


Number. 


Bsaex, 


126 


Suffolk 


43 


Norfolk, 


28 


Plymouth, 


110 


Barnatable, 


804 



COUMTIXS. 



Komber. 



Nantucket, 
Dukes, . 
Bristol, . 
Total, 



41 



70 



801 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



211 



Table No. 2. — Showing, by CoutUiet, the Apparatui employed in the Shore 
Net and Lobster Fisheries of MassaehuseUs in 1904. 



DESIGNATION. 


1 

ESBBX. 


BUFTOLX. 


NoaroLK. 


t 1 

Nnmber.' Value. 

1 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 

■ 


Value. 


Boats, 

Poand D6ta and trap oeta, 
6elDes,gllI Dflts and fyke nets, 
LobaterpoU, . . . . 
Shore property and acceeaory 
■ppaiatua, .... 


186 

15 

172 

4,098 


1 

$14,142 00 
6,460 00 
8,945 00 
4,277 25 

8,018 00 


64 
2 

4,036 


$6,145 00 
8,000 00 

4,280 75 

1,002 00 


85 

5 
2,815 

1 


$6,918 00 

70 00 
8,960 00 

486 00 


Totali, .... 


- 


$31,838 15 


$14,886 75 


1 
1 


$11,884 00 



DE3IONATION. 



Pltmouth. 



Babnstabls. 



Number. 



Value. 



Beau 

PoQod neU and trap nets, 
Beioei,gfll neUaod fyke nets, 
Lobaterpota, . . . . 
Shore property and accessory 
apparatus, . . . . 

Toula 



178 
1 

29 
5,723 



$13,011 00 

1,600 00 

308 00 

8,505 50 

1,871 00 



$26,205 60 



Number. 



Value. 



i 



286 

07 

1,285 

1,582 



$14,628 00 

78,160 00 

13,686 00 

1,462 50 

12,748 95 



Nantuckxt. 



Number.. Value. 



$147,685 45 



44 
8 

804 
885 



$7,980 00 

3,000 00 

4,417 00 

287 00 

1,567 00 
$17,260 00 



DESIGNATION. 


DOKSs. Bristol. 


! 

Totals. 


Number. 


Value. .Number. Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Boati, . . . . . 
PouDd neta and trap nets, 
^ioes, gill nets and fyke nets, 
U>baterpots, . . . . 
Shore property and accessory 
apparatus 


106 
48 
88 

800 


$11,802 00 

18,925 00 

635 00 

766 00 

1,307 00 
$38,436 00 


26 

14 
156 

1 


$1,842 00 

1,890 00 

150 00 1 

1,708 00 


1 869 

161 

1,897 

19,589 


$107,977 00 

106,145 00 

24,401 00 

23,648 00 

28,648 85 


Totals 


- 


$4,585 00 




$285,819 85 



212 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Table No. 3. — Showing, by Counties and Species, the Yield of the Short 
Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in-l904. 



/>■ Y% m ^^T*ra e* 


Essex. 


1 Suffolk. 


Norfolk. 


dPBCIES. 


1 














Pounds. 


Value. 


Poundji. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


VslBe. 


Alewlvea, 


66,850 


$843 00 


1 


• 


. 


- 


Biuetith, . . . . 


- 


- 


1 . 


- 


- 


- 


Flounders and flatflsb, . 


8,060 


01 50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mackerel, 


47,466 


2,365 16 


160 


$12 07 


- 


- 


MenbadaD, 


632.456 


1,040 20 


14,860 


107 10 


- 


» 


Pollock, . . . . 


136,608 


028 93 


12J03 


112 48 1 


- 


- 


Salmon, . . . . 


13 


2 76 


- 


- 


- 


« 


Beup, . . . . 


670 


42 77 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Sea baas, .... 


- 


- i 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Seaberring, . 


437,680 


4,288 16 


20,500 


204 80 


10,800 


$103 OO 


Sbad, . . . . 


0,617 


110 17 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Squeteagne, 


18,738 


235 90 




- 


- 




tStriped bass, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Squid, . . . . 


2,642 


29 26 


1 - 


•" 1 


- 


- 


Tautog 


86 


2 50 


1 

•" 


1 


- 


- 


Olher edible or bait 














species 


828,826 


6,786 95 


176,746 


888 73 


- 


- 


Refuse fisb, . 


- 


- 


- 




<- 


- 


Oil, 


- 


- 


- 






- 


Lobsters 


108,480 


24,896 14 


131,661 


16,466 19 


181,266 


i6,onoi 


Totals, 


2,276,820 


$42,647 38 


866,620 


$17,785 46 


141.666 


$16,176 01 


£ 1 T 1 Til #^T YK f^ 


Plymouth. 


Babnstablb. 


Nahti 




BPEOIES. 
















Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value 


Alewives, . 


160,000 


$900 00 


862,301 


$8,828 79 


10,470 


$1SS ti' 


Blueflsh, . . . . 


- 


- 


10,108 


811 43 


60,029 


. 8,»»TT 


Flounders and flatflsb, . 


- 


- 


1,136,014 


21,199 72 


2,800 


8B0O 


Mackerel,. 


8,116 


230 75 


686,826 


89,519 62 


79,T0O 


2,290 00 


Menhaden, 


11,002 


300 07 


223,063 


1,828 70 


- 


- 


Pollock 


1,600 


30 00 


1,877,804 


24,667 76 


200,820 


3,666 44 


Salmon, . . . . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Bcup, . . . . 


- 


- 


20,108 


847 90 


26,404 


1.NS1S 


Sea bass, .... 


- 


- 


66 


10 60 


1,800 


270 00 


Sea berring, . 


5,000 


60 00 


1,410,743 


11,216 69 


- 


- 


Shad, . . . . 


76 


3 80 


6,062 


290 20 


730 


• 7JflO 


Squeteague, 


30 


2 40 


1,621,112 


23.722 10 


84,848 


: 2,4a 40 


Striped bass, . 


1 ~ 


- 


8,707 


1,137 41 


187 


21» 


Squid, . . . " . 


- 


- 


780,047 


7,627 80 


600 


100 


Tautog 


- 


- 


10,804 


208 19 


26 


5 


Otber edible or bait 












1 


species 


34,100 


no 00 


4,217,541 


25,713 65 


81,981 


i 8,194 TJ 


Refuse fisb, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,800 


STJ 


Oil 


- 


- 


6,200 


311 26 


- 


- 


Lobsters, . . . . 


288,060 


32,071 48 


44,051 


8,120 00 


8,424 


1,130 tt 


ToUls, 


404,683 


$33,698 60 


, 12,320,520 

ll 


$170,060 68 


648,064 


$18.29 U 



1904.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



213 



Table No. 3. — Yield of the Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries — Concluded. 





DUKSS. 


Bristol. 


Total roB Statb. 


BPBCIB8. 
















Ponnda. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Valae. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Al6wiT«a,. 


104,160 


$606 01 


440,150 


$8,282 60 


1,128,021 


$0,548 10 


BlaeiUh, .... 


881 


83 80 


- 


- 


60,668 


4,050 50 


Floaiid«n and flatfish, . 


110,270 


1,800 00 


- 


- 


1,260,648 


22,750 22 


Maekarel 


87,208 


2,670 88 


- 


- 


764.464 


46,078 88 


Mrataadea, 


1,000 


260 


70,000 


760 00 


868,270 


4,428 57 


Pollock 


0,000 


100 80 


- 


« ^ 


2,288,900 


20,640 02 


Salmoo, . . . . 


8 


00 


- 


- 


10 


8 86 


fieup 


684,505 


12,860 20 


- 


- 


681,807 


14,888 00 


8eab«M, . . . . 


10,026 


1,146 19 


- 


- 


21,700 


1,426 00 


Sea barring, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.884,128 


15,861 68 


8had, .... 


080 


60 66 


66,106 


2,518 66 


72,601 


8,061 27 


Bqaataaffoe, . 


1,202,068 


87,012 20 


1,600 


67 00 


8,017,780 


64,410 20 


Siripadbaaa, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8,844 


1,160 80 


8qiii4p . . . . 


20,860 


. 310 26 


- 


- 


818,830 


7,078 41 


Taotog, .... 


4,618 


101 08 


- 


- 


15,428 


812 50 


Otber adlble or bait 














•pwlea 


101,428 


2,881 82 


- 


- 


6,486,122 


80,020 88 


Bcfnaeflab, . . 


16,000 


7 60 


- 


- 


17,800 


10 25 


Oil 


- 


- 


- 




6,200 


811 25 


l^^tera 


21,270 


8,072 37 


8,406 


626 60 


828,486 
10,045,402 


102,864 63 


Totali. . . 


2,880,610 $02,022 hi 


670,811 


$7,184 66 


$367,644 12 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . 



THIETEENTH AMVAL EEPOET 
THE COMMISSIONERS 

Massachusetts Nautical 
Training School. 



January 1, 1905. 



BOSTON ! 
WillGHX A POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PIUNTEBS, 
18 Post Ofkick Sqcake, 
1905. 



Approybd bt 
Thk Statb Boasd of Publicatioit. 



CONTENTS. 



PAQB 

The Work of the Year, 7 

Repairs to the " Enterprise,^^ 7 

The Sanimer Croiae, 8 

A Gold Medal awarded, 13 

Personnel, 13 

The Winter Term, 14 

Winter Lectures, 14 

Information regarding Graduates of the School, 14 

Graduating Classes, 18 

Sommary, 21 

Statistics of Cadets, 24 

Appropriations, 25 

Legal Aathority for the School, 26 

Recent Legislation, 29 



COMMISSIONERS 



OF TBS 



Massachusetts Nautical Training School. 



N. M. DYER, Chairman, 

Rear Admiral, U. S. N. (Retired). 

ROBERT B. DIXON, M.D. 

Hon. JOHN READ. 



F. STANHOPE HILL, Secretary, 



€0mni0iitDjeaItlb d '^m^wc)^mtiiB* 



MASSACHUSETTS NAUTICAL TRAINING 

SCHOOL. 



To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts in General Court assembled. 
The Commissioners of the Massachusetts Nautical Training 
School have the honor to submit their report of the operations 
of the school for the year 1904. 

The Work of the Year. 

The efficiency of the school has been satisfactorily main- 
tained during the past year, notwithstanding that the extensive 
repairs made last spring necessitated an undesirable extension 
of the vacation at the close of the spring term. 

The average number of cadets in the school from Jan. 1, 
19U4, to elan. 1, 1905, has been 88. Of these, the engineer 
ckss has predominated in about the ratio of 59 to 41. Twenty- 
five cadets graduated in April, 16 in the engineer class and 9 
in the seamanship class ; and in October the graduating class 
numbered 20, 7 in the seamanship class and 13 in the engineer 
ckss, making a total for the year of 45 ; 29 engineer and 16 
seamen. Pi-actically all of these graduates obtained employ- 
ment at sea very shortly after their graduation, as quartermas- 
ters, electricians, oilers, etc. 

Repairs to the " Enterprise." 

Favorable action having been taken by the Legislature on 
a resolve, approved by the Governor IVIarch 5, 1904, upon 
the request made by the commissioners, for an appropriation 



8 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 

of $15,000 for necessary and extensive repairs to the hull, 
machinery and boilers of the training ship * ' Enterprise,'' a 
contract for the work was signed April 1, 1904, with the 
Atlantic works, they being the lowest bidders. 

These repairs involved the laying of a new berth deck, the 
renewing of five deck beams of the gun deck, replacing a por- 
tion of the outside planking and calking the outside of the 
hull, replacing jib and flying jibboom and renewing fore and 
main topmasts, extensive repairs to boilers and renewal of 
tubes of auxiliary boiler, repairs to water piping, renewal of 
cadets' water-closets and bath-room, painting the ship inside 
and outside, with much other incidental but very necessary 
work. Although the most careful economj'^ w^^ exercised in 
making these repairs, the cost not only entirely exhausted the 
special appropriation, but left a balance, which was paid from 
the regular appropriation for 1904. 

The work was satisfactorily completed in sixty days, the 

** Enterprise " leaving the yaili of the Atlantic works on June 

11, 1904. 

The Summer Cruise. 

After completing necessary repairs, the " Enterprise" saile«l 
from Boston on her usual summer cruise on June 23, with a 
complement of 92 cadets on board. The itinerary included 
visits to Provincetown, Mass. ; Horta, Fayal ; Lisbon, Por- 
tugal; Algiers, Africa; Gibraltar; the island of Madeira: 
returning to Provincetown September 28, and to Boston 
October 3. 

During these three months the cadets were kept in constant 
practice of the duties incident to their profession, as is clearly 
shown by the following extracts from the report of the super- 
intendent, Commander William F. Low, U. S. Navy, to the 
commissioners : — 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 



Itinerary. 



Left. 


Dato. 


Airlred. 


Date. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 23. 


ProvincetowD, Mass., . 


June 23. 


ProTincetown, Mass., . 


July 1. 


Horta, Fayal (Azores), . 


July 18. 


Horta, Fayal, 


July 21. 


Lisbon, Portugal, . 


July 29. 


Lisbon, Portugal, . 


Aug. 4. 


Gibraltar, 


Aug. 6. 


Gibraltar, 


Aug. 10. 


Algiers, Africa, 


Aug. 18. 


Algiers, Africa, 


Aug. 17. 


Funcbal, Madeira, . 


Aug. 25. 


Funchal, Madeira, . 


Sept. 1. 


Provincetown, Mass., . 


Sept. 28. 


ProTincetown, Mass., . 


Oct. 3. 


Boston, Mass., 


Oct. 8. 



With the exception of a couple of gales, on the homeward passage 
off Bermuda, the weather during the entire cruise was remarkably 
good. Light airs and calms predominated, and this rendered neces- 
sary a much larger coal expenditure than was anticipated. 

Exercises were carried out according to the routine, as far as 
practicable. The period for general exercise was changed from the 
afternoon to the morning hours, and the afternoon given up to de- 
tailed instruction. I am of the opinion that this change was for the 
better. The stations of the cadets were changed three times during 
the cruise, thus giving them all an opportunity to familiarize them- 
selves with the different parts of the ship and lead of all the gear. 
As much time as possible was given to boat exercise in the different 
ports. 

The health of the cadets has been generally good. No water for 
drinking or cooking purposes, except that distilled on board, has 
been used. 

The location of the dynamo on the gun deck, as a part of the 
changes made by the la'te repairs, has made its all night's use at sea 
practicable, and has removed a constant source of danger, viz., the 
Domeroas standing oil lamps on the lower decks. It has also 
rendered the berthing space much cooler in hot weather. The elec- 
tric light attachments, which were fitted to the binnacles just previous 
to the cruise, have also been a great comfort. 

The improvements made last spring in the interior arrangements of 
the ship, such as new water-closets, shower-baths, etc., have added 
greatly to the well-being of the cadets. 



10 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 

Daring the cruise only sundown liberty was granted, and the be- 
havior of the boys on shore was so generally excellent that the 
American minister to Portugal was kind enough to compliment the 
Commonwealth upon being able to send such a well-behaved lot 
of young fellows as its representatives on shore. 

The new arrangement of the non-division of the junior cadets into 
seaman and engineering branches has so far worked satisfactorilj. 
All the junior cadets, with the exception of one boy whose physical 
condition forbade, have had a detail in the engine or fire room during 
the cruise. 

The cadets were instructed as follows : — 

Seamanship. 

Section A. — Setting up rigging ; reeving off gear ; bending sail ; 
sail making ; splicing ; steering ; heaving lead and log ; under can 
and sail ; duties as coxswains of boats ; captains and second captains 
of tops ; quartermasters and officers of the deck ; working ship ; brac- 
ing ; making and taking in sail ; running lines ; mooring and unmoor- 
ing ; handling yards ; shifting and reefing sail ; heaving to under 
storm sail and the use of oil. 

Section C. — Knotting ; splicing and making sail ; setting up rig- 
ging ; bending and unbending sail ; reeving ofi* gear ; in boats under 
oars and sail ; steering ; working ship ; handling yards ; reefing ; heav- 
ing lead and log ; shifting sail ; lookouts ; securing boats for sea. 

Junior Cadets. — Knotting; splicing and making sail; steering; 
heaving lead and log ; lookouts ; in boats under oars and sail ; and in 
parts of ship* 

Also second part of Section B and sections in the engineering 
department in knotting ; short, cut and eye splice, and use of tackle 
in parts of ship ; in boats under oars and sail, and as lookouts. 

NavigcUion, — The two senior classes. Dead reckoning; course 
and distance by middle latitude and Mercator's sailing; taking 
departure; setting courses; correcting courses; taking bearings; 
plotting position ; latitude by meridian ; circum-meridian, and ex- 
meridian altitude of sun and other heavenly bodies, and by pole star; 
time sights and longitude by sun or other heavenly body ; Sumner's 
method by projection and calculation ; observing azimuth and find- 
ing compass error ; finding chronometer errors and rates ; care and 
handling of chronometers ; comparing chronometers ; finding time of 
high water at places ; use of charts of all kinds ; sailing directions^ 
tide tables, light lists and other aids to navigation ; use and adjust- 
ments of instruments ; danger angle ; how to identify the stars ; com- 
pensating compasses and barometers ; practical work with artificial 
horizon on shore. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 11 

The third class was given the same instruction as the two senior 
classes, bat preference was always given the seniors in the more 
advanced practical work. 

The new cadets were taught boxing the compass ; taking departure ; 
correcting courses ; dead reckoning ; elements of nautical astronomy ; 
use of the sextant ; observing the altitudes of heavenly bodies ; find- 
ing latitude by meridian altitude, and how to identify the principal 
Btars used in navigation. 

Each watch of the three senior classes found the position every 
alternate day by dead reckoning and observation of the sun, and 
worked observations of the stars morning and evening when the 
weather was favorable. 

The new cadets worked dead reckoning every day on the passage 
home, and they were given almost daily practice in the use of the 
sextant in observing the altitude of the sun and stars. 

Engineering. 

Section B^ Part 1. — In the care and management of auxiliary 
machinery; operating distilling apparatus; oiling; making joints; 
care and management of engines ; taking and working out indicator 
cards ; adjusting valves ; steam and water piping ; and general routine 
engine-room work. 

Section B^ Part 2. — Firing; care and management of boilers 
aad engines ; care and management of pumps and other auxiliary 
machinery ; electric wiring ; care and management of generating 
plant; steam and water piping; taking and working out indicator 
cards, and in the general routine work of the fire room. 

Junior Section. — Instruction in coal passing ; firing ; care and 
management of boilers and surroundings ; care and preservation of 
coal bunkers and other metal work ; lead of pipes and their use ; 
names and use of sea valves, and general instruction in the names 
and use of boiler attachments ; steam and water piping and electric 
wiring ; rigging purchases for handling heavy weights at sea when 
making repairs. 

Medical Department. 

Course of instruction in first aid to injured, including how to act in 
presence of emergency ; the use of disinfectants ; symptoms and treat- 
ment of bums, bruises, hemorrhage, wounds, sprains, fractures, dis- 
locations, foreign bodies in eye, ear and throat, unconsciousness and 
fainting, shocks, compression, sunstroke, starving, drunkenness, con- 
vulsions, smothering by gas, hanging, drowning, poison, dog, snake 
or insect bites, and poison ivy ; making dressings and poultices. 

The surgeon's report shows a general gain, as follows : — 



12 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 

Average weight July, 127.2 pounds. 
Average weight September 27, 130.2 pounds. 
Average gain for cruise,' 3 pounds. 
Average height July 1, 5 feet 5.3 inches. 
Average height September 27, 5 feet 5.7 inches. 
Average gain for cruise, .4 of an inch. 
Average chest measurement July 1, 32.25 inches. 
Average chest measurement September 27, 32.50 inches. 
Average gain chest measurement, .25 of an inch. 
Average chest expansion July 1, 3.125 inches. 
Average chest expansion September 27, 3.75 inches. 
Average chest expansion gained, .625 of an inch. 
Average arm measurement July 1, 11.75 inches. 
Average arm measurement September 27, 11.875 inches. 
Average gain arm measurement, .125 of an inch. 
Average forearm measurement July 1, 10.75 inches. 
Average forearm measurement September 27, 10.75 inches. 
Average forearm measurement gained, none. 
Average leg measurement July 1, 13.625 inches. 
Average leg measurement September 27, 13.875 inches. 
Average leg measurement gained, .25 of an inch. 

These figures, while very satisfactory for a three months' croise, 
do not of course show the increase in muscular tone, which is ven 
marked. This is especially well demonstrated in the case of many of 
the cadets who entered at the beginning of the summer term, whose 
muscles at that time were soft and flabby, and at the end of the 
cruise were developed and firm. 

The classified expenditures on the cruise are indicated as follows:— 

Payroll, $4.667 92 

Ration bills 896 00 

Commissary, 1,267 57 

Coal 1,453 87 

Water, 84 10 

Contingent, 801 80 

Surgeon's department, 16 00 

Equipment, 38 50 

Pilotage. 30 72 

$8,181 48 

Less coal on arrival at Boston, $77 33 

commissary stores on hand on arrival at Boston, 620 92 
stores condemned and lost, 63 01 



76126 



Net cost of cruise, $7,420 2S 



.1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 13 

A Gold Medal awarded. 

As a portion of the Massachasetts educational exhibit for the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, the commission- 
ers prepared an exhibit of the work of this school, which pre- 
sented, through the medium of about forty large photographs, 
ingeniously mounted and hinged in a standing cabinet, several 
views of the "Enterprise," the officers and instructors, and the 
cadets engaged in practical work in the difi*erent departments 
of the school, as also specimens of their work in theoretical 
seamanship and navigation. 

Although nautical training schools are maintained in the 
States of New York and Pennsylvania, Massachusetts was 
the only State making a special exhibit of this character at 
St. Louis, and it was very gratifying to the commissioners to 
receive in November from Mr. George E. Gay, director of the 
Board of Managers of the Educational Department, a notifica- 
tion that the superior jury of the Exposition had awarded the 
Massachusetts Nautical Training School a gold medal for the 
excellence of their unique exhibit in the Massachusetts group 
six of the department of education. 

Personnel. 

The changes in the officers and instructors during the year 
have been as follows : — 

Oct. 15, 1904, Chief Engineer F. D. Terry's resignation was 
accepted. 

Nov. 4, 1904, Passed Assistant Engineer Robert Crawford, 
U. S. Navy (retired), ordered by the Navy Department to 
the "Enterprise" for duty as chief engineer and instructor, 
reported for duty. 

Dec. 3, 1904, resignation of Boatswain P. H. Burns was ac- 
cepted, and he was detached from the '< Enterprise " by orders 
from the Navy Department. 

Dec. 16, 1904, Mr. Joseph E. Gateley was appointed as 
ensign and assistant instructor. 



14 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 

The Winter Term. 

By the courtesy of the Bath Commissioners of the city of 
Boston the * < Enterprise " is moored at the North End Rirk, 
Boston, free of expense to the Commonwealth, where she will 
remain during the winter term, and instruction to the cadets is 
being given on board the ship. 

Winter Lectures. 

For the purpose of interesting as well as instructing the 
cadets, the commissioners have arranged for a series of brief 
lectures and entertainments for the cadets on board the 
** Enterprise" during the winter. 

The course was opened on the evening of November 30 bv 
an interesting and instructive lecture given by Commissioner 
John Read upon "Ironclads of to-day in comparison with 
those of 1861," illustrated by about one hundred stereopticon 
views. On December 14 Mr. Stanton H. King, superintendent 
of the Sailors' Haven, at Charlestown, Mass., gave the cadets 
a talk on '* Dog watches at sea." Early in January, the Eev. 
David Howard Tribou, D.D., chaplain United States NavVi 
has kindly consented to give his lecture on "The old navy 
and the new," illustrated by some seventy-five selected views. 

The commissioners have also engaged Capt. William Set- 
holm, an experienced mattre d'amteSy to give a coarse of 
fencing lessons three times each week during the winter. 
These lessons are proving a source of great interest to the 
cadets, and they are having an excellent effect upon the young 
men as a physical exercise. 

Should any members of the Legislature desire to obtain 
further knowledge of the opeiutions of the school by personal 
observation, the commissioners and the superintendent would 
be gi-atified to have them visit the * * Enterprise " at the above- 
mentioned wharf on any day excepting Saturday and Sunday, 
when the cadets are absent on home leave. 

Information regarding Graduates of the School. 
The graduates of the school have met with good success in 
securing desirable positions in the merchant marine. The 
information regarding the employment of the cadets after 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 42. 15 

leaving the school, carefully collected by the commissioners, 
shows that about two-thirds of those passing through the school 
continue to follow the sea. On this record are the names of 
460 graduates or ex-cadets, and of this number only 75 ob- 
tained employment on shore, and failed, so far as is known, 
to spend any time at sea. 

In returning the cadets' *' employment blanks," many parents 
in different parts of the State, in giving the required informa- 
tion, have taken occasion to express their confidence in the 
excellent opportunities afforded to young men with seafaring 
instincts by the school, and the good work it is doing, as 
evidenced by the improvement and progress made by their 
SODS while on board the '< Entei'prise," and in the readiness 
with which they have obtained employment after graduating. 

The value of the instruction received by young men in this 
school is perhaps best shown by the fact that among the 372 
graduates fully 310 have become mastei*s, first, second and 
third officers, quartermasters, engineers and machinists. These 
graduates are now serving on board coastwise and transatlantic 
steamers, as well as on board steam and sailing vessels in the 
West Indian, South American, Pacific and Asiatic trade. 
Others are on board yachts and "tramp" steamers. Four 
are commissioned officers in the United States revenue cutter 
service. Many graduates have found employment on the 
United States coast survey steamers, the light-house steamers, 
naval colliers, pilot boats and in the army transport service. 

The number of graduates now holding positions of responsi- 
bility as first or second officers on board seagoing steamers is 
not only evidence of the good progress being made by these 
joang men in their chosen profession, but reflects credit upon 
the character of the education and discipline they received in 
the school. 

Mr. A. Russell Cushing, who has served as watch officer and 
instructor on board the ** Enterprise " for the past two years, 
is a graduate of the school in the seaman class of October, 
1902. Mr. Joseph E. Gateley, of the seaman class of 1900, 
has lately been appointed as watch officer and assistant in- 
structor. The position of electrician has also been filled for 
many years by a graduate. Mr. John J. Hyncs of Holyoke, 
who graduated in April, 1902, now holds that position. 



16 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 

A graduate of the year 1898, who was number two in his 
class, has been assistant engineer on board steamers of the mer- 
chant and transport service, and has lately been appointed first 
assistant engineer in the United States revenue cutter service. 
He received the highest mark among seventy applicants. 

The second mate of the steamship " Morning Star," which 
left Boston last spring for the Pacific Ocean, where she will 
be used by the American Board in its work among the Micro- 
nesian Islands, graduated from this institution in October, 1900. 
He served in steamers of the American and Metropolitan lines 
before joining the missionary vessel* 

Another graduate entered as third officer on board the 
steamship '*Coya" of the Grace line, and was promoted to 
second officer at the end of the first trip. He was offered the 
position of first officer, but could not accept it as he had not at 
that time obtained a license for that grade. 

Some of the recent graduates of the school have obtained 
employment as follows : — 

Quartermaster, steamship '^Advance," Panama Steamship 
Company ; quartermaster, United States naval collier " Han- 
nibal;" quai-termaster, steamship ^^Californian," American- 
Hawaiian Steamship Company; quartermaster, United States 
army transport ' ' Sumner ; '' quartermaster, steamship *' Ponce," 
New York and Porto Rico Steamship Company ; oiler, light- 
house tender '* Mayflower;" oiler, steamship ** Admiral 
Dewey ; " quartermaster, American line ; able seaman, bark 
"Foohing Suey," sailing from New York to Honolulu; re- 
frigerator engineer, steamship "St. Paul;" quartermaster, 
Morgan line ; cadet, American line. 

The commissioners believe the school is doing a \^luable 
work for the State and for the nation in encouraging and fitting 
young men who have a longing for a sea life to become offica^ 
in the merchant marine. Through its graduates it is perpetu- 
ating to some extent that race of New England seamen whose 
skill and courageous work have done so much for the pros- 
perity of the country in the past. The value to the nation and 
to the world of trained seamen will not be questioned. The 
progress of the world in many directions has depended laigelv 
upon the work of the men of the sea. Most of the important 
geographical discoveries have been made by them ; and in the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 17 

promotion of a country's foreign commerce and in the mainte- 
nance of national honor abroad they are all important. The 
seamen of the world are the great links in the chain which 
unites one continent with another ; they make it possible for 
the products of every country under the sun to be brought to 
our doors for our comfort and pleasure. 

The great advantage to a nation of men with a sea training 
has been well illustrated in the present Russo-Japanese war. 
The hundreds of competent and well-trained young men from 
this school who are now serving in all parts of the world on 
board different merchant vessels can be called upon if they 
should be needed in the hour of the country's peril. 

In' the year 1861, when our foreign shipping reached the 
height of its prosperity, and when our tonnage was greater than 
that of Great Britain and nearly equal to that of the British 
Empire, our total documented tonnage was 5,539,813 gross 
tons. Yet to-day, when the foreign commerce of the United 
States has reached the great total of $2,500,000,000 per annum, 
it is practically being carried under foreign flags, as the ton- 
nage of American ships engaged in the foreign tmdc aggre- 
gates only 879,000 tons. 

As a natural result of this condition the question of upbuild- 
ing our merchant marine is gaining a greater and more wide- 
spread importance each year. Last spring a commission of 
five senators and five members of the house of representatives, 
to be known as the Merchant Marine Commission, was ap- 
pointed by Congress. The bill creating this commission pro- 
rides that it shall make a thorough investigation and report to 
the Congress now in session what legislation is necessary to 
place the American merchant marine on a prosperous basis. 
It was also instructed to ascertain what changes, if any, were 
needed in our present laws to secure for our seamen greater 
safety and comfort. During the summer the commission has 
held public hearings in the large cities on the Atlantic, Pacific 
and Gulf coasts, and along the great lakes. Men representing 
all the different shipping interests have been allowed to express 
their views, and the final hearing was held in "Washington on 
November 25, when departmental oflScials and others were 
present. It is earnestly to be hoped that this latest effort on 
the part of Congress to bring about a revival of our shipping 



18 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 

will be, in some degree at least, successful in encouraging the 
investment of capital in American shipping, in creating a new 
activity in the shipyards and a more general demand for 
American seamen. 

The coastwise shipping has experienced the prosperity of 
past years. The shipyards of Maine have launched about the 
usual number of fore and aft vessels for the domestic trade, 
some of them being of immense size. That the five and six 
masted schooners have proven a profitable venture, and that 
they have come to stay, is evidenced by the fact that a num- 
ber of these great schooners have been launched the past 
year. 

A notable event recently occurring in connection with Aiiieri- 
can shipping interests was the completion and sailing of the 
great Pacific liner "Minnesota," the largest vessel ever built in 
this country, and in point of tonnage the fourth largest vessel 
in the world. The vessel will ply between Seattle and ports 
in the Orient. The skill, ingenuity and courage of the Ameri- 
can ship-builder may be said to have reached its highest de- 
velopment in the building of this steamship. 

Membership of the School. 



Spring Graduating Class 


, April 4, 1904. 


Blunt, A. C, . . . Engineer class, . Charlestown. 


Brown, Jr., C. R., 






tt 


tt 


. Dorchester. 


Barnes, Cyrus, 






. Seaman 


(( 


. Maiden. 


Bessom, Jr., J. F., 






. Engineer 


tt 


. Lynn. 


Bowe, W. E., , 






. Seaman 


tt 


. Roxbury. 


Branagan, C. H., 






. Engineer 


tt 


. Worcester. 


Cullen, Fred S., 






C( 


tt 


. Beverly. 


Chick, M. T., . 






u 


tt 


. Brookline. 


Dunne, H. J.,. 






tt 


tt 


. Canton Junction 


Dunshee, G. A., 






. Seaman 


tt 


. Charlestown. 


Iverson, A. J., 






<t 


tt 


. Beverly. 


Johnson, L. T. W., 






. Engineer 


tt 


. Worcester. 


Kinniery, H. J., 






ti 


tt 


. Worcester. 


Marshall, P. M., . 






ct 


tt 


. Newton. 


Marshall, S. S., 






Seaman 


tt 


. Newton. 


Mclntyre, C. L., 






Engineer 


t< 


. Upton. 


O^Connell, T. L., . 






tt 


tt 


. Wakefield. 


Parker, H. A., 






tt 


tt 


. Mattapan. 


Stoddard, C. H., . 






Seaman 


tt 

• 


. Worcester. 


Sumner, B. M., 






tt 


tt 

• 


. Dorchester. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 



19 



Stewart, William, 


, Engineer < 


3lass, 


. Reading. 


Twombly, L. W., 


•• 


<i 


. Jamaica Plain. 


Williamson, J. F., 


. Seaman 


tt 


. Brockton. 


Waite,F.M., . 


It 

1 


It 


South Dartmouth 


Welch, B. L., . 


. Engineer 


It 


. Lowell. 


Fall OraducUing Class, Oci, 5, 1904. 


Bumpus, C. W., . 


Engineer < 


slass, 


. Wakefield. 


Blaisdell, L. T., . 


u 


It 


. Carlisle. 


Bigelow, £. R., . 


. Seaman 


•t 


. Bridgewater. 


Blake, S. M., 


. Engineer 


tt 


. Westfield. 


Chadbourne, £. J., 


»c 


tt 


. Reading. 


Driscoll,J. W., . 


It 


tt 


Boston. 


DjsoD, C. G., . 


tt 


tt 


. North Billerica. 


Danforth. W. A., 


tc 


tt 


. Plymouth. 


Gammon, F. B., . 


Seaman 


tt 


. Brockton. 


Gosnay, T. F., . 


Engineer 


It 


. Wakefield. 


Holmes, L. F., . 


Seaman 


It 


Brockton. 


Hill, Jr., C. H.. . 


Engineer 


tt 


. Reading. 


Hill, C. A 


It 


It 


. Melrose. 


Morgan, H. J., . 


It 


It 


. Wakefield. 


Nolan, £. B., . . . 


Seaman 


tt 


. Somerville. 


Roberts, E. C, . 


It 


It 


. North Beverly. 


Welden, G. F., . 


<t 


It 


. Dorchester. 


Whippen, J. G., . 


Engineer 


It 


. Lynn. 


Williams. E. W., 


tt 


It 


. Lynn. 


Young, W.E., . 


Seaman 


It 


. Charlestown. 


CUu 


s to graduate April, 1 


906. 


Anthony, L. J., . 


. Seaman class. 


. Taunton. 


Barrows, R. L., . 


It 


It 


. Boston. 


Cady, F. M., 


. Engineer 


t« 


. Lowell. 


Chisholm, T, W., 


It 


It 


. North Billerica. 


Clark, H. R., 


. Seaman 


tt 


. Middleborough. 


Doolittle, P. E., . 


. Engineer 


II 


. Greenfield. 


Gervais, A. A., . 


tt 


u 


. Westborough. 


Gridley, H. H., . 


. Seaman 


tt 


Dorchester. 


Kinnaly, J. F. J., 


. Engineer 


tt 


. South Boston. 


Kelley, L. G., . 


It 


tt 


. Taunton. 


Lockhart, W. C, 


tt 


tt 


. Wakefield. 


Morin, Eugene, . 


. Seaman 


tt 


. Hyde Park. 


MacLaughlin, 0. D., . 


tt 


tt 


. Beverly Farms. 


O^Brien,A. F., . 


tt 


tt 


. South Boston. 


Pinkham, A. S., . 


tt 


It 


. Newton. 


Tarr, C. F., . 


. Engineer 


tt 


. Taunton. 



20 



MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 



Barry, P. C, . 
Burdekin. R. W., 
Carlton, F. G., 
Crocker, J. A., 
Maynard, H. W., 
MuUaly, C. C, 
Newhall, W. L. F. 
O'Brien, E. R., 
Sullivan, F. H., 
Walker, F. S., 



Class to graduate October^ 1905. 

Seaman class. 
Engineer ** 



it 



it 



Seaman " 



u 



u 



it 



u 



Engineer " 
Seaman 



tt 



u 



tl 



it 



it 



North Dighton. 

South Framingham. 

Maynard. 

Nahant. 

Winthrop. 

Dorchester. 

Lynnfield. 

West Roxbury. 

Sandwich. 

Roxbury. 



Class to ffraduate April, 1906. 

Booth, F. A., New Bedford. 

Butler, L. B., Worcester. 

Caldwell, A. C, Dorchester. 

Cushmau, Jr , C. E., Rockport 

Copeland, H. G., Maiden. 

Dolan, W. R., Worcester. 

Flannigan, E. J., Wakefield. 

Graves, Herbert, Wilmington. 

Houghton, L. H., AVorcester. 

Howard, A. M., Chelmsford. 

Hanes, C. W., Melrose. 

Hoi brook, C. A., Marlborough. 

MacDonald, W. R., Neponset. 

McDonald, C. B., Springfield. 

Munroe, G. L., Fall River. 

McKey, R. H., Dorchester. 

Morgan, C. L., . * Beverly. 

Noyes, M. N., Everett. 

Peckham, H. I., Marlborough. 

Roach, H. C, New Bedford. 

Ruyter, John, Stoughton. 

Sheedy, J. C, Maiden. 

Towle, W. F Mansfield. 

Ckus to graduate October, 1906. 

Anderson, H. T., Millbury. 

Ashton. W. S Fall River. 

Batchelder, L. K., Melrose. 

Brighara, R. B., Fisherville. 

Bates, P. S., Southville. 

Brown, W. H., Boston. 

Bosson, G. C, Reading. 

Burbank, A. G., Carver. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 21 

Colony, C. E., Brookline. 

Doherty, M. J., Winthrop. 

fimnierton, D. S., Peabody. 

Foster, Y. M., East Boston. 

Farrington, P. J., Winthrop. 

Gladding, B. N. A., New Bedford. 

Hnnt, T. F., Lynn. 

Jones, L. A., Middleborough. 

Lee, W. H., Roxbury. 

Nutting, C. E., Cambridge. 

Parker, H. K., Maiden. 

Stott, W. J., Worcester. 

Tucker, W. M South Easton. 

Wilmarth, F. C, Saundersville. 

Webster, W. R., Worcester. 

Summary. 

The following tables show the different capacities in which 
the cadets have been employed since leaving the school, and 
also the branches of service in which they have been engaged, 
so far as known by the commissioners : — 



SMman Class. 



Engineer Class. 



Masters 

First officers, . 

Second officers. 

Third officers, . 

Fourth officers. 

Chief quartermasters, 

Qoartermasters, 

Cadets and seamen, . 

Boatswains, 

Chief yeomen, . 

Acting ensigns. 

Third lieutenants, revenue cut 

ter service, . . 
Cadet revenue cutter service. 
Boat keepers, pilot boat ser 

vice, .... 



Total, 



Grand total. 



6 

10 

28 

13 

3 

3 

68 

58 

2 

4 

3 

3 
1 

5 

207 



Chief engineers, • • • o 
First assistant engineers, ^ 

Second assistant en j:ineers, ^ 

Third assistjint engineers, ^ 

Fourth assistant engineers. 
Engineers and assistant e^" ^^^ 

gineers, . • ^ • * 55 

Engineer cadets and oilers, • ^^ 
Firemen, . . • • \ \ 

Chief machinist, • • \ ^^ 

Machinists, . • • --^a- 

Machinists and >varrant id^ < 

chinisU, United States M^^^ ^ 
Chief electrician, • o*'«f:«* 
Electricians, United bta^ 

Navy, . . • • 

Electricians, 

Total, . . • • 



5 
4»^ 




22 



MASS. NAUTICAL TEAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 



Class of Vessels, 

TransatlaDtic steamers,* 86 

Coastwise steamers, .88 

Pacific steamers, 20 

'* Tramp ^^ steamers and towboats, 17 

Steam yachts, 21 

Sailing vessels, 82 

Pilot boats, 5 

United States naval vessels, 64 

United States naval colliers, 20 

United States transports, . . . 16 

United States revenue cutter steamers, 12 

United States coast survey steamers, .8 

United States light-house steamers, 7 

Total, 396 

On shore, 37 

433 



Cadets admitted^ graduated and honorably discharged^ from 1893 to 1904, 

Inclusive, 







Admittbd 


• 


Oraduatbd. 


HONORABLT DIB- 
OHAROBD. 




Beamao- 

ahlp 

OlaM. 


Engi- 
neer 
Olasa. 


ToUl. 


Beaman- 

abip 

Class. 


Engi- 
neer 
Glass. 


Total. 


Seaman- 
ship 
Class. 

29 


Engi. 

Deer 

Class. 


ToUl. 


1898, . 




188 


- 


138 


- 


- 


- 


29 


1894, . 




42 


21 


88 


- 


- 


- 


86 


17 


48 


1895, . , 




83 


38 


71 


19 


19 


88 


6 


6 


12 


1896, . 




8ft 


89 


74 


20 


17 


87 


16 


16 


81 


1897, . 




82 


41 


78 


20 


21 


41 


10 


10 


20 


1896, . 




42 


67 


99 


16 


26 


40 


12 


14 


26 


1899, . 




84 


46 


79 


11 


12 


28 


24 


17 


41 


1900, . . 




28 


60 


78 


14 


86 


60 





12 


21 


1901, . , 




84 


87 


71 


11 

• 


18 


29 


8 


12 


20 


1902, . 




32 


68 


90 


16 


22 


38 


16 


18 


84 


1908, . 




84 


82 


60 


17 


14 


81 


^0 


16 


26 


1904, . 




- 




60 


16 


39 


46 


6 


12 


17 


Total, , 




- 


- 


962 


169 


218 


872 


171 


148 


819 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 



23 









00 

I, 

I 



1 

I 



I* 

I 



1 

s 

3 

m 
Q 

* 

§ 

H 

n 

I 
2 




• 

1 


a 


SSSSSS^cSSSS^ 


Ok 

•9 


• 

is 

1 




1 


^■6 ^^ ^^ ^^ 


ss 




s 






• 

a 

o 

B 

m 

§ 




1 


eO«9«9rHi^*H»M»Mr-l'*« 


Vi4 


00 


1 


•e 1 M « «0 « 1 1 M 1 « 


s 


• 

OB 

5 




1 


OOfHCOMfHM^MiOiHiO 


s 


1^3 


1 


»fHioe««-«e««ciio 1 


s 


• 

e 

H 

n 

\ 

M 

5 

I 

0S 

O 


• 


1 


'ssso^^asasis^ 


C9 

fr- 
ee 


• 

i 


^9 

1^ 


1 


1 1 ir4f-irHO<«<«C«e< 


% 




1 


1 1 1 fH 1 C« 1 CO fH fH M 




• 

a 

o 
H 

■a 

§ 


5« 


1 


1 ^MteeoMOoeo^io 

1*^ 


^ 


t 


1 


1 eo«^«WiH^fH'*-- 


s 


• 

OP 


5« 


1 


iH i-i M e« o4 1^ fH 


^4 


iti 


1 


1 oeeaoe<»-«9t-^e«e« 










• 
• 
• 
• 

i 










1 




1894, 

1896, 
1896, 
1897, 
1898, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1908 
1904 





24 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 



Statistics of Cadets. 

Cadets admiUed during the Year 1904. 



Nomber Id the ichool Jan. 1, 1904 : — 
BeamaDBhip oUm, . • . . , 
Eogineer ela 

Toul, 



44 

91 



105 



AppUeatioiM received, 1904, 
FalliDg to appear for ezamlDallon, 
Awaiting ezamtnalioD, 
Applicants examined, . 



Examined, 

Failed to paea mental examination, . 

Failed to pau pbyeloal examination. 

Failed to pass mental and physical examinations, 

Passed examinations, 




Passed examinations, . 
Re-examined mentally and passed, 
Re-examined physically and passed, 



Failed to qualify after passing examinations, 



Total number admitted to school during 1904, . 
Total number connected with the school during 1004, 



47 
6 
6 

88 

88 

21 

4 



08 

8 




115 



05 



eo 



165 



Cadets withdrawn during the Year 1904, 



Total number regularly graduated, 
Beamanshlp class, . 
Engineer class, 



Total number honorably discharged, 

Seamanship class, 

Engineer class, 

Total number graduated and honorably discharged, 




Dropped from roll, 
Dlsralssed, . 
Withdrawn, . 



Total number dropped, etc., 
Total withdrawals during 1904, 



Number of cadets in the school Jan. 1, 1905, 



8 

1 

22 



45 



17 



«2 



31 



93 



72 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 



25 



Appropriations. 

The appropriations for the school for the year 1904, which 
are here accoanted for, were : — 



Current Expenses. 

Appropriation, 

Deficiency appropriations for 1903, . 
Special appropriation for repairs, . 



Expended : — 

Pay roll, .... 
Provisions, .... 
Text-books, instruments, etc.. 
Seamanship department, . 
Engineer department, 
Repairs, .... 
Miscellaneous, . 
Deficiency bills, 1903, 

Total amount expended. 



Balance unexpended, 



Office Expenses, 

Appropriation, 

Expended : — 

Salaries, 

Books, stationery and postage, . 
Commissioners^ expenses, . 
Printing annual report, . 
Miscellaneous, 



Total amount expended, 



126,820 46 

13,122 62 

788 46 

5,198 11 

6,602 17 

16,830 91 

1,942 60 

3,897 03 



$3,440 00 

735 81 

356 26 

62 38 

250 88 



155,000 00 
.3,397 03 
15,000 00 

•73,397 03 



73,202 36 



1194 67 



|5,000 00 



4,845 33 



Balance unexpended, 



1154 67 



Respectfully submitted, 



Boston, Jan. 2, 1905. 



N. M. DYER, Chairman, 

Rear Admiral, U. S. N. (Retired), 
ROBERT B. DIXON, M.D., 
Hon. JOHN READ, Late U. S. N., 

Board of Ccmmissioners. 

F. STANHOPE HILL, Secretary. 



26 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. [Jan. 



LEGAL AUTHORITY FOR THE SCHOOL. 



AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

[Chapter 339, June 20, 1874.] 

An Act to encourage the Establishment of Public Marine 

Schools. 

That the secretary of the navy, to promote nautical education, is 
hereby authorized and empowered to furnish, upon the application in 
writing of the governor of the State, a suitable vessel of the navy, 
with all her apparel, charts, books and instruments of navigatiou, 
provided the same can be spared without detriment to the naval ser- 
vice, to be used for the benefit of any nautical school or college hav- 
ing a branch established at each or any of the ports of New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, San Francisco, Washing- 
ton, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans, Baton Rouge, 
Galveston, and in Narragansett Bay (Acts, 1881), upon the condi- 
tion that there shall be maintained at such port a school, or branch 
of a school, for the instruction of youths in navigation, seamanship, 
marine enginery and all matters pertaining to the proper construction, 
equipment and sailing of vessels, or any particular branch thereof. 

And the president of the United States is hereby authorized, when 
in his opinion the same can be done without detriment to the public 
service, to detail proper officers of the navy as superintendents of or 
instructors in such schools : provided, that if any such school shall 
be discontinued, or the good of the naval service shall require it, such 
vessel shall be immediately restored to the secretary of the navy, 
and the officers so detailed recalled ; and provided ^ further, that no 
person shall be sentenced to or received at such schools as a punish- 
ment, or commutation of punishment, for crime. 

AUTHORITY OF THE STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

[Chaftbb 402, Acts op 1891.] 

An Act to establish a Nautical Training School. 
Be it enacted, etc^ as follows : 

Section 1. The governor with the advice and consent of the 
council shall appoint, as soon as practicable after the passage of 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 27 

this act, three citizens of this Commonlrealth, who shall constitute a 
board of commissioners of the Massachusetts nautical ti*aining school, 
and who shall hold office for terms of one, two and three years respec- 
tively, from the first day of July in the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-one, and until their successors are appointed and qualified; 
and before the first day in July in each year thereafter one commis- 
sioner shall be appointed in like manner, to hold office for the term 
of three years. Vacancies may be filled for the residue of a term by 
appointment, and a commissioner may be removed at any time for 
cause, to be stated in the order of removal. All appointments and 
removals shall be made by the governor with the advice and consent 
of the council. 

Section 2. Said commissioners shall serve without compensation, 
but they shall be reimbursed from the treasury of the Commonwealth 
for all expenses actually incurred by them in the performance of their 
official duties. 

Section 3. Said commissioners shall provide and maintain a 
nautical training school for the instruction and training of pupils in 
the science and practice of navigation ; shall furnish accommodations 
for the school on board a proper vessel; shall from time to time 
purchase and provide such books, stationery, apparatus and supplies 
as are needed in the work of the school ; shall appoint and remove 
instructors and other necessary employees, and determine their com- 
pensation ; shall fix the terms and conditions upon which pupils shall 
be received and instructed in the school, and discharged or dismissed 
therefrom ; and shall establish all rules and regulations necessary for 
the management of the school. For the purpose of giving the pupils 
of the school a practical knowledge of navigation and the duties of 
mariners, said commissioners shall from time to time provide for the 
making of cruises in or from the harbor of Boston. 

Section 4. Said commissioners are authorized to receive from the 
United States government, and to use for the accommodation of 
the school, such vessel or vessels as the secretary of the navy may 
detail for that purpose. 

Section 5. In order to properly maintain the said nautical train- 
ing school, the commissioners may expend a sum not exceeding fifty 
thousand dollars, which shall be paid from the treasury of the Com- 
monwealth on properly approved vouchers, which shall be approved 
by the governor and council and presented to the auditor of the 
Commonwealth for allowance in the same manner as other claims 
against the Commonwealth : provided^ however^ that no expenditure 
shall be made or allowed until a vessel suitable for the proposed 
nautical training school shall have been furnished by the United 



28 MASS. NAUTICAL TRAIMXG SCHOOL. [Jan. 

States government and turned over to the Commonwealth, and the 
same approved of and accepted by the governor and council. 

Section 6. Said commissionere shall annually in the month of 
January make a report to the legislature, presenting a detailed state- 
ment of all moneys appropriated and expended for the purposes of the 
nautical training school during the year preceding ; also stating the 
results of the work during such year, and making such recommenda- 
tions as seem to them proper. 

Section 7. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Ap- 
proved June 11^ 1891, 

VOTE OF EXECUTIVE COUNCIL UPON ACCEPTANCE BY 
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Commonwealth of Mabbaohusetts, 

Council Chamber, Boston, Nov. 9, 1892. 

The committee on military affairs, to whom was referred the matter 
of the approval of tlie United States ship *' Enterprise " for the pur- 
pose of a nautical training school, submit the following report. 

E. V. Mitchell, for the Committee, 

Chapter 402 of the Acts of the year 1891 provides for the estab- 
lishment of a nautical training school in this Commonwealth, and 
section 2 of said act authorizes an expenditure of fifty thousand 
dollars to properly maintain the proposed school, and also provides 
for the furnishing by the United States government of a suitable 
vessel for such school which shall be turned over to the Common- 
wealth and accepted by the Governor and Couucil; and whereas, 
the United States having furnished a suitable vessel and the same 
having been examined by the Executive Council, it is hereby — 

Ordered^ That the United States ship " Enterprise " be approved 
and accepted for the proposed nautical training school. 

Approved in council, Nov. 9, 1892. 

E. F. Hamlin, Executive Clerk. 
A true copy. 

Attest: E. F. Hamlin, Executive Clerk. 

MASSACHUSETTS NAUTICAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 

Establishment. 

Under the authority of the above acts, the Secretary of the Navy, 
on Oct. 28, 1892, turned over to the authorities of the State of 
Massachusetts the United States steam sloop of war *^£oterprisei*' 
as a vessel suitable for the purpose. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 42. 29 



RECENT LEGISLATION. 



[Chapter 171, Acts op 1903.] 

An Act relative to the Amount which may annually be expended 
FOR THE Maintenance of the Massachusetts Nautical Train- 
ing School. 

Be it enacted^ etc, as foliows : 

Section 1 . Section five of chapter forty-five of the Revised Laws 
is hereby amended by striking out the words " not more than fifty 
thousand dollars," in the first and second lines, and inserting in place 
thereof the words : — such sum as the general court may from year to 
year appropriate, — so as to read as follows : — Section 5. They 
may annually expend such sum as the general court may from year 
to year appropriate, which shall be paid by the Commonwealth ; and 
they shall annually submit an estimate of the expense required in 
making cruises in or from the harbor of Boston, and the amount of 
said estimate, after approval by the governor and council and subject 
to the' provisions of chapter six, shall be advanced to the command- 
ing oflficer of the vessel detailed therefor, who shall give a bond in the 
sum of ten thousand dollars, with sureties approved by the governor 
and council, for its proper disbursement. Said advance shall not 
exceed ten thousand dollars for six months, and shall be accounted 
for by properly approved vouchers, within thirty days after the 
termination of said cruises. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage, [^p- 
proved March 23^ 1903. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT . 



REPORT 

Board of Metropolitan Park 
Commissioners. 

J A'N U A U Y, 1905. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT ft POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Ovfioe S^jnAsc. 

1905. 



Appbotbd bt 
Thb State Board of Publication. 



CONTENTS. 



PAQB 

List of Officers, 8 

Report of the Commissioners, 7 

Report of the Secretary, IS 

Report of the Landscape Architects, 39 . 

Report of the Engineer, . ^^ 

Financial Statement, .76 

Appendix: 

Report on Improvement of the Upper Mystic River and 

Alewife Brook by Means of Tide Gates and La^rgb 

Drainage Channels, by John R. Freeman, Civil C^m- 

97 

GINEER, 



OFFICERS. 



Gommissloners. 
WILLIAM B. DB LAS CASAS, Chairman, 
EDWIN B. HASKELL. EDWIN U. CURTIS. 

DAVID N. SKILLINGS. ELLERTON P. WHITNEY. 

Landscape Architects. 
Advisory. 

OLMSTED BROTHERS. 

Bnfflneer. 
JOHN R. RABLIN. 

Law and Glaims. 
GEORGE LYMAN ROGERS. 

Secretary. 
JOHN WOODBURY. 

Offices, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 



,1 



di;omm0ntojealtb ai Passatj^tisjetts* 



EEPORT. 



The Metropolitan Park Commission presents herewith its 
twelfth annual report. 

The report of the Board for the previous year summarized 
the legislation under which the Metropolitan Park System 
was established and carried on, ^e acquirements already 
made and the extent to w.hich they had been developed. It 
is only necessary to repeat in this report that in 1903 the 
Legislature reviewed the entire matter very fully, and pro- 
vided, chapters 419 and 429 of the Acts ol that year, that this 
work should be continued, both upon the parks and upon the 
parkways, under appropriations which should severally be- 
come available to the amount of $300,000 each year for five 
years, beginning with 1903. It was understood tjiat these 
continuing appropriations were to be used chiefly for the 
purpose of developing acquirements already made to such a 
point that, as far as possible, the entire system should be 
brought into use within five years. During the past year, 
therefore, this Board has, as in the previous year, given its 
attention chiefly to maintaining the system already acquired 
and developed, and to construction work and investigations 
preliminary to construction work upon lands already ac- 
quired. The only important acquirement of land which has 
been made has been that of the small amount which was 
needed to complete the holdings for Neponset River Park- 
way between Paul's Bridge in Milton and the Blue Hills. 
A considerable portion of this land was the gift of Dr. 
George^ G. Kennedy. A connection is now assured with 
the Boston Park System which will provide for a continuous 



8 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

parkway from the Public Garden in Boston, by the Fenway, 
Arnold Arboretum and West Roxbury Parkway of that sys- 
tem, to Stony Brook Woods of the Metropolitan Park System 
and thence to Blue Hills. Other small acquirements made 
to perfect previous acquirements are described in detail in 
the Secretary's accompanying report. Special mention may 
be made of the acquirement of the historic mansion known 
as the Dorothy Q. House and surrounding grounds in 
Quincy, which form a natural adjunct and embellishment 
to Furnace Brook Parkway. The Massachusetts Society of 
Colonial Dames of America contributed one-half the cost of 
this estate, and also expended a considerable further sum in 
restoring the buildings, in pursuance of an agreement by 
which they are permitted to preserve and open the house 
to the public as a museum and notable example of an historic 
colonial mansion. ^ 

Briefly stated, the Metropolitan Park System now includes 
7,283.83 acres of woodland, 1,799.85 acres forming a front- 
age of 47 miles of river bank, 163 acres forming a frontage 
of 9.86 miles of seashore, and the land for 25.61 miles of 
parkway. The details of these holdings are given in the 
Secretary's report, and it need only be noted here that the 
parkways are located and designed with the threefold object 
of connecting the parks and reservations with each other, of 
giving access to them from the most thickly populated por- 
tions of the district, and of bringing the Metropolitan Park 
System into connection with the more important local parks, 
parkways or driving roads of the Metropolitan District. 

The funds provided for these takings are gi'ouped under 
three loans : the Metropolitan Parks Loan, under which the 
parks and reservations have been acquired, now amounting 
to $7,888,334.01, of which $5,102,931.29 has been expended 
for land, $2,117,559.43 for development and $290,326.56 
for sinking fund, interest and maintenance charges to Jan. 
1, 1900; the Metropolitan Parks Loan, Series H., under 
which the parkways have been acquired, now amounting to 
$4,214,907.41, of which $1,405,726.17 has been expended 
for land, $2,500,103.08 for development and $59,195.89 for 
sinking fund and interest charges to Jan. 1, 1900 ; and the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 9 

Nantasket Beach Loan, amounting to $705,881.50, of which 
$603,329.57 has been expended for land and $102,551.93 
for development. The claims arising out of the acquirement 
of these lands are now so far settled that, including the 
acquirements of the past year, they number only 42 of an 
aggregate estimated value of $51,841.40. This estimate 
may be somewhat exceeded in the final result of law suits, 
but a safe balance is reserved for such contingency. 

Construction work has been carried on rapidly and with 
satis&ctory results. Wellington Bridge over Mystic River 
for combined use of Fellsway and of the highways which 
converge at that point, and a concrete dam across Charles 
River at Newton Lower Falls to replace an unsafe wooden 
structure, have been completed. Both were directed by 
specific act of the Legislature. An attractive headquarters 
building for upper Charles River has been completed in New- 
ton near Weston Bridge, and minor buildings have been 
completed for administration purposes in other reservations. 
Sub-grading of the uncompleted portion of Revere Beach 
Parkway, between Main Street, Everett, and Fellsway, with 
the exception of some work on the bridges, has been com- 
pleted. Necessary enlargements have been made in the 
Speedway headquarters, a children's playground has been 
established on the Fuller Wharf lot opposite, and a new 
entrance to the Speedway has been provided by extension 
of Everett Street for more direct approach from Boston^ 
Sub-grading of an approach to Quincy Shore has been com- 
pleted from Atlantic, and sub-grading of the portion of 
Furnace Brook Parkway between Adams Street, Quincy, 
and Blue Hills Reservation, excepting the railroad bridge, 
will be completed during December. The westerly road- 
way of Neponset River Parkway from Paul's Bridge to Blue 
Hill Avenue has been practically completed. The bridge 
over Saugus River and the contract for a sea wall and grading 
at Lynn Shore from Swampscott to Red Rock are well ad- 
vanced toward completion. Contracts have been let for com- 
pleting Revere Beach from Revere Street to the Point of 
Pines, and for surfacing Lynnway and for dredging Mystic 
River above Cradock Bridge. In the Blue Hills a roadway 



10 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

from Harland Street to Hillside Street in extension of the 
Blue Hills Parkway, and a path around the top of Great 
Blue Hill, have been completed ; and a much-needed new 
ofSce building near the Superintendent's headquarters on 
Hillside Street has been nearly completed. In the Middle- 
sex Fells a very attractive roadway has been built along the 
easterly side of the lower Winchester Reservoir to join the 
proposed road from the middle dam, and thence extended to 
Forest Street opposite the southerly end of Spot Pond. The 
cost of these roads will be paid, to the extent of $4,000, by 
a gift from Messrs. Peter C. and Shepherd Brooks. These 
and other less important pieces of construction work are 
described in detail in the reports of the Secretary and the 
Engineer. 

Several important studies and investigations have been 
made in preparation for future work. The most important 
have been the preparation of plans for the Lynn-Nahant 
Beach Bath-house, as specifically directed by the Legisla- 
ture ; the hearings and surveys incident to petitions of the 
Boston Elevated Railway and the Boston & Northern Street 
Railway for electric car locations in Fellsway and Middle- 
sex Fells; and a very serious investigation of the Mystic 
River and its water-shed, to determine the advisability of 
building a dam at Cradock Bridge near Medford Square. 
An attractive building has been designed for the Lynn- 
Nahant Beach Bath-house, and will soon be under contract 
and probably completed in time for use during the summer 
of 1905. The petitions for electric car routes raised very 
important questions in regard to the advisability of admit- 
ting electric cars to Middlesex Fells, and hearings were 
given upon these petitions. So far as public opinion was 
ascertained, it appeared that, while many lovers of the Mid- 
dlesex Fells were deeply opposed to any grant of location 
through the reservation, yet many other people who also 
had a deep interest in this beautiful reservation and in the 
park system were of the opinion that the usefulness of the 
reservation would be greatly increased by a safe and well- 
located electric car line to and through the reservation. 
After these hearings and further consideration of the matter 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 11 

the Oommission notified the electric railways, in a prelimi- 
nary and informal way, that it would investigate the feasi- 
bility of a location consistent with preserving the beauty of 
the reservation and the safety and comfort of the people 
using it. Such investigation, made with great care and 
with the advice of the Landscape Architects and the En- 
gineer of this Board, and of Mr. E. K. Turner, the eminent 
railroad expert, resulted in suggestions for a location which 
the Commission feel satisfied will be convenient for the pub- 
lic and convenient and valuable for the petitioners, and at 
the same time do little, if any, injury to the scenery and 
quiet of the reservation. These suggestions are now in the 
hands of the railway companies for detailed examination 
preparatory to a formal grant of location. The line sug- 
gested is in the reserved space of Fellsway from Broadway, 
Somerville, to Elm Street, Medford, and thence in a location 
separated from the driving roads and free from grade cross- 
ings to South Street, in Stoneham, where connection may 
be made with electric cars from Stoneham and the towns 
beyond. 

A dam at Cradock Bridge had been early suggested by 
the Landscape Architects, with the idea of excluding tide 
water from the upper Mystic, and of establishing a perma- 
nent water level somewhat below the grade of the meadows. 
It was thought that such a treatment would reduce the cost 
of the roads and river bank improvement, improve the river 
as a water-way and park, and lead, also, to an early develop- 
ment of the considerable area of low land near by in Medford 
and Somerville. But in the period since the acquirement of 
the river banks by the Board in 1899 the cities of Somerville 
and Cambridge and the towns of Arlington and Belmont, 
acting together, had secured legislative authority, by chap- 
ter 327 of the Acts of 1903, for improving the sanitary con- 
dition of Alewife Brook and meadows which are tributary 
to the upper Mystic River. It was learned that these cities 
and towns were considering plans for this purpose, including 
the suggestion of their engineer that tide gates be placed in 
Alewife Brook where it empties into Mystic River. The 
possibility that a dam at Cradock Bridge might hamper these 



12 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

cities and towns in their desired sanitary improvement led 
this Board to secure as expert adviser Mr. John R. Freeman 
of Providence, the eminent engineer who had just completed 
the investigations and report upon the great dam across 
Charles River to replace Craigie Bridge, and to ask him to 
make most searching investigations and report as to the 
proposed dam at Oradock Bridge, especially with reference 
to its effect upon any feasible sanitary improvement which 
might be devised for Ale wife Brook and meadows. Mr* 
Freeman entered into the investigation with peculiar qualifi- 
cations, in addition to those of his professional experience, 
from the fact that he had formerly been a member of the 
Metropolitan Sewerage Board of this Commonwealth, and 
had for some years lived in the Mystic Valley. He was 
assisted in his work by the Engineering Department of this 
Board, and by eminent bacteriologists and chemists con- 
nected with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology'. The 
cities and towns concerned were notified, and expressed their 
courtesy and good-will by furnishing information and assist- 
ance to Mr. Freeman, and by suspending action in regard to 
their own investigations pending the receipt of Mr. Free- 
man's report. They co-operated also in the passage of an 
act by the Legislature, chapter 445 of the Acts of 1904, 
authorizing this Board to build the proposed dam at Cradock 
Bridge, provided it should be approved by the State Board 
of Health and by the Harbor and Land Commissioners of this 
Commonwealth and by the Federal authorities. Mr. Free- 
man's report has been received in print, and is also printed, 
without its accompanying appendices, photographs and larger 
plans, as an Appendix to this report. His conclusions are 
wholly favorable to the dam at Cradock Bridge according to 
a design prepared by him, and indicate that such a dam 
will not hinder, but will materially facilitate, any adequate 
plan for sanitation of Alewife Brook. He also suggests that 
the entire improvement may be made at one time by the two 
boards acting in conjunction. This Board will now feel 
justified in presenting the matter to the State Board of 
Health, and asking for immediate authority to carry out the 
portion of the matter which relates to Mystic River, but will 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 13 

not feel that it has the authority or the funds to undertake 
any other part of his suggestions. It is hoped, however, 
that the cities and towns may be prepared to go on with their 
portion of the work of improving Alewife Brook meadows 
at an early date. 

Each year as the Metropolitan Park System reaches a 
greater degree of completeness its increasing usefulness is 
apparent. More people use its various reservations and 
parkways, and use them in more ways, and new opportuni- 
ties for usefulness suggest themselves. Its present stage of 
development has come rapidly, and the expenses of main- 
tenance have consequently increased rapidly and must con- 
tinue to increase somewliat as additional portions of the 
system are completed. These expenses represent not only 
the cost of administration and keeping in i*epair, which is 
comparatively small, but also those of light and police, 
which are the items of greatest cost in tho care of the 
beaches and rivera to which the people resort in throngs at 
certain seasons of the year. It is evident that these ex- 
penses, however, are less than the aggregate of those which 
would have to be borne by the separate municipalities if 
they were to provide for their own people, or to give equal 
protection and regulation to private enterprise in providing 
such resorts. The Metropolitan Park System was established 
because of a belief that the co-operation of the entire district 
operating through one board would not only provide parks 
which would otherwise be unobtainable, but would also 
avoid the wastefulness of duplication of parks and pleasure 
ways. The Commission has always kept this idea in mind, 
and has endeavored as far as possible to provide in its ac- 
quirements and developments, and even in the time and 
manner of their use, that the parks and parkways should 
provide for such incidental forms of usefulness as, without 
material increase of cost, will save future larger expenditures 
by the near-by cities and towns. For this reason some por- 
tions of the parkways where they are of necessity located 
through expensive lands have been designed not only to 
provide for direct and comfortable passage between the 
reservations and the broader park-like portions of the park- 



14 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

ways themselves, but also have been located and designed 
with a view to making pleasure travel between the cities 
and towns of the district more comfortable. Some portions 
of the parkways which lie along the probable line of future 
necessity for electric car service have been built with a 
reserved centre space between rows of trees to provide for 
such car service ; such are Fellsway and a portion of Blue 
Hills Parkway. Where the location for such a parkway has 
necessarily, or more economically, paralleled an existing or 
probable future highway, such a highway has been incor- 
porated or provided for in the parkway, as in the Blue Hills 
Pturkway, which has both a traffic road, formerly Mattapan 
Street, and a pleasure roadway. Where a parkway has of 
necessity been located between lands which were likely to 
be used for factories, additional laud has been acquired to 
provide for either a park-like strip between the factories 
and the roadway or for outer traffic roads as future needs 
may require ; such is a portion of Revere Beach Parkway. 
In actual construction of these parkways, portions which do 
not seem likely to be needed in the immediate future have 
been omitted or a limited construction has been carried on, 
so as to make the parkway immediately available without 
unnecessary present expense. Wherever it has been neces- 
sary to build bridges across rivers or railroads, such bridges 
have been designed as &r as possible to provide for the gen- 
eral travel which otherwise would require the building and 
maintenance of a separate bridge in the immediate neighbor- 
hood, or, if possible, an existing bridge has also been utilized 
for the parkway. Obviously, local uses have thus been pro- 
vided for and local expenses relieved, especially in regard to 
lighting and policing, at Winthrop, Nahant, Lynn, Quincy 
Shore and Nantasket Beach, and upon such portions of the 
rivers as the boating section of upper Charles River. This 
incidental effort to save local expense to municipalities of 
the district has, however, been properly confined to those 
services which have not added materially to the general ex- 
pense of the system, nor detracted from its general character 
and usefulness to the district as a whole. The Commission 
has not as a rule felt justified in providing exclusive amuse- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 15 

ments or conveDieoces of a purely local character, nor, un- 
less specifically directed, in assuming the discharge of duties 
which the Commonwealth has left to the separate municipal- 
ities, nor, except in cases of great necessity, in providing 
what is likely to be reasonably provided for by private 
enterprise. The playgrounds and the bath-houses which 
have been provided are no exception to this rule, because the 
playgrounds are either at points like the one at Brighton, 
where the entire water front is in the care of this Board, or 
at other points where the city or town has contributed a 
portion at least of the cost. The bath-houses are at points 
where the entire bathing beach is in the custody of this 
Board, and are so located as to accommodate the district as 
a whole rather than to provide for mere local convenience. 
They have all been built under special appropriations by 
the Legislature, and, as no appropriations have ever been 
made for their maintenance, a charge has been made to the 
portion of the public which uses them sufficient to make 
them self-supporting. 

The maintenance and care of the reservations have been 
generally excellent during the past year, and have reflected 
credit upon the superintendents, police and employees to 
whose immediate care they have been committed. This 
duty is a very delicate one, especially in regard to policing. 
The necessity for rules and regulations and for restriction of 
individual freedom to maintain the usefulness of the reserva- 
tions and parkways is not readily understood, even when 
comparison is made between present conditions and those 
which existed formerly, or which would now exist if no 
restrictions were made. Yet woodland fires and killing of 
birds must be prevented in woods reservations, even though 
this is not generally done in near-by cities and towns ; auto- 
mobiles must be excluded from woodland paths and from 
places where great crowds resort, so long as any of these 
vehicles are used recklessly or in a manner to even occasion- 
ally cause horses to become unmanageable ; and the use of 
the rivers for boating and even for private business must be 
regulated when they become parks, and the public are, in 
effect, invited to them under an implied promise of safety 



16 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

and comfort in recreation. Occasionally sjiiipathy for the 
young who are caught in moral delinquency causes temporary 
excitement, and perhaps adverse criticism and opposition to 
rules and to their enforcement. This is especially unfortu- 
nate in the cases which have arisen in regard to rules which 
are merely restatements of the common law, made to advise 
the public of what the law requires, and to prevent indecent 
conduct on the boating section of Charles River. Violations 
of these rules have generally been prosecuted as violations 
of common law, and only in cases in which the offence was 
very evident, and has been found so by the court. The 
public use of the Charles River will soon have increased to 
the point where the public will undoubtedly require tliat, 
as upon the only greater boating river of the world, — the 
Thames in England, — boats and especially power launches 
shall be licensed and numbered. Such a result will be as 
much for the convenience and safety of the public as are 
rules of the road and sea generally, and the licensing and 
numbering of public conveyances and the use of private sig- 
nals and flags on yachts and boats. 

For some years, and indeed since the Commonwealth re- 
laxed its work, the gypsy moth has been a serious menace 
to the woodland reservations and parkways. The damage 
from this pest appears to increase each year, although the 
Commission, struggling with an inadequate appropriation 
for this specific work, and the effect of inadequate work by 
municipalities and private owners near the reservations and 
parkways, have thus far prevented any serious damage within 
the reservations or parkways. It is apparent, however, each 
year that more determined and expensive work of defence is 
necessary, and consequently that a larger appropriation must 
be asked for this specific work. The Commission dislikes 
to be obliged to ask for such increase in its appropriations, 
and feels keenly that the expenditure of the large sum of 
money which is required is for merely defensive work, which 
will have to continue and even increase so long as it is pros- 
ecuted as at present. The Board earnestly recommends 
that, either under existing law or under some new enact- 
ment, provision be made for immediate and effective sup- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 17 

pression of this pest everywhere that it exists, and that such 
work be placed under the direct control and supervision of 
the Commonwealth, and, if possible, in such a way as to 
secure the co-operation of the various municipalities and 
boards of the State and of private owners ; and that pro- 
vision also be made for immediate effort to find some para- 
site or natural enemy, which will, after a few years, destroy 
the pest, and so end the present terrible expense of merely 
defensive work. 

AH of which is respectfully submitted. 

WILLIAM B. DE LAS CASAS. 
EDWIN B. HASKELL. 
EDWIN U. CURTIS. 
DAVID N. SKILLINGS. 
ELLERTON P. WHITNEY. 

Dbc. 14, 1904. 



18 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



Hon. WiLUAM B. DE LA8 Casas, Chairman^ Metropolitan Park Comr 

mission. 

Sir : — I herewith present my report for the year ending 
Dec. 1, 1904. It is subdivided as follows: 1. Acquire- 
ment of lands. 2. Administration. 3. Miscellaneous. 4. 
Finances. 

1. ACXJUIREMENT OF LaNDS. 

The only important land taking during the present year 
has been to secure the land in Milton necessary to complete 
the Neponset Biver Parkway, which when constructed will 
connect the Stony Brook Beservation in Hyde Park with 
the Blue Hills Beservation in Milton. The strip of land 
acquired this year is 1.12 miles in length and of varying 
width, extending from the Neponset Biver near Pauls Bridge 
to the Blue Hills. A considerable portion of this land was 
given to the Commonwealth by Dr. George G. Kennedy. 
Immediate construction of this parkway is not contemplated 
except between Brush Hill Boad and Blue Hill Avenue. In 
connection with this acquirement a small additional taking 
was made, to accommodate the boundary line of the Blue 
Hills Beservation to the entrance of the Parkway. These 
takings, in connection with previous takings of this Com- 
mission and the holdings of the Boston Park Commission, 
provide the necessary land for a continuous parkway from 
the Public Garden in Boston to the foot of Great Blue Hill 
in Milton, a distance of 12.75 miles. 

The Commission has recently acquired»a tract of about 1 1 
acres in Winchester, which was originally included in the 
boundaries of the Middlesex Fells, but was abandoned on 
account of its apparent value to the owner in connection 
with the development of other adjoining lands. Circum- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 19 

stances having made the use of this land abandoned an- 
necessary to the owner, it has now been purchased by the 
Commission on favorable terms. Several small changes 
have been made in the boundaries of the Charles River 
Reservation. Additional land was acquired for necessary 
enlargement of the headquarters building at the Speedway. 
In co-operation with the city of Boston, land was acquired 
for an entrance to the Speedway in extension of the north- 
erly end of Everett Street in Brighton. The southerly end 
of Everett Street is just beyond Union Square in Brighton, 
and a very direct route from the centre of Boston to the 
Speedway is thus provided by way of Beacon Street, Com- 
monwealth Avenue and Everett Street. Changes in the 
buildings of Lewando's Dye Works at Watertown Square 
made it possible to secure from the owners land on the west- 
erly side of Galen Street and along the left bank of the 
Charles River, which will be needed when Charles River 
Road is extended farther up the river. In Waltham the 
Commission has purchased a narrow strip of land and the 
half-flowed land adjoining it along the Mount Feake Ceme- 
tery. Adjoining the Newton Boat Club House at River- 
side the Commission has acquired an irregular-shaped lot 
of land in exchange for a parcel farther down the river, 
which was conveyed subject to such restrictions as will 
ensure its development in a manner consistent with the 
plans of the Commission. In Wellesley land has been con- 
veyed by the town for street widenings, and a small tract 
to be used as a local park put in the police control of the 
local park commission. At Newton Lower Falls the Com- 
mission found it necessary to abandon land taken for a 
canoe-way through mill propei-ty, on account of the possi- 
bility that the damages recovered in suit might exceed its 
value to the public for that purpose. In Revere a portion 
of the easterly end of Revere Street has been taken, in order 
to improve the entrance of this street into the Revere Beach 
Reservation. In Quincy the Commission, in co-operation 
with the Massachusetts Society of Colonial Dames, has se- 
cured the estate on Hancock Street occupied by the house 
known as the '' Dorothy Q. House." The land forms a part 



20 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

of the Furnace Brook Parkway, and the house will be main- 
tained by the society as a colonial museum. Exchanges of 
land have also been made between the owners of the Adams 
estate and the Commonwealth, which appear to be of mutual 
benefit and to improve the lines of this Parkway. 

The accompanying table shows the area of land in the 
reservations and parkways, and ,the length of the parkways. 
It also shows the proportion of each contained in the respec- 
tive cities and towns of the Metropolitan Parks District. 

2. Administration. 

No change has been made in the system of administration. 
The work of the Commission is carried on through the 
departments of the Landscape Architects (advisory), En- 
gineering, Law and Claims, and Superintendence, each de- 
partment reporting to the Commission through the Secretary. 
The general office and Engineering Department are located 
at 14 Beacon Street, in Boston. The force in the general 
office, in addition to the Secretary, consists of three clerks 
and stenographers, purchasing clerk, telephone clerk and 
messenger. Two stenographers are also employed in the 
Law Department. In the Engineering Department forty- 
six persons are employed, in addition to the Chief Engineer. 
The reservations and parkways are grouped in seven divi- 
sions, each of which Is in charge of a superintendent who 
has full charge of the police and laborers in his division. 
The number of laborers employed varies both with the 
season of the year and the amount of construction work on 
hand. The police force is made up of 66 regular and 18 
reserve officers ; there are also a few call officers. The police 
are assigned and transferred from time to time according to 
the particular needs of the different divisions, and in order 
to keep the force intact they are required to assist in suit- 
able work during the winter months. The increased use of 
the reservations and unusual events requiring special atten- 
tion ^md^jSig the police service during the summer of more 
than usttfd'iihportance, and the members of the force are to 
be comrrfended for the manner in which they met their 
responsibilities. 



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1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 21 

Landscape Architects. 

The report of Olmsted Brothers, the Landscape Advisers 
of the Commission, is printed as an Appendix to this report.. 
Reference is made thereto for a statement of the services 
which they have performed, and the explanations they de- 
sire to make in connection with the work they are doing 
for the Commission. 

Engineering Department. 

Owing to long-continued and serious illness, Mr. William 
T. Pierce, who had filled the position of Chief Engineer 
since this department was organized, felt compelled to retire 
from that office. In accepting his resignation, the Commis- 
sion placed on record their appreciation of his professional 
and personal qualities, and their regret for the occasion of 
his retirement. Mr. John R. Rablin, assistant engineer in 
the department, and acting engineer during Mr. Pierce's 
illness, was appointed Chief Engineer on September 28. 

A large amount of construction work has been carried on 
under the charge of this department during the past year. 
The work of sub-grading Furnace Brook Parkway in Quincy 
from Adams Street to the Blue Hills has been begun and is 
in progress. A section of the Quincy Shore Reservation 
from Atlantic to Squantum Street has been built to sub- 
grade. The westerly roadway of the Neponset River Park- 
way from Brush Hill Road to Blue Hill Avenue in Milton 
is substantially completed and will be opened in the spring. 
Wellington Bridge with its approaches, which carries the 
Middlesex Fells Parkway and the highway across the Mystic 
River between Somerville and Medford, is completed and 
was opened to public travel on March 14. A drawtender's 
house has been built on one of the draw piers. The final 
section of Revere Beach Parkway from Main Street in 
Everett to Fellsway in Medford has been built to sub-grade. 
In connection with this work, steel bridges with granite 
abutments were built to carry the parkway over the Saugus 
Branch and Western Division of the Boston & Maine Rail- 
road, and a pile bridge is in course of construction across 



22 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

the Maiden River. This bridge includes a steel Sherzer 
roller lift draw of 50-foot span, set on concrete piers. On 
(Jharles Elver at Newton Lower Falls a concrete dam has 
been built, in co-opei-ation with the R. T. Sullivan Com- 
pany, who own the dam and water rights in common with 
the Commonwealth. At the Speedway on the Charles River 
in Brighton the Everett Street entrance, already described, 
has been constructed, and a quarter-mile entrance to the 
course built to the speeding road. Near the headquarters 
building of the Speedway a vacant piece of land has been 
improved as a children's pleasure grounds, and some simple 
apparatus provided for exercise and amusement. Extensive 
surveys and investigations along the Mystic River and Ale- 
wife Brook have been conducted under the direction of Mr. 
J. R. Freeman, Consulting Engineer, whose report is printed 
with this report. This report has made it possible to begin 
the work of improvement of the Mystic River, and a con- 
tract is about to be made for grading roads along the river 
between High and Main streets in Medford, Somerville and 
Arlington. At Revere Beach a granolithic sidewalk has 
been laid from Shirley Avenue to Revere Street. Concrete 
foundations for shelters at Revere Street and Oak Island 
have been built. The contracts for the superstructures have 
already been made. The contract has been let and the work 
begun of carrying the roadway along the beach from Revere 
Street to the Northern Circle at the Point of Pines. This 
development is to correspond with the completed section 
from Charles Eliot Circle to Revere Street. The same con- 
tract includes the surfacing of Lynn way which extends from 
the Northern Circle to Saugus River. The Saugus River 
Bridge is in course of construction and the pile bridge is 
nearly completed. This bridge has a 50-foot draw opening, 
with concrete draw piers and a steel Sherzer roller lift draw. 
The piers are nearly ready for the installation of the draw, 
but the bridge cannot be used until the approach on the 
Lynn side, which is being built by the Massachusetts High- 
way Commission, is completed. The sea wall at Lynn 
Shore and King's Beach is substantially complete. This is 
a continuous concrete wall with artificial stone coping of 



1905.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 23 

novel desigD, extending from Red Bock in Lynn to Black 
Will's CliflF in Swampscott, a distance of .79 mile. Its pur- 
pose is to protect from the inroads of the sea the bluff which 
is practically continuous between these two points. The 
sub-grading of the roadway which runs along the land side 
of the Lynn Shore Reservation and the grading of the slope 
from the roadway to the top of the wall is in progress. A 
three-rail iron fence is being built on the coping of the wall, 
and a granolithic promenade 20 feet wide is to be constructed 
along the inside of the coping the whole length of the wall. 
The engineering details for new roads in the Blue Hills and 
Middlesex Fells have been supplied by this Department. 
The supervision of permits issued to public officials and 
individuals for work to be done in the reservations and park- 
ways is entrusted to the Engineering Department, and has 
come tp be a matter of considerable amount and decided 
importance. There lias also been the usual amount of plans 
to prepare for the use of the various departments. The 
details of the above-described work will be found in the 
Engineer's report, printed herewith. 

Law and Claims Department, 

Very satis£BU)tory progress has been made this year in the 
disposal of outstanding claims for land takings. In all, 46 
claims have been settled either by suit or agreement, aggre- 
gating in amount $140,506.41 ; of this amount, $123,172.07 
was for land taken for reservations, and is divided as follows : 
Charles River, 16 ; Ncponset River, 1 ; Mystic River, 4 ; 
Quincy Shore, 3 ; Winthrop Shore, 4 ; Lynn Shore, 1 ; 
Middlesex Fells, 1. The balance of $17,334.34 was paid 
for land taken for parkways, divided as follows : Revere 
Beach Parkway, 2; Middlesex Fells Parkway, 2; Furnace 
Brook Parkway, 3 ; Neponset River Parkway, 9. There 
are still outstanding 42 claims, divided as follows : reserva- 
tions, — Blue Hills, 2; Charles River, 11; Neponset River, 
10 ; Mystic River, 3 ; Quincy Shore, 1 ; Winthrop Shore, 1 ; 
parkways, — Revere Beach, 5 ; Middlesex Fells, 4 ; Mystic 
Valley, 2 ; Nahant Beach, 1 ; Neponset River, 2. Awards 
and estimates in the^e cases amount to $51,841.40, but this 



I' 



24 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

amount may be altered by verdicts in cases in suit. The 
trial of cases is conducted by the Attorney-Generars Depart- 
ment; and the other legal work of the Commission, with 
the approval of the Attorney-General, is carried on by this 
department, which continues to be in the charge of George 
Lyman Rogers, Esq., with Stanley M. Bolster, Esq., as his 
assistant. 

Super intejidence. 

The amount of routine work in the maintenance of the 
reservations and parkways necessarily increases from year 
to year with their development and construction and the 
constantly increasing use by the public. This consists of 
care of roadways and paths, forestry and fire protection in 
the wooded .reservations, keeping the beaches clean, and 
gradually improving the condition of the rivers. The extent 
and method of handling this work have been previously 
described, and do not call for special mention. Matters of 
special interest are noted below under their proper divisions. 

Blue Hills Division: Frank Dings, Superintendent. 

Charles Eliot Memorial Path on Great Blue Hill has been 
completed. This path, connecting with the path up the hill 
near the summit, passes around the summit and over the 
memorial bridge built by friends of the late Charles Eliot, 
Landscape Architect of both this and the preliminary Met- 
ropolitan Park Commission. It affords opportunities for 
extensive views in all directions over the reserv^ation and 
the surrounding country. At the foot of Great Blue Hill a 
waiting room and platform have been built by the Blue Hill 
Street Railway Company, and a sanitary building has been 
erected by the Commission at the entrance of the path up 
the hill. On Hillside Street a building is under construc- 
tion, which will be used as superintendent's office and police 
station. This building is grouped with the superintendent's 
house and reservation stable and outbuildings, according to 
a plan which makes this point the headquarters of the reser- 
vation. The stable yard has been enclosed by a wall built 
of stone gathered from the neighboring land. Some forestry 
', work has been done in thinning, mostly in the Pierce devise, 



MIDDLESEX FELLS RESERVATION, 
i gypsy moth* depotiting eggs on tree 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 25 

and by planting 5,000 pine seedlings in various localities. 
From the circle at Canton Avenue one roadway of the Blue 
Hills Parkway has been built to the boundary line of the 
Blue Hills Reservation, and thence through the reservation 
to a junction with Hillside Street near the headquarters 
building and only a short distance from Hoosickwhisick 
Pond. This road has been built by the forces of the reser- 
vation, under the direction of the superintendent and the 
supervision of the supervisor of construction. In connection 
with Blue Hill Avenue in Boston and the portion of the 
Blue Hills Parkway already constructed in Milton from 
Mattapan to Canton Avenue, it furnishes a direct parkway 
road from Grove Hall in Boston into the centre of the reser- 
vation. A bridle path has 'been laid out in the centre space 
of the Blue Hills Parkway from Brook Road to Canton 
Avenue, and a portion of the easterly roadway is used as 
a speedway on certain days. The other reservations and 
parkways in this division have only called for general care, 
and such encouragement to vegetation and tree growth as 
can be carried on with the small laboring force employed. 

Middlesex Fells Division: C. P. Price, Superintendent, 
The Middlesex Fells Reservation is peculiarly exposed to 
the depredations of the gypsy moth. It borders on the 
territory in which this insect pest made its first appearance, 
and the southern portion of the reservation was gone over 
for several years very thoroughly by forces acting under the 
direction of the Gypsy Moth Committee of the State Board 
of Agriculture. Since the work of that Board was discon- 
tinued, the Commission through its own forces has each year 
spent as much as was at its disposal for this purpose, and 
made every reasonable eflEbrt to keep the Fells free from 
the moth. This effort has been reasonably successful until 
this last year, when the reservation was attacked from so 
many directions that the Commission was unable, with the 
means at its conmiand, to prevent a serious incursion of this 
pest beyond the borders of the reservation. The Commission 
expended not only a special appropriation made for the 
purpose, but also used portions of its maintenance funds 



26 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

which were much needed for other purposes, in the effort to 
meet this critical situation, but was only partially success- 
ful. It seems clear that, until some efficient means are found 
to prevent the increase of the moth on lands outside of and 
adjacent to the Fells, the future of this forest reservation is 
in grave danger. It is also certain that a considerable sum 
will be required to remove the danger from the incursion 
suffered this last season. The Commission now has a con- 
siderable portion of its plan prepared by its Landscape 
Architects for the improvement of the tree growth of this 
region, and it is evident that judicious thinning in certain 
localities is not only desirable from the standpoint of good 
forestry, but will also aid considerably in the fight which 
must necessarily continue against the ravages of the moth. 
A new and interesting road has been built by the forces of 
the reservation, under the direction of the superintendent 
and with the supervision of the supervisor of construction. 
It is .59 mile in length, and extends from the east dam of 
the Winchester South Reservoir to Porter's Cove at the 
southerly end of Spot Pond. Its connection with the Whit- 
more Brook Entrance in West Medford provides a direct 
route from that part of the district into the heart of the 
Fells. A branch to this road will be built in the spring 
along the east side of the reservoir, to connect with the road 
crossing the Causeway and leading into the Mystic Valley 
Parkway at the head of Mount Vernon Street in Winchester. 
Surveys are also being made for a short piece of road along 
the south shore of Spot Pond from Forest Street to the half- 
mile road, as it is called, and when this is completed a road- 
way will have been provided around the entire shore of this 
beautiful sheet of water. The Superintendent of the Fells 
has for several years been making a collection of birds and 
small mammals at the headquarters building on Pond Street 
at the head of Spot Pond. This collection has proved very 
interesting to the public, and is largely visited, especially 
considering the fact that it is several miles to the nearest 
steam or street railway. On one Sunday this fall a count 
showed the number of visitors to have been 1,140 on that 
day alone. The ducks in Dark Hollow Pond and the sheep 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 27 

at the Chandler Faiin have also created interest. Mystic 
Valley Parkway and Reservation and the Middlesex Fells 
Parkway are in the midst of the moth-infested district, and 
the preservation of the trees in these public holdings has 
required considerable work. The work of improving Ginn 
Field in Winchester has been completed according to agree- 
ment with Mr. Edward Ginn, who gave the land as a part of 
the Mystic Valley Parkway. Wellington Bridge is a part 
of the Middlesex Fells Parkway, and since its completion 
and opening has been in the charg0 of the Superintendent 
of this Division. 

Revere Beach Division : H. W. West, Superintendent. 
A granolithic sidewalk extending substantially from Shir- 
ley Avenue to Revere Street was completed early in the 
summer, and has proved to be a great convenience to the 
large numbers of people who use this reservation. During 
the summer several iron posts of an old pier which formerly 
existed at Shirley Street showed themselves above the sur- 
face of the beach at low tide ; these were successfully pulled 
out, and a danger of injury to bathers removed. The sea- 
son at the bath-house was much better than the two previous 
years, but still considerably behind that of three years ago. 
The bath-house was used by 141,216 persons, of whom 
89,182 were males and 52,034 were females. The bath- 
house was opened on June 15 and closed on September 11. 
The total of receipts for the season was $30,441.55 and the 
expenditures $26,825.95 for the year. The experiment was 
tried of making bathing suits at the bath-house during the 
winter months, and proved successful both from a practical 
and pecuniary point of view. For the present it is intended 
to do the laundry work of the Nahant Beach Bath-house at 
Revere, and this will necessitate enlargement and much- 
needed improvements and renewals in the laundry plant at 
the Revere Bath-house. The other reservations and park- 
ways of this division have not required any work of note 
outside of general care. 



28 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan, 



Charles Riveb Reservation, Riverside Section : A. N. Habberlet, 

Superintendent. 

The headquarters building at the end of Commonwealth 
Avenue in Newton was completed and occupied early in the 
year. It provides now for superintendent's oflSce, police 
station, boat house, and an emergency accident room. One 
hundred and sixty-four capsizing accidents have been re- 
ported. Forty-two of these represent rescues by the police, 
and most of the others have been brought to the emergency 
room either for assistance or convenience. Five drowning 
accidents occurred during the year. The river was largely 
used for canoeing and boating, and frequent concerts were 
given at diflTerent points of the river during the summer 
under the auspices of several of the boating associations. 
The buildings at Forest Grove were repaired and were used 
by numerous picnic parties, as was also the grove at Hem- 
lock Gorge. The increasing use of the boating section of 
the river has made it necessary to more frequently go over 
the river banks and remove the ru])bish and papers which 
inevitably collect under such circumstances. Considerable 
has been done in the improvement of the vegetation along 
the banks of the river. 

Charles River Reservation, Speedway Section : John L. Gilman, 

Superintendent . 

Last winter, at the request of gentlemen connected with 
the driving clubs of the district, the Commission made ar- 
rangements for speeding on the snow at the Speedway. An 
unusual fall of snow and continued cold weather made it 
possible to provide ten weeks of continuous sleighing, which 
was enjoyed by a large number of people, and enlivened by 
a considerable amount of racing under safe and satisfactory 
conditions. The Club House of the Metropolitan Driving 
Club opposite the half-mile pole was completed and occupied 
early in the season, and very interesting racing events have 
been carried on at the Speedway under the auspices of the 
Club. The usual Speedway Parade took place on June 18. 
The headquarters building at the Market Street end of the 
Speedway have been enlarged this year to meet the increased 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 29 

needs of administration. Other imi)rovements have been 
made to provide for the convenience of the portion of the 
public using the Speedway, such as the lighting of the road, 
a (Quarter-mile entrance for winter use, a telephone signal 
system of timing, and improved methods of watering. Some 
planting has been done on Charles River Road in Water- 
town, and considerable work has been required in the Res- 
ervation and at Fresh Pond Parkway in removing nests of 
the gypsy and brown-tail moths. The Gillespie & Pierce 
Wharf buildings at Western Avenue have been torn down 
and removed. The dike along the river has also been re- 
paired where needed. 

Beaver Brook Reservation: Robert Elder, SuperinUnderU, 
This reservation continues to be very largely used, espe- 
cially by picnicking parties, to which it is so easily accessi- 
ble by electric street railways. The aim has always been 
to preserve its natural conditions, but additional paths are 
necessary in certain portions if attractive vegetation is to be 
saved. The Landscape Architects have completed plans for 
future development, and it is now possible, whenever new 
paths are required, to so build them that they will harmonize 
with the final plan. The brown-tail moth has severely 
attacked the important tree growth of this reservation, and 
considerable work will be required this winter to prevent 
serious damage. Some of the bridges across the brook have 
been renewed this year, but beyond ttiis, only general care 
has been required. 

Kantaskbt Beach Reservation : Moody Leighton, Superintendent, 
No important changes have been made at this reservation 
during the past year. Repairs have been made to the exist- 
ing buildings, and the hotel repainted. The dormitory oc- 
cupied by the officers has been improved by raising the roof 
and making other alterations. The bath-house was used 
by 25,412 people, of whom 14,09() were males and 11,316 
females. The total of receipts, including amount received 
from sale of steam to tenants, was $7,425.3(), and the total 
of expenditures was $8,807.16. On the land side of Nan- 
tasket Avenue directly opposite the southerly portion of the 



30 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

reservation a large amusement park is being constructed by 
private enterprise, on similar lines to the well-known Luna 
P&»rk at Coney Island. 

3. Miscellaneous. 

The plans submitted by the Landscape Architects for tlie 
improvement of Mystic River suggested a dam to be built 
at or near Cradock Bridge in Medford, for the purpose of 
maintaining the water in the river above that point at a con- 
stant level, and excluding the extreme tides which now flood 
the large area of land in the basin of Mystic River and Ale- 
wife Brook in Medford, Somerville, Cambridge, Arlington 
and Belmont. The condition of the portion of this area 
tributary to Alewife Brook has for a long time caused con- 
siderable anxiety to the health authorities of the towns and 
cities bordering thereon, and a special commission, consist- 
ing of town and city officials, was created to consider the 
questions involved by chapter 327 of the Acts of 1903. It 
was evident that the two questions of improvement of health 
conditions and development of park areas were so related 
that an investigation of one involved a careful examination 
of the other. As the special commission had not fully 
formulated their method of procedure, they expressed them- 
selves willing to await the result of an independent investi- 
gation of the whole question, which this Commission had 
determined was necessary. For this purpose the Commission 
secured the services of Mr. John R. Freeman, who had re- 
cently finished a similar investigation into the conditions of 
the Charles River for the Charles River Dam Committee. 
The main body of Mr. Freeman's report is printed as an 
Appendix to this report, and the material upon which it is 
based has been printed for the use of the official bodies in- 
terested and the State Board of Health, who are to give 
further consideration to the matter under the provision of 
chai)ter 445 of the Acts of 1904. 

A portion of the exhibit of the Metropolitan Parks System, 
originally prepared by this Commission and exhibited at the 
Paris Exposition of 1900 and subsequently at the Pan- 
American Exhibition at Buffalo, was, at the request of the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 31 

State Commission, sent to the Louisiana Purchase i^xposi- 
tion at St. Lquis, where it was honored by a certificate of a 
gold medal. It is now by authority of the Legislature to 
be transferred to the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, 
which is to be held next spring at Portland, Oregon. 

Hearings were given in March to the Boston Elevated 
Railway Company on its petition for a location in Middle- 
sex Fells Parkway and Reservation from Broadway in Som- 
erville to the boundary line between Medford and Stoneham, 
and to the Boston & Northern Street Railway Company on 
its petition for a location in the Middlesex Fells Reserva- 
tion from the Medford-Stoneham line to the junction of Main 
and South streets in Stoneham. Following these hearings a 
study was made by the Landscape Architects and Engineer 
of the Commission, in conjunction with Mr. E. K. Turner, 
who was employed as consulting railroad engineer, to de- 
termine, if possible, a pmcticable route for an electric car line 
through the reservation. After receiving their report the 
Commission prepared tentative drafts fbr locations to be 
granted upon these petitions, but before acting finally upon 
them deemed it desirable to submit them to the two com- 
])anies for such suggestions as they* might desirie to make, 
and they are now being considered by the companies. 

4. Finances. 

The following tables show in brief form the expenditures 

under the various park loans for the year ending Dec. 1, 

1904; — 

Metropolitan Parks Loan Fund. 

Bhie Hills Reservation : — 

Miscellaneous, f 21, 995 08 

121,995 08 

Middlesex Fells Reservation : — 

Land $401 00 

Miscellaneous, 11,443 51 

11,844 61 

Revere Beach Reservation : — 

Miscellaneous 131,748 61 

31,748 61 

Stony Brook Reservation : — 

Miscellaneous, fid 13 

18 18 



32 METROPOLITAN PARKS. 

Beaver Brook Reservation : — 

MiscellaDeous, ^66 56 

Hemlock Gorge Reservation : — 

Miscellaneous, 98 SO 

Charles River Reservation : — 

Land |43,951 26 

Miscellaneous, 34,897 63 

Neponset River Reservation : — 

Land tl7,824 41 

Miscellaneous, 2,654 37 

Mystic River Reservation : — 

Land 922,891 33 

Miscellaneous, 15,673 49 

Lynn Shore Reservation : — 

Land, |109,219 11 

Miscellaneous, 45,291 34 

Quincy Shore Reservation : — 

Land t7,552 72 

Miscellaneous, 28,020 96 

Winthrop Shore Reservation : — 

Land, 916,893 85 

Miscellaneous, 2,623 60 

King^s Beach Reservation : — 

Miscellaneous, . . . • . f 172 25 

Wellington Bridge : — 

Miscellaneous, ..... 941,439 80 

Winthrop Parkway : — 

Miscellaneous, |72 47 

General expense, 



[Jan. 



956 56 



8 30 



78,848 88 



20,478 78 



38,564 82 



154,510 45 



35,573 68 



19,517 45 

172 25 

41,439 80 

72 47 
5,133 24 

f459,983 01 



Metkopolipan Parks Loan Fund, Series II. 

Blue Hills Parkwav : — 

Miscellaneous, 13^1^22 41 



Middlesex Foils Parkway: — 

Land 

Miscellaneous, 



t4,744 49 
10,966 85 



939,822 41 



15,711 34 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 33 



Mystic Valley Parkway : — 

Miscellaneous, ..... #3,525 29 

Revere Beach Parkway : — 

Land |23,835 66 

Miscellaneous, 246,400 19 

NeiK>nset River Parkway : — 

Land f9,432 77 

Miscellaneous 13,798 80 

Fresh Pond Parkway : — 

Miscellaneous, >164 90 

Furnace Brook Parkway : — 

Land,p f6,329 94 

Miscellaneous, 5,705 17 

Nail ant Beach Parkway : — 

Miscellaneous, t^21 82 

Charles River Speedway : — 

Miscellaneous, H3,271 64 

Blue Hills Roads : — 

Miscellaneous, $637 58 



$8,525 29 



270,285 85 



28,226 57 



164 90 



12,035 11 



421 82 



43,271 64 



637 53 



426 75 



53,100 96 



735 38 



Middlesex Fells Roads : — 

Miscellaneous, $426 75 

Lynnway : — 

Miscellaneous, $53,100 96 

Middlesex Fells and Lynn Woods: — 

Miscellaneous, $785 88 

Spy Pond Parkway : — 

Miscellantous, $57 43 

- - 67 43 

General expense, 4,876 18 

$467,749 11 
Xantasket Beach Loan. 

Land $1,786 61 

$1,786 61 

The following tables .sftow the total amount expended in 
each loan and the cost of each reservation and parkway to 
Dec. 1, 1904, and the anoiounts charged bv the Auditor's 
department to meet the sinking fund and interest re(|uire- 
ments to Jan. 1, 1900 : — 



34 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 



Metropolitan Parks Loan Fund. 

Blue Hills Reservation : — 

Land, $369,369 79 

Miscellaneous, 2H6,200 19 



Middlesex Fells Reservation : — 

Land, $686,782 43 

Miscellaneous, 221,297 01 



lievere Beach Reservation : — 

Land, fl,162,747 67 

Miscellaneous, 612,163 17 



Stony Brook Reservation : — 

Land f280.281 37 

Miscellaneous, 76,670 34 



Beaver Brook Reservation : — 

Land, f29,819 29 

Miscellaneous, 22,098 69 



Hemlock Gorge Reservation : — 

Land, f63,264 00 

Miscellaneous, 16,311 06 



Charles River Reservation : — 

Land, . / $1,468,448 82 

Miscellaneous, 246,962 69 



Xeponset River Reservation : — 

Land, $207,211 18 

Miscellaneous, 46,632 16 



Mystic River ReseiTation : — 

Land, $236,169 48 

Miscellaneous, 36,860 61 



Lynn Shore Reservation : — 

Land $227,018 01 

Miscellaneous, 47,066 47 



Quincy Shore Reservation : — 

Land, a $70,984 66 

Miscellaneous, 36,008 82 



Winthrop Shore Reservation : — 

Land, $43,041 48 

Miscellaneous, 162,463 56 



$626,669 98 



907,079 44 



1,774,910 84 



356,851 71 



61,917 8^ 



.68,666 06 



1,716.411 41 



262,843 33 



272,009 99 



274,074 48 



105,998 37 



206,605 03 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 35 



Hart^s Hill Reserration : — 

Land, $10,000 00 

Miscellaneous, lOS 96 



110,103 95 



King^s Beach Reservation : — 

Land $28,847 21 

Miscellaneous, 1,448 68 



25,295 89 



West Roxbury Parkway : — 

Land $244,976 01 

Miscellaneous, 8,313 67 



Wellington Bridge : — 

Miscellaneous, $180,374 29 



Winthrop Parkway : — 

Miscellaneous^ ' $72 47 



253,289 68 



180,374 29 



72 47 



General expense, . . *. 141,622 98 



Sinking fund requirements to 1896, . 
Care and maintenance* to July 1, 1896, 
Care and maintenance, July 1, 1896, to Jan 

1,1897, 

Sinking fund assessment for 1897, 
Sinking fund assessment for 1898, 
Sinking fund assessment for 1899, 
Interest, ..... 



$7,220,490 72 
$18,980 18 
85,813 46 

19,604 06 
63.630 70 
9,755 55 
64,224 00 
23,318 61 
290,326 56 



Total charged to Dec. 1, 1904, $7,510,817 28 

Metropolitan Parks Loan Fund, Series II. 

Blue Hills Parkway : — 

Land $133,492 02 

Miscellaneous, 240,442 96 

$378,934 98 



Middlesex Fells Parkway : — 

Land, $224,295 64 

Miscellaneous, ..... 448,691 01 



Mystic Valley Parkway : — 

Land, $201,988 40 

Miscellaneous 214,822 70 



672,986 65 



Revere Beach Parkway : — 

Land $535,768 56 

Miscellaneous, 768,651 71 



416.811 10 



1.804.420 27 



36 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



Neponset River Parkway : — 
Land, .... 
Miscellaneous, 



Fresh Pond Parkway : — 
Land, . 
Miscellaneous, 



Furnace Brook Parkway : — 
Land, .... 
Miscellaneous, 

Nahant Beach Parkway : — 
Land, .... 
Miscellaneous, 

Charles River Speedway : — 
Miscellaneous, 



Blue Hills Roads : — 
Miscellaneous, 



Middlesex Fells Roads : 
Miscellaneous, 

Stony Brook Roads : — 
Miscellaneous, 



Lynnway : — 
Land, • 
Miscellaneous, 



Middlesex Fells and Lynn Woods : — 
Miscellaneous, . . . . 



Spy Pond Parkway : — 
Miscellaneous, 



#45,837 03 
20,123 U 



142,286 25 
22,213 94 



tl35,617 49 
16,989 83 



t65,940 78 
4,049 21 



1516,340 77 



t6,846 71 



146,137 32 



137,183 45 



120,500 00 
64,372 14 



$5,417 65 



186 87 



General expense, . 



Sinking fund requirement for 1896, 
Sinking fund assessment for 1897, 
Sinking fund assessment for 1898, 
Sinking fund assessment for 1899, 
One-half interest, 



$65,960 17 



64,500 19 



152,606 82 



69,989 99 



516,840 77 



6,846 71 



46,137 82 



37,183 45 



84,872 14 



5,417 65 



86 87 
87,784 17 

$3,905,829 25 



$3,650 08 
14,057 10 
8,765 08 
15,396 00 
22,327 68 



59,195 89 



Total charged to Dec. 1, 1904, $8,965,025 14 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



37 



Nantasket Beach Loan. 

Land 1608,829 67 

Miscellaneous, 102,551 98 

Total charged to Dec. 1, 1904, 1^05,881 50 

The appropriations heretofore made are as follows : — 



Mbtropoutan Parks Loan Fund. 

Original appropriation, chapter 407, Acts of 1893, . 
First Revere Beach Act, chapter 483, Acts of 1894, . 
Charles River Act, chapter 509, Acts of 1894, . 
Second Revere Beach Act, chapter 305, Acts of 1895, 
General appropriation, chapter 466, Acts of 1896, 
General appropriation, chapter 464, Acts of 1897, 
General appropriation, chapter 530, Acts of 1898, 
Revere Beach Bath-house Act, chapter 142, Acts of 1899, 
Greneral appropriation, chapter 396, Acts of 1899, 
Charles River Improvement Act, chapter 465, Acts of 1900 
Fuller's Wharf Act, chapter 467, Acts of 1900, . 
Greneral appropriation, chapter 445, Acts of 1901, 
Mystic River Bridge Act, chapter 492, Acts of 1901, . 
General appropriation, chapter 290, Acts of 1903, 
Newton Upper Falls Bridge Act, chapter 391, Acts of 1903, 
Continuing appropriation, chapter 429, Acts of 1903, for 

1903 

For 1904, 

Nahant Beach Bath-house Act, chapter 326, Acts of 1904, . 



To provide for interest and sinking fund requirements to 
1900, chapter 311, Acts of 1897, 



f 1,000,000 00 
500,000 00 
300,000 00 
500,000 .00 

1,000.000 oo 
500,000 00 

1,000,000 00 
125,000 00 
300,000 00 
50,000 OO 
30,0000 00 
450,000 00 
200,000 00 
125,000 OO 
40,000 00 

300,000 00 

300,000 00 

70,000 00 

f 6,790,000 00 

900,000 00 



Total amount of loans, $7,690,000 00 

Amounts received from sales of buildings, receipts from 

bath-house, fines, etc., 198,334 01 



Total $7,888,334 01 

Total charged to loans, 7,510,817 28 



Balance remaining in hands of State Treasurer, . $377,516 73^ 



Metropolitan Parks Loan Fund, Series II. 



Original boulevard, chapter 288, Acts of 1894, . 
General appropriation, chapter 472, Acts of 1896, 
General appropriation, chapter 521, Acts of 1897, 



$500,000 OO 

500,000 00 

1,000,000 00 



58 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



Saugus Bridge Aet, chapter 547, Acts of 1898, . 
General appropriation, cliapter 428, Acts of 1899, 
Mattapan Bridge Act, chapter 443, Acts of 1900, 
Winchester Act, chapter 444, Acts of 1900, 
Revere Beach Parkway Act, chapter 445, Acts of 1900, 
General a4>propriation, chapter 172, Acts of 1902, 
General appropriation, chapter 359, Acts of 1903, 
Continuing appropriation, chapter 419, Acts of 1908, for 

1903, 

For 1904, 



$100,000 00 
500,000 00 
75.000 00 
50,000 00 
200,000 00 
450,000 00 
110,000 00 

300,000 00 
800,000 00 



$4,085,000 00 
To provide for interest and sinl^ing fund requirements to 

1900,chapter3ll, Acts of 1897 100,000 00 



Total amount of loans, 14,185,000 00 

Receipts from sales, etc., 29,907 41 

Total, $4,214,907 41 

Total of amounts charged to loans, 8,965,025 14 



Balance remaining in hands of State Treasurer, 



$249,882 27 



Nantasket Beach Loan. 
Appropriation, chapter 464, Acts of 1899, 
Appropriation, chapter 456, Acts of 1901, 

Total amount of loans, . 
Receipts from rents, etc., . 

Total, ... 
Total of amounts charged to loans. • 



Respectively submitted, . 



$600,000 00 
100,000 00 

$700,000 00 
5,881 50 

$705,881 50 
705,881 50 



^Bc. 1, 1904. 



JOHN WOODBURY, 

Secretary. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 4«. 39 



EEPORT OF THE LANDSCAPE ARCHI- 

TECTS. 



Hon. William B. de lab Casas, * 

Chairman Metropolitan Park Commissiont Boston^ Mass. 

Sir: — We beg to submit the following report for the 
jear ending Nov. 30, 1904 : — 

The duties of the Landscape Architects during the past 
year, as in previous years, have in the main fallen into 
three divisions : first, we have examined into various prop- 
ositions referred to us by the Commission, and have sub- 
mitted reports, frequently accompanied by preliminary or' 
general plans, suggesting how the projects might be carried 
out; second, we have been called into consultation with the 
Engineering Department in preparing detailed plans for con- 
struction work with which that department has been charged 
in the execution ot general plans adopted by the Commis- 
sion ; third, we have been called into consultation with the 
Department of Superintendence in regard to various matters 
of minor construction, of planting and forestry work and of 
' maintenance, with the execution of which that department 
is charged. Details of the various matters with which we 
have been concerned are to be found in most cases in the 
reports of the departments responsible for the execution of 
the work. Briefly, we have during the year compiled 6 
topographical maps, prepared 61 record studies, '28 prelim- 
inary an4 general plans, 6 grading plans, 16 sets of profiles 
and sections, 7 other construction plans and 9 planting and 
forestry plans, and have submitted 54 written reports and 
explanatory letters. 

Among the most important matters of general planning 
upon which we have been engaged during the year are the 
following : a system of permanent road lines, planned to 



40 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

• give access to the scenery of the eastern part of the Blue 

Hills Reservation, the road plan for the western portion 
having already been adopted ; projects for a possible ulti- 
mate development of the Quincy Shore Reservation through 
an extensive improvement of the wide tidal flats that border 
this shore, studied in order to plan intelligently for the im- 
mediate construction to meet present needs ; a revised proj- 
ect for the treatment of the southerly end of the Revere 
Beach Reservation and possible connections southward 
toward Winthrop Beach ; a revised project for arrangements 
in connection with the proposed bath-house at Xahant Beach, 
and its surroundings and approaches ; various alternative 
projects for dealing with the two closely related problems 
of arranging for the necessary means of convenient approach 
to the Middlesex Pells by electric cars, and of avoiding 
unreasonable permanent obstruction of general street traffic, 
including electric cars, between the regions north and south 
of the Fells, in such a manner as not to sacrifice essential 
elements in the value of the reservation ; and, finally, a pro- 
longed study, in consultation with Mr. John R. Freeman 
and the P^ngineering Department, of the problems connected 
with the imi)rovement of the upper Mystic River and Ale- 
wife Brook. 

Of the numerous matters with which we have had to do 
in connection with the Department of Superintendence, none 
have given us more concern than those connected with the 
forest management of the Middlesex Fells. The increase in 
the numbers of the gypsy moth and the consequent damage 
t/O the woodlands of the Middlesex Fells have brought more 
than ever to the front a difficult and discouraging problem. 

We believe that a forest of deciduous trees infested by the 
moth may be preserved from complete destruction and even 
from serious permanent injury without resort *o radical 
measures in the way of tree cutting, but only by those who 
are in a position to disregard the great annual cost of keep- 
ing the number of insects down to the point where their 
ravages do not exceed the recuperative powers of the vege- 
tation, — an annual cost which is bound to continue for many 
/^ *^' ' years without material reduction, and the end of which no 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 41 

one can now foresee. To estimate that cost precisely is 
difficult, but in the opinion of the Superintendent of the 
Reservation it varies from $50 to $200 per acre per annum, 
according to the character of the woods, — an estimate which 
our own observation of such work, both on the reservation 
and on private lands, would tend to confirm. Among pines 
and hemlocks, however, the case is diflferent. These trees 
are not only more difficult to free from the pest, but if once 
seriously attacked and stripped by the insects they are iiTe- 
coverably lost. It is the increasing number of trees thus 
being killed, and the size and the immense importance of 
these conifers in the landscape of many parts of the Fells, 
that give a special insistence, quite apart from the mere 
question of economy, to the need of radical measures to pre- 
vent the spread of the insects to regions thus far exempt. 

Within an infested district the thoroughness of the control, 
as well as the economy with which it can be effected, increases 
as the number of trees to be inspected and sterilized is de- 
creased. For these reasons we have recommended severe 
cutting in the infested districts, so as to leave for concen- 
trated protection and care those trees, and those trees only, 
which will be needed during the next fifteen or twenty years 
in order to secure thereafter in each compartment of the 
reservation that kind of woodland scenery for which we be- 
lieve it to be best adapted. For some years to come the 
woods in these quarantined districts will have a very naked 
appearance, and the Commission should expect sharp criti- 
cism from short-sighted, or ill-informed tree lovers, who wish 
to have their cake and eat it too, — or let the caterpillara 
eat it for them. In the long run, however, we feel very 
confident that the cuttings we have recommended will prove 
not an injury to the woodland beauty of the Fells, but a 
decided, even if somewhat sudden and painful, step in its 
better development. 

The cutting has been done under no influence of panic 
aroused by the gypsy moth situation, but in accordance with 
a consistent general plan for forest management which we 
have been maturing for several years; although it is true 
that in the infested districts wc have been led to recommend 



42 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

at once an amount of cutting which might otherwise have 
extended over a considerable space of time. 

During the long-continued management of large bodies of 
scenery for public recreation, developments are bound to take 
place which radically alter the appearance of the scenery, — 
it may be for the better, it may be for the worse ; dependent, 
as it is, upon the life of plants and the actions of men and 
the elements, it cannot remain unchanged. These altera- 
tions in the landscape are determined partly by the system- 
atic growth and decay of trees and plants in accordance with 
natural laws more or less clearly understood, and partly by 
the cumulative effect of the innumerable decisions upon mat- 
ters of trifling individual importance which are made from 
day to day and year to year in the management and use of 
the reservations. Where large tracts are concerned there 
is an inevitable tendency toward averaging all the land- 
scapes, toward bringing them more and more to a single 
type ; and, even though the character thus gradually arising 
be in itself an admirable one, it destroys the peculiar value 
which such large tracts possess in the possibility of securing 
contrast and variety of scenery without discordance. The 
danger is a very real one, even though it be recognized by 
the successive commissioners, landscape architects, superin- 
tendents, or whoever may be mainly responsible as time 
goes on for the successive controlling decisions. Personal 
ideas and preferences differ, unforeseen contingencies arise, 
and no later manager who is worthy of the responsibility 
placed upon him can rely wholly upon the decisions or 
advice of his predecessor ; even in the very effort to main- 
tain and emphasize a difference in character between two 
landscapes, he will shape them toward somewhat different 
ideals from those of his predecessor ; in the long run, these 
differences in human control tend to average themselves 
rather indiscriminately, and, since natural conditions are 
comparatively uniform, there is apt to result an uninspiring 
sameness of landscape character. 

It is as a tool to help in guarding against this danger that 
the forestry plan of the Middlesex Fells has been prepared. 
As it now stands, the plan is much less detailed and specific 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 43 

than we had expected to make it, — very much less so than 
the partial plans, studies and notes from which it is made up. 
We are convinced that to impose a minutely detailed plan 
of action upon those who are to be responsible for guiding 
the development of the scenery of the Reservation in the 
future would hamper their freedom to avail themselves 
adequately of the fortuitous elements which play such a 
large part in the charm of scenery, especially woodland 
scenery, and would tend tp a certain mechanical or stereo- 
typed aspect which is noticeable in many of the European 
forests conducted under a systematic plan. Moreover, to 
load the plan with a mass of detail would be apt to obscure 
its essential features, and risk the entire abandonment of 
the plan because of impatience with its hampering detail. 

The plan divides the Fells into compartments of greatly 
varying size and shape, each one of which, except for a few 
cases of special treatment, is marked for management with 
a view to securing one of three distinct types of landscape : 
(1) " close woodB," in which the leafy canopy is to be nor- 
mally unbroken; (2) ''open woods," in which the trees 
and groups of trees are often to stand so far apart as to 
develop their lower branches and leave many sunny open- 
ings and glades between the foliage masses; (3) "open 
ground," whether meadow, pasture, swamp or otherwise, 
over which the eye can range freely, even though it be re- 
lieved by occasional scattered trees. Secondary charac- 
teristics, such as the dominance of certain kinds of trees in 
certain compartments, have been indicated where such dis- 
tinctions seemed important. 

It has happened that a great deal of the region infested 
by the gypsy moth was of such a character as to lend itself 
well to the second or third classes of treatment ; and it has 
therefore been possible, without in the least disregarding 
the best permanent development of the woodland scenery, 
to recommend at many points a severity of cutting that will 
be of the greatest assistance in dealing with the pressing 
problem' of the pests ; whereas even a much less severe 
catting, if applied indiscriminately to the reservation as a 
whole, would be most deplorable. Much unfounded criticism 



44 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

of the cutting may be expected to arise, from an assumption 
that such indiscriminate application is intended. 

Unforeseen conditions will doubtless arise from time to 
time in the future which will necessitate readjustment of the 
boundaries of the compa,rtments now laid down, and changes 
in the designated character of some of them ; but such changes 
should be made deliberately by vote of the Board, upon re- 
port of their advisory and executive officers, and should not 
be drifted into by default. We do not venture to think that 
the plan as it stands is by any means the best that could be 
devised, but we do venture to say that, if it be consistently 
and intelligently followed, with no alterations except such 
as are made after serious and thoughtful deliberation, it wiU 
in a reasonable time bring far better results than could 
possibly be attained by following independently the various 
impulses of a succession of advisers. 

Respectfully yours, 

OLMSTED BROTHERS. 

Dec. 1, 1904. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 45 



REPORT OF THE ENGINEER. 



Hon. William B. db las Casas, 

Chairman^ Metropolitan Park Commiasion. 

Sir : — Herewith I submit a report of the work of the 
Engineering Department for the year ending Nov. 1, 1904, 

The large amount of construction work which has been 
done under the direction of this department during the year 
has required a considerable increase in the number of em- 
ployees. From 25 at the beginning of the year it was -in- 
creased to 52 during the summer months, and later reduced 
by resignations to 46 at the end of the year. The present 
organization of the department, in accordance with the rat- 
ings of the Civil Service Commission, is as follows : 5 assist- 
ant engineers, 2 draftsmen, 8 instrument men in charge of 
parties, 23 rodmen, 6 inspectors, 1 clerk and 1 stenographer. 
The work has generally been under the supervision of the 
following division engineers : — 

CoDstraction, C. Barton Pbatt. 

Surveying, David A. Ambrose. 

Drafting and office, Louis V. Foster. 

The work of the department for the past year has included 
the making of surveys and the preparation of general and 
detail plans and specifications for construction work, surveys 
and plans for takings, topographical surveys and maps, and 
the direction and supervision of all construction work, which 
has been of great variety, including grading, filling, sur- 
facing, paving and drainage ; stone, concrete and reinforced 
concrete masonry used in foundations, bridge abutments and 
piers, arches, retaining walls, river walls, sea walls, dams, 
shelter foundations and terraces and granolithic work ; pile 
foundations, pile and heavy timber bridges, steel highway 
bridges and drawbridges ; river and shore work. Also 
examinations of, and reports on, plans for work, such as 



46 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

construction of electric railways, drains, sewers, water and 
gas pipes, performed under permits and licenses issued to 
cities, towns, corporations and individuals, and the general 
inspection of the same. 

The total cost of conducting the department has been as 
follows : — 

Services, . . * $86,809 61 

Equipment, 468 56 

Opei'utiDg expenses, 8,499 95 

Total, f40,768 12 

The cost of construction work, done under the supervision 
of this department, has amounted to $473,734.70, exclusive 
of the cost of engineering and inspection ; and all engineer- 
ing and inspection incidental to the same, omitting travelling 
and other incidental expenses, has averaged 3.6 per cent. 

The total cost to this department of inspection of work 
done under permits and licenses, of which there were 75 
issued to cities, towns, corporations and individuals, has 
been $523.79. 

An appraisal of the property in charge of the department, 
omitting the value of maps, plans, notes and records, is as 
follows : — 

Equipment : — 

Offices, 12,175 62 

Surveying and drawing instruments, . 2,797 26 

Miscellaneous, 64 15 

f 5,087 08 

Supplies : — 

General. 1^69 91 

Total 16,406 94 

Details are given in the following sections of parkway and 
reservation, and in the tables appended. 

Parkways. 

Blue Hills Parkway. — Construction plans and specifica- 
tions have been prepared for a culvert bridge over Pine Tree 
Brook, at the crossing of the new road from Oanton Avenue 
to Hillside Street. The contract for the construction of the 



1905.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



47 



bridge was awarded to T. Stuart & Son Company, the lowest 
bidders ; and the work was begun on July 16, 1904, and was 
completed Aug. 31, 1904, the total cost, including engineer- 
ing and inspection, being $1,854.88. The bridge is a con- 
crete arch, of 12-foot span, on concrete foundations, and 
the exposed end faces are of field stone masonry. 

Engineering services have been furnished for preliminary 
surveys and for the work of construction of a road from Can- 
ton Avenue to Hillside Street in the Blue Hills Reservation. 
The work of construction has been done by the reservation 
forces, under the direction of the Superintendent of the 
Reservation, is now in progress, and the road is practically 
completed from Harland Street to Hillside Street. 

Under permits granted by this Conmiissipn to the Dor- 
chester Gas Light Company, a 6-inch gas main has been laid 
in the parkway from Mattapan Square to Pond Street. 

Furnace Brook Parkway. — Construction plans have been 
revised and specifications prepared for building the parkway 
to sub-grade from Adams Street to Blue Hills Reservation, 
and for building a culvert bridge of concrete reinforced with 
steel. Proposals were received for this work on Sept. 19, 
1904, from the following : — 



H. P. Nawn, Roxbnry, 

John F. Lynch, Dorchester, 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, 

T. H. Gill & Co., Boston, . 

Coleman Brothers, Everett, 

James Doherty, Rozbory, 

Hub Construction Company, Boston, 

The H. Gore Company, Boston, 

Rowe & Perini, South Framingham, 



120,636 26 
20,232 70 
19.078 26 
18,794 40 
18.633 60 
17,642 86 
17,600 10 
16,499 70 
16,604 60 



The contract was awarded to Rowe & Perini, and the work 
was begun on Sept. 26, 1904. The total estimated cost to 
Nov. 1, 1904, has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 81, $4,166 26 

Incidentals, 66 14 

Engineering and inspection, 378 00 

Total, t4,^d9 40 



48 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

Under permit granted to the Sewer Commissioners of the 
city of Quincy by this Commission, local sewers have been 
constructed in the Parkway from Adams Street to Crescent 
Street. This work has been carried on in advance of the 
work of grading, and has not interfered with it to any extent. 

New tide gates have been built and repairs made at Black's 
Creek dam by the city of Quincy, a portion of the cost, 
$200, being paid b}'^ this Commission, and the work approved 
and inspected by this department. 

Construction plans are being prepared for a bridge for the 
Griftnite Branch of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Eaikoad, over the Parkway at West Quincy. 

Lynn Fells Parkway, — Surveys for takings have been 
made, and the preparation of taking plans of the portion from 
Middlesex Fells Reservation to Elm Street, Melrose, is in 
progress. 

Lynnway, — The work of building the parkway to sub- 
grade, and abutments for Saugus River Bridge, under con- 
tract with T. Stuart & Son Company, which was begun on 
Aug. 26, 1903, was completed on Dec. 12, 1903. 

As it was impossible to complete the construction plans 
and specifications and award the contract for the Saugus 
River Bridge in time to allow the successful bidder to pro- 
cure the oak piles for the work during the winter months, 
it was decided to let a separate contract for furnishing them, 
delivered near the site of the work. The following bids 
were received on Jan. 7, 1904 : — 



R. B. Wheeler, Westerly, R. I.. 

Lawler Brothers, Charlestown, 

Wm. F. Cutter, Perth Amboy, N. J., 

Shepard, Farmer & Co., Boston, 

W. A. Sherburne, Boston, 

Thomas McCaffrey, Boston, 

Oliver VV^. Ramsay, Perth Amboy, N. J., 



f 10,908 60 
10,867 76 
9,647 60 
8,989 60 
8,712 90 
8,071 90 
7,728 26 



The conti-act was awarded to Oliver W. Bamsay, and the 
p les were delivered at the site of the work in time to allow 
the contractor jFor the construction of the bridge to proceed 
with the \vork iminediatelv after the award of the contract. 
A total of 937 oak piles, varying in lengths from 30 to 55 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No- 48. 49 

feet, were furnished for this work, and they were of excep- 
tionally good quality, being straight, free from knots, and 
full to required dimensions throughout. 

The construction plans and specifications for the pile bridge 
and concrete masonry draw piers were completed on April 
1, 1904. The work consisted of building pile bridge 1,210 
feet long and 32 feet in width, the concrete masonry piers 
for draw, wharves and fender piers. Bids were i:eceived on 
April 11, 1904, from the following : — 

Thomas E. Ruggles, Boston, f86,0dl 00 

Pitman & Brown, Salem, 52,978 00 

Patrick McGovern, Boston, 52,020 00 

Jones & Meehan, Boston, 49,992 00 

Lawler Brothers, Charlestown, .... 48,122 00 

Wm. H. £llis, Boston 47,613 40 

Wra. L. Miller, Boston, . . . . . . 46,792 00 

Metropolitan Contracting Company, Boston, . . 45,148 00 

The contract was awarded to the Metropolitan Contracting 
Company. The work was begun on May 31, 1904, is now in 
progress, and will probably be completed before Jan. 1, 1905. 

Under an agreement with the Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge 
Company of Chicago for the right to construct, use and oper- 
ate under their patents, and in accordance with general plan^ 
furnished by them and specifications prepared in this office, 
bids were received on June 13, 1904, for building and 
erecting the superstructure, operating machinery, and locks 
of a Scherzer rolling lift bridge for the draw of the Saugus 
River Bridge, from the following : — 



Eastern Bridge and Structural Company, Worcester 
Louis F. Shoemaker & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., . 
The King Bridge Company, New York, N. Y., 
New England Structural Company, Boston, 
The Boston Bridge Works, Incorporated, Boston, 
Penn Bridge Company, Beaver Falls, Pa., 
American Bridge Company, New York, N. Y., 



f 20,500 00 
18,867 00 
18,696 00 
18,626 00 
17,914 00 
17,440 00 
16,996 00 



The contract was awarded to the American Bridge Com- 
pany, and the shop work is in progress. 

The total estimated cost of the entire work on this Pait 
way has been as follows : — 



50 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

. Previous] J reported : — 
Construction and incidentals, contract No. 
63a, f 11, 290 93 

Engineering and inspection, .... 772 55 

#12,068 48 

Year ending Nov. 1, 1904 : — 

Construction, contract No. 63a, . f 6,764 45 

Incidentals, 95 36 

Engineering and inspection, .... 422 80 

7,282 6t 

Total, fl9,346 09 

Construction, contract No. 69, . . . t7,877 00 

Incidentals, 276 20 

Engineering and inspection, .... 86 30 

Total, 8.289 60- 

Construction, contract No. 70, . . . f 37,689 09 

Incidentals, 174 86 

Engineering and inspection, .... 1,510 60 

Total 39,874 55 

Construction and incidentals, contract No. 74, f 1,043 85 

Engineering and inspection, .... 37 90 

Total 1,081 75 

Grand total, f68,041 89 

The contract for surfacing Lynnway and Saugus River 
Bridge has been let as a part of the contract for grading, 
surfacing and other work on Revere Beach Reservation, de- 
tails of which are given later in this report. 

Middlesex Fells Parkway. — The work of building the 
new Wellington Bridge and removing the old bridge, under 
contract with Jones & Meehan, and which was begun on 
March 13, 1903, was completed on July 16, 1904. 

The work of paving with wooden blocks the Medford or 
northerly half of the bridge, under contract with the Repub- 
lic Chemical and Creosoting Company, was begun on Nov. 
16, 1903, and completed on Dec. 5, 1903. 

A portion of the Medford approach, to connect the old ' 
driveway with the new bridge, was surfaced, the work being 
done by the reservation forces under the direction of the 
Superintendent of the Reservation, and under the super- 
vision of this department. This work was begun on Oct. 
14, 1903, and was suspended on Dec. 10, 1903, a sufficient 
roadway having been finished to permit the opening of the 
new bridge to public travel. The work by the Superin- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 51 

tendent was again resumed on March 15, 1904, and carried 
on from time to time with a small force until June 30, 1904. 

A temporary roadway was constructed by Jones & Meehan 
on the Somerville side of the river, for a connection with 
the new bridge. 

A portion of the dredging for a new channel, made neces- 
sary by the construction of the new bridge, and which was 
omitted from the original contract for dredging until the old 
bridge could be removed, has been completed, the work 
being done on Aug. 23 to 26, 1904, by the Eastern Dredg- 
ing Company. 

The erection of the steel retractile draw for the Welling- 
ton Bridge, which was being built by the Boston Bridge 
Works, Incorporated, was begun on Oct. 20, 1903, and 
completed on Nov. 21, 1903, except adjusting after the 
operating machinery was installed, which work was com* 
pleted March 14, 1904. 

. The operating machinery was furnished and installed by 
Wm. G. Miller, the electrical equipment by the General 
Electric Company, and the wiring for power by the Maiden 
Electric Company. This work was begun on Nov. 16, 1903, 
and the contract completed on March 12, 1904. 

The new bridge was opened to public travel on March 14, 
1904. 

The total cost of the work on the bridge and approaches^ 
to Nov. 1, 1904, has been as follows : — 

Previously reported : — 

Construction and incidentals, contract No. 58, |69,403 08 

Repairs to old bridge, 148 12 

Engineering and inspection, .... 3,223 17 



Year ending Nov. 1, 1904 : — 
Construction, contract No. 58, 
Repairs to old bridge, . 
Miscellaneous work on approaches, . 

Dredging, 

Oak piles, 

Wooden block pavement. 

Incidentals, 

Engineering and inspection, . 



f 10,035 93 


230 44 


1,481 98 


994 40 


154 00 


3,685 50 


424 21 


350 13 



172,769 37 



17,356 59 



Total, f 90,125 96 



52 METROPOLITAN PARKS- [Jan. 

Preyiously reported : — 
Construction, draw trucks, mill inspection 

and incidentals, contract No. 59, . $18,542 85 

Engineering and inspection, .... 48 80 

f 18,591 66 



Year ending Nov. 1, 1904 : — 

Construction, contract No. 59, . . . f 1,695 00 

Operating machinery and installation, . 3,854 57 

Incidentals, 403 14 

Engineering and inspection, .... 287 88 



5,740 54 



Total, 124,882 19 

Proposals to build a drawtender's house, on pile founda- 
tion previously constructed therefor, were received on Sept. 
15, 1904. The proposal of Lorenzo Hoyt, Stoneham, for 
$870, being the lowest, was accepted, and the work was 
begun on Oct. 3, 1 904, and is now practically completed. 

On the approaches to the new bridge a telford base was 
laid by T. Stuart & Son Company, for the trafBc road from 
the junction of the Parkway with Middlesex Avenue to the 
southerly end of the bridge in Somerville, and from the 
northerly end to Revere Beach Parkway in Medford. 

Construction plans and specifications have been prepared, 
and the following bids were received on July 18, 1904, for 
surfacing and other work necessary to complete the ap- 
proaches to the bridge from Middlesex Avenue in Somer- 
ville to Revere Beach Parkway in Medford : — 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, . . . f 17,653 50 

T. H. Gill & Co., Boston, 16,880 70 

Coleman Brothers, Everett, 15,328 50 

The contract was awarded to Coleman Brothers, and the 
work was begun on Aug, 11, 1904, and is nearly completed. 
The estimated cost of the work to Nov. 1, 1904, has been 
AS follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 78, f 11,949 13 

Incidentals, 409 69 

Engineering and inspection, 524 80 

Total, . . ' 112,888 12 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 53 

On location granted by the Commission to the Maiden & 
Mehrose Gas Light Company, a 16-inch gas main was laid 
in the traffic road from Middlesex Avenue about 900 feet to 
land on which new gasometer is in process of erection. 

Mystic Valley Parkway. — A portion of Ginn Field has 
been graded, 3,587 cubic yards of filling material having 
been furnished for the work by Samuel Symmes. The total 
cost of this work, including engineering, has been $1,769.56. 

Nahant Beach Parkway. — Studies and estimates of cost 
for electric railway have been made ; also topographical sur- 
vey and plan at location of proposed bath-house. 

Neponset River Parkway^ — Surveys and plans for takings 
from Paul's Bridge to Blue Hills Reservation, and construc- 
tion plans and specifications for building the westerly road- 
way from Brush Hill Road to Blue Hill Avenue, have been 
made. Bids for the construction work were received on 
Aug. 15, 1904, from the following : — 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, . f 30,087 05 

Benj. M. Cram, Boston, 28,785 45 

Columbia Improvement Company, Boston, .. . 23,096 37 

T. H. Gill & Co., Boston 17,933 80 

The contract was awarded to T. H. Gill & Co., and work 
was begun on Aug. 24, 1904, and is now in progress. This 
work will probabl}'- be completed about Nov. 30, 1904, ex- 
cept the loaming of the car track space, which work has 
been ordered omitted until spring, to allow the Blue Hills 
Street Kailway Company to first lay their track on the loca- 
tion granted them by this Commission. 

The estimated cost of this work to Nov. 1, 1904, has been 
as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 80, 110,436 72 

Incidentals, 46 88 

Engineering and inspection, 363 80 



Total, f 10,847 40 

Revere Beach Parkway. — The work of surfacing the 
approaches to the bridge over the Boston & Maine Railroad 



54 METBOPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

at Revere, under contract with T* H. Gill & Co., and which 
was begun on Aug. 31, 1903, was completed Nov. 19, 1903. 
The total cost of this work has been as follows : — 

Previously reported : — 
Construction and incidentals, contract No. 62, f 10,629 86 
Engineering and inspection, .... 447 IS 



Year ending Nov. 1, 1904 : — 

Construction, contract No. 62, . . . $1,325 46 

Incidentals, 262 73 

Engineering and inspection, .... 94 93 



f 11,076 49 



1,683 12 
Total, 112,769 61 

The work of constructing bridge abutments, culvert bridge, 
and grading the parkway. Main Street, Everett, to Fellsway, 
Medford, contract for which was awarded to T. Stuart & Son 
Company last year, and which was begun on Nov. 2, 1903, 
was completed on Aug. 30, 1904. This work included the 
building of the abutments for two bridges over the Boston & 
Maine Railroad, of concrete and stone masonry, one over the 
Saugus Branch and one over the Western Division ; a rein- 
forced concrete arch with granite ashlar facing for culvert 
bridge ; and the furnishing and depositing in place of 187,450 
cubic yards of filling material. 

The progress of this work was so satisfactory that a pro- 
posal of the contractor to furnish, in addition to the work 
under the contract, about 12,000 cubic yards of loam, was 
accepted; 5,746 cubic yards were placed on the slopes and 
5,002 cubic yards were placed in storage piles with manure, 
to make compost to be used for tree pits and planting spaces 
in the finished work. 

It was thought advisable that the work of consti*ucting 
the masonry piers necessary for the parkway bridges over 
the Western Division and Saugus Branch of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad should be let by the engineer of the raikoad 
company, and done under his direct supervision, on account 
of the great care necessary to be taken and responsibility to 
be assumed in working in and about the railroad tracks. 
Therefore, plans and specifications were prepared by this 
department, and bids were received on Dec. 28, 1903, by 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



55 



the railroad company, and the contract awarded to T. Stuart 
& Son Company, the lowest bidders. This work was done 
at the same time as the work of building the abutments, the 
same contractor having both contracts, and was completed 
on May 1, 1904. 

Plans and specifications have been prepared for the super- 
structure for the parkway bridges over the Western Divi- 
sion and Saugus Branch of the Boston & Maine Railroad. 
The bridge for the Western Division is of plate girder type, 
of two spans, 91 feet 9 inches each, total length of girder 93 
feet 9 inches, and height 9 feet | inch. Bids for this bridge 
were received on Jan. 25, 1904, from the following : — 



Springfield Construction Company, Springfield, 
Eastern Bridge and Structural Company,Worcester 
Boston Steel and Iron Company, Boston, 
H. P. Converse & Co., Boston, .... 
Baltimore Bridge Company, Baltimore, Md., . 
The Cooper, Wigand, Cooke Company, New York 
N.Y 



The King Bridge Company, New York, N. Y., 
The United Construction Company, Albany, N. Y. 
Berlin Construction Company, Boston, . 
New England Structural Company, Boston, . 
The Boston Bridge Works, Incorporated, Boston, 
Harrington, Robinson & Co., Boston, representing 
Rivei*side Bridge Company, Wheeling, W. Va., . 



121,500 00 
20,600 00 
17,898 00 
16,965 00 
16,958 00 

16,787 00 
16,630 00 
14,585 00 
18,786 00 
12,946 00 
11,792 00 

11,400 00 



The contract was awarded to the Boston Bridge Works, 
Incorporated, and the work completed July 1, 1904. 

The bridge for the Saugus Branch is of plate girder type, 
of three spans, varying in length from 34 to 48 feet. Bids 
were received on Feb. 8, 1904, from the following : — 



The Canton Bridge Company, Albany, N. Y., 
Eastman, Pease & Co., Boston, 
Berlin Constraction Company, Boston, . 
American Bridge Company, Boston, 
Levering & Garrigues Company, New York, N. Y, 
Springfield Construction Company, Springfield, 
The Cooper, Wigand, Cooke Company, New York 
N.Y 



H. P. Converse & Co., Boston, .... 
Eastern Bridge and Structural Company, Worcester, 
The Boston Bridge Works, Incorporated, Boston, 
New England Structural Company, Boston, . 



f 18,401 00 

10,894 00 

10,449 op 

9,260 00 

9,000 00 

7,680 00 

7,000 00 
6,965 00 
6,100 00 
6,998 00 
6,071 00 



56 



METROPOLITAX PARKS. 



[Jan. 



The contract was awarded to the New England Stractural 
Company, and the work completed on June 30, 1904. 

The following bids for furnishing oak piles for Maiden 
River Bridge were received at the same time as those for 
Saugus River Bridge : — 

E. B. Wheeler, Westerly, R. I., 

Lawler Brothers, Charlestown, Mass., 

Shepard, Farmer & Co., Boston, 

W. A. Sherburne, Boston, 

Thomas McCaffrey, Boston, 

Wm. F. Cutter, Perth Amboy, N. J., 

Oliver W. Ramsay, Perth Amboy, N. J., 



$6,083 00 
5,607 00 
5,049 00 
4,930 20 
4,628 00 
4,584 00 
4,051 50 



This contract was also awarded to Oliver W. Bamsay^ 
and the piles delivered near the site of the bridge, to be 
used by the contractor for the construction. 

Construction plans and specifications for the pile bridge 
and concrete masonry draw piers at the IVIalden River have 
been prepared. The work consisted of building pile bridge 
240 feet long and 36 feet in width, the concrete masonry 
piers for draw, wharves and fender piers. Bids were re- 
ceived on April 18, 1904, from the following 



Wm. H. Ward, Lowell, . 

Jones & Mechan, Boston, 

Lawler Brothers, Charlestown, 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, 

Thomas E. Ruggles, Boston, . 

Pitman & Brown, Salem, . 

Wm. H. Ellis, Boston, 

Metropolitan Contracting Company, Boston, 



127,610 00 
22,152 00 
21,976 00 
21,962 00 
21,887 60 
21,810 60 
20,761 60 
19,082 60 



The contract was awarded to the Metropolitan Contmcting 
Company, and work was begun on June 28, 1904, and is 
now in progress. 

Under the same conditions regarding rights under patents, 
plans and specifications as those governing the Scherzer 
rolling lift bridge for draw of the Saugus Eiver Bridge, bids 
were received on June 13, 1904, for building and erecting 
steel superstructure, operating machinery and locks for the 
draw of the Maiden River Bridge, as follows : — 

Eastern Bridge and Structural Company, Worcester, f 22,000 00 
The King Bridge Company, New York, N. Y.. . 19,916 0«) 
Louis F. Shoemaker & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., . 19,880 00 



s 



V ' 
it* 



1 ( 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 57 

New England Structural Company, Boston, . . f 19,668 00 

The Boston Bridge Works, Incorporated, Boston, . 18,984 00 

Penn Bridge Company, Beaver Falls, Pa., . 18,490 00 

American Bridge Company, New York, N. Y., . 17,991 00 

These bids were received at the same time as those for 
the Saugus River Bridge, and the contracts for building 
both were awarded as one contract to the American Bridge 
Company of New York, who were the lowest bidders on 
both. 

The total estimated cost of all work done during the year 
on tbis Parkway from Main Street, Everett, to Fellsway, 
Medford, has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 64-65, . . f 177,088 08 

I^am and manure, 8,788 00 

Incidentals, 1,066 68 

Engineering and inspection, .... 5,682 70 

Total, 1192,619 46 

Consti-uction, Western Division bridge piers, f 5,142 65 

Incidentals, 6 60 

Engineering and inspection, . . . 115 85 

Total, 5,264 60 

Construction, Saugus Branch bridge piers, . f 2,767 15 

Incidentals 801 94 

Engineering and inspection, .... 136 76 

Total 8,205 85 

Construction, contract No. 67, . . . f 11,792 00 

Incidentals, 80 09 

Engineering and inspection, .... 88 SO 

Total, 11,960 89 

Construction, contract No. 68, . . . f 5,071 00 

Incidentals, 87 50 

Engineering and inspection, .... 69 90 

Total 5,228 40 

Construction, contract No. 69, . . . f 4,308 50 

Incidentals, 66 66 

Engineering and inspection, 46 40 

Total 4,415 46 

Construction, contract No. 71, . . . $15,904 70 

Incidentals, 33 50 

Engineering and inspection, .... 774 20 

Total, . * 16,712 40 

Construction and incidentals, contract No. 74, 11,043 79 

Engineering and inspection, .... 30 00 

Total. . . . 1,073 79 

Grand total 1240,480 86 



58 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

Under permits granted to the town of Revere by this 
Commission, main intercepting sewers have been con- 
structed through portions of the Parkway in Revere to con- 
nect with the Metropolitan Sewerage System. 

Reservations. 

Charles River Reservation. — A portion of the Charles 
River Road from Arsenal Street to the United States Arsenal 
grounds has been built- to sub-grade, an opportunity having 
been offered to obtain the filling material at a low rate. The 
work was done by Jeremiah J. SuUivan, and the total cost, 
including engineering and inspection, has been $2,589.88. 

The Welsbach system of street lighting has been installed 
in Soldiers' Field Road, 29 lamps being required. 

Construction plans and specifications have been prepared 
for the extension of Everett Street, in Brighton, from West- 
I ^ em Avenue to Soldiers' Field Road. Bids were received on 

April 8, 1904, firom the following : — 



u 



H. P. Nawn, Roxbary, .... 
T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, 
P. Maloy & Son, Waltham, 
John H. McCasker, Waltham, . 


16,760 00 

6,036 50 

. ^ . 6369 30 

6.706 00 


T. H. Gill & Co., Boston 


6,606 10 


Jeremiah Sallivan, Cambridge, 
Coleman Brothers, Everett, 


6,266 60 
6.188 60 



The contract was awarded to Coleman Brothers, the work 
was begun on May 1, 1904, and was completed on June 7, 
1904. The total cost has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No 73, f 6,483 90 

Incidentals, 170 36 

Engineering and inspection, 108 06 

Total, $5,762 31 

Construction plans and specifications have been prepared 
for pleasure grounds near the Speedway headquarters. The 
work consisted of building concrete river wall on pile foun- 
dations, concrete retaining wall along Western Avenue, and 
grading and surfacing walks, lawns and playground. Bids 
were received on May 10, 1904, from the following : — 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 59 



Lawler Brothers, CharlestowD, 

D. F. O^Connell Company, Boston, . 

P. Maloy & Son, Waltham, 

H. P. Nawn, Boston, 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, 

Coleman Brothers, Everett, 



f 18,089 50 
16,096 50 
14,494 00 
14,402 50 
13,785 00 
13,832 50 



The contract was awarded to Coleman Brothers, and work 
was begun on May 13, 1904, and was completed on Oct. 29,. 
1904. Considerable extra work was added to this contract 
during the progress of the work, such as constructing a clay 
core dam to exclude tide water, building gymnasium appa- 
ratus, teeter-boards, sand boxes, seats, fences, etc. The esti- 
mated cost of this work, according to vouchers received, to 
Nov. 1, 1904, has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 75, $19,760 28 

Apparatus for playground, 145 79 

Incidentals, 170 91 

Engineering and inspection, 1,214 70 

Total, f21,291 68 

A shelter at the entrance to the grounds has been built 
under the supervision of Stickney & Austin, architects, for 
which engineering services were furnished by this depaii;- 
ment. 

Engineering services have been furnished also for the 
work of building addition to Speedway headquarters, and 
grading for same. 

Construction plan has been prepared for a quaii;er-mile 
entrance to the Speedway from Soldiers' Field Road. The 
work of construction was done by the Superintendent of the 
Reservation, engineering services and supervision being fur- 
nished by this departipent. 

At the California Street playground of the city of New- 
ton, by agreement with this Commission, gi-ading has been 
done by the city along the banks of the river on land of the 
Commonwealth, to provide open frontage on the river for 
the playground. A part of the cost of this work was paid 
by the Commonwealth, and engineering services were fur- 
nished by this department. 

On location granted by this Commission, the Massachu- 



T 



f 



60 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



I , 



setts Pipe Line Company has laid a 15-inch gas main along 
the southerly shore of the river on land of the Common- 
wealth, from Maple Street, Newton, to Brooks Street, 
Brighton. 

At Newton Lower Falls the old wooden dam, known as 
the Finley Mill Dam, which was in very bad condition, has 
been removed and replaced by a concrete-steel gravity dam. 
The new dam has been constructed by the Ambursen Hy- 
draulic Construction Company, under patents controlled by 
them, and in accordance with plans and specifications fur- 
nished by them, and approved by this Commission. The 
work has been done under the direction and supervision of 
this department, was begun on Aug. 24, 1904, and is nearly 
completed. The estimated cost of this work to Nov. 1, 
1904, has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No 82, 18,708 81 

Incidentals, • . 57 18 

Engineenng and inspection, 374 60 



Total, 



14,135 59 



It is agreed that the R. T. Sullivan Company, who hold 
water rights at this point, shall pay a portion of the cost of 
constructing the new dam. 

Lynn Shore Reservation, — The construction plans for 
work from King's Beach Terrace in Lynn to Humphrey 
Street, Swampscott, prepared in 1901, have been revised, 
and additional construction plans made, including detail 
plans for the construction of a sea wall, and specifications 
have been prepared for grading and construction of the 
wall. Bids were received on June 16, 1904, from the 
following : — 

£. R. Taylor & Co , Boston, f 98,629 75 



Metropolitan Contracting Company, Boston, 

M. McDonough, Swampscott, . 

Nawn & Brock, Boston, . 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, 

E. W. Everson & Co., Boston, . 

Thomas E. Buggies, Boston, . 

John Sheehan & Son, Lynn, . 

C. E. Trumbull Company, Boston, . 



.i. I)avid J. Sheehan, l^ynn, 



84,113 90 
72,280 00 
66,209 50 
61,706 00 
60,464 33 
59,565 50 
59,089 50 
56,H53 00 
53,654 00 



! 



ll'l 



at 

i 

;f 



ij 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 61 

Pitman & Brown, Salem, (53,578 40 

James D. Kelly, Dorchester, 48,150 50 

T. H. Gill & Co., Boston, 47,446 50 

Patrick McGovern, Boston, 46,649 50 

Smith & Robinson, New York, N. Y., . . . 44,803 50 

Coleman Brothers, Everett, 43,880 00 

This contract, which was for the work of grading and 
constructing sea wall from Red Rock in Lynn to Humphrey 
Street, Swampscott, was awarded to Coleman Brothers, and 
the work was begun on July 1, 1904. During the progress 
of the work the Commission decided to extend the sea wall 
along King's Beach in Swampscott to the northerly end of 
the taking, near Monument Square, an addition of about 
1,100 lineal feet; and this work, including backfilling and 
other incidental work, and the work of constructing rein- 
forced concrete culvert for Stacey's Brook, was added to 
the original contract with Coleman Brothers. The work is 
now in progress, that of the original contract nearing com- 
pletion, and the additional work well started. 

The sea wall is of concrete masonry, reinforced by twisted 
steel rods; is 4,150 feet in length, and varies in height 
from 8 to 18 feet. The face of the wall is of a curved form, 
and the wall is capped with an artificial stone coping. At 
intervals of about 400 feet along the face of the wall are 
double flights of steps leading to the beach ; these also are 
constructed of concrete. The foundation on which the wall 
rests is generally clay or hard pan, except about 600 lineal 
feet where the wall is on concrete pile foundation. 

By using concrete piles instead of spruce a saving of 
about $2,000 was made, as it was possible to bring the tops 
of the concrete piles to a higher elevation than would have 
been safe for spruce piles, thereby reducing the size of the 
section of the wall and the amount of concrete required in 
its construction. 

The estimated cost of this work to Nov. 1, 1904, has 
been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 76, $41,170 25 

Incidentals, 2,240 57 

Engineering and inspection, 2,289 32 

Total, 145,700 14 



62 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



t ! 



Il 



^ 
•I 



Plans and specifications have been prepared for an iron 
pipe rail fence to be erected on the sea wall its entire length. 
Bids were received on Oct. 19, 1904, as follows : — 

Per LlDMl Foot 

Braman, Dow & Co , Boston, f 1 85 

W. A. Snow & Co., Boston, 1 79 

Belmont Iron Works, Philadelphia, Pa., . . . 1 58 

Richardson & Clement, Boston, 1 28 

A. B. Bobbins, Boston, 1 14 

The contract was awarded to A. B. Robbins.* 

Middlesex Fells Meservation, — Surveys have been made 
and constraction plans are in progress for the Brooks Roads 
from the Winchester Reservoir, East Dam, to Forest Street 
at Porter's Cove, and a branch to Little Neck. Engineering 
services have been fiirnished for the construction of these 
roads, which is in progress by the reservation forces under 
the Superintendent of the Reservation. 

Surveys, studies and estimates have been made for elec- 
tric railway through the reservation. 

Mystic Miver Reservation. — Surveys and investigations 
on the Mystic River and its tributaries, to determine the 
feasibility of constructing a dam at Cradock Bridge, which 
were begun the latter part of last year, have been completed, 
and the information submitted to Mr. John R. Freeman for 
his report. 

Surveys, construction plans and specifications are in prog- 
ress for the construction of roads along the river from High 
Street to Main Street, Medford, Somerville and Arlington. 

Quincy Shore Reservation. — Proposals were received on 
Dec. 7, 1903, for grading the reservation from Atlantic 
Street to Squantum Street, from the following : — 



Wm. J. McCarthy, Somerville, 
Jeremiah J. Sullivan, Boston, . 
John Cashman, West Quincy, . 
P. Maloy & Son, Waltham, 
Rowe & Perini, South Framingham, 
Coleman Brothers, Everett, 



$42,240 00 
41,350 00 
40,900 00 
37,470 00 
29,410 00 
28,300 00 



The contract was awarded to Coleman Brothers, and on 
account of the severe winter the work was not begun until 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 63 

March 23, 1904, and is now in progress and nearly com- 
pleted. The estimated cost to Nov. 1, 1904, has been as 
follows : — 

CoDStmctioo, contract No. 66, $80,465 20 

Incidentals, 122 21 

Engineering and inspection, 804 01 

Total (81,891 42 

Revere Beach Reservation. — Specifications have been 
prepared for laying a granolithic, or artificial stone, walk 
along the westerly side of the reservation next to private 
land, from a point about 200 feet south of Shirley Avenue 
to Chester Avenue, a total length of 2,250'feet, and 20 feet 
in width. It was provided in the specifications that the 
contractor would be permitted to obtain sand and gravel for 
this work from land of the Commonwealth along the shore. 
Proposals were received on March 11, 1904, from the fol- 
lowing : — 

Per Sqcutre Yard. 

W. A. Murtfeldt, Boston, f 1 06 

Simpson Brothers, Corporation, Boston, .... 98} 

Thomas J. Hind, Boston, 96 

Warren Brothers Company, Boston, .... 95^*^ 

The contract was awarded to Warren Brothers Company, 
and work was begun on April 1, 1904. Before the com- 
pletion of the work under this contract, the Commission 
decided to lay, in addition, the portion of the walk from the 
bath-house to within about 400 feet of Revere Street, a dis- 
tance of 1,100 feet, and the area about the band stand near 
Shirley Avenue. A total of 7,746 square yards was laid, 
and the work completed on May 25, 1904. The total cost 
of this work has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 72, %lfi\b 89 

Incidentals, 538 87 

Engineering and inspection, 385 75 

Total, 18,740 51 

Construction plans and specifications have been prepared 
for the construction of terraces and shelter foundations op- 
posite Revere Street and Oak Island Street. These terraces 



64 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



are each 500 feet long, and constructed of concrete masonry, 
the front wall being a sea wall of sufficient strength to resist 
the force of the waves. The walls are capped with an arti- 
ficial stone coping, and steps are provided leading to the 
beach. Proposals for doing this work were received on 
July 25, 1904, from the following : — 



Carr & Andrews Corporation, Boston, . 
Aberthaw Construction Company, Boston, 
The Murdock Corporation, Boston, . 
Coleman Brothers, Everett, 
Patrick McGovern, Boston, 



$39,867 00 
39,000 00 
37,909 CO 
87,000 00 
32,500 00 



The contract was awarded to Patrick McGovern, and 
work of preparation on the site Avas begun on Aug. 22, 
1904, but the actual work of construction, to any extent, 
was not begun until Sept. 6, 1904, so as to not interfere 
with the public in the use of the reservation before the clos- 
ing of the season, Labor Day. The work is now in prog- 
ress, and, although well advanced, will probably not be 
wholly completed until spring. The estimated cost to Nov. 
1, 1904, has been as follows : — 

Construction, contract No. 77, 1^7,355 00 

Incidentals, 107 42 

Engineering and inspection, 679 35 

Total, $18,141 77 



I 



mt 



!»5f 



11 






Construction plans and specifications have been prepared 
for grading, sur&cing and other work necessary to build, 
complete, the portion of the reservation from the present 
ending of the construction work at Kevere Street to the 
Northern Ckcle near the Point of Pines. This contract also 
includes the surfacing and finishing of Lynnway and Saugus 
River Bridge. Bids were received on Oct. 10, 1904, from 



the following : — 



H. P. Nawn, Roxbury, 

Patrick McGovern, Boston, 

The H. Gore Company, Boston, 

Coleman Brothers, Everett, 

T. Stuart & Son Company, Newton, 

E. W. Everson & Co., Boston, . 



9169,009 50 
146,714 76 
146,391 91 
131,295 50 
131,001 50 
117,063 00 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 65 

The contract was awarded to E. W. Everson & Co., and 
the work was begun on Oct. 17, 1904, and is now in prog- 
ress. 

General. 

Topographical surveys have been made of a total area of 
1,473 acres, which includes the work done in connection 
with the investigations on the Mystic River and Alewife 
Brook ; forty plans for record, and thirty-six duplicate copies 
of record plans have been made during the year. 

All the bridges under the control of this Commission have 
been inspected by this department twice during the year, 
November, 1903, and May, 1904, and reports made to the 
Secretary of their condition. 

The following tables are appended to this report : — 

Table 1 . Lengths of parkways. 
Table 2. Sammary of plan work. 
Table 8. Summary of vouchers. 
Table 4. Sammary of cost of engineering. 
Table 5. Prices for items of construction. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN R. RABLIN, 

Engineer. 



66 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



Table 1. — Length of Parkwayt, corrected to Nov. 1, 1904. 



DE80KIPTI0N. 


Constrneted 
(MUM). 


Under 

Oonttrnc- 

tion 

(MUes). 


Remainder 
(MUes). 


Totals 
(MUes). 


Blue Hills : Mattapan Square to Har- 
land Street Entrance of Blue Hills 
Reservation, Boston and Milton, . 

Fresh Pond: Mount Auburn Street 
to Huron Avenue, Cambridge, 

Furnace Brook: Merry mount Park 
to Blue Hills Reservation, Quincy, 

Lynnway : Revere Beacli Reservation 
to northerlv side of Saugus River, 
Revere and Lynn, .... 

Middlesex Fells : Broadway to Mid- 
dlesex Fells Reservation, Somer- 
ville, Medford and Maiden, . 

Mystic Valley: High Street to Mid- 
dlesex Fells Reservation, Medford 
and Winchester, .... 

Nahant Beach : Lynn Line at Wash- 
ington Street to Spring Road, Na- 
hant, 

Neponset River: junction of River 
Street and Damon Street to Blue 
Hills Reservation, .... 

Revere Beach : Revere Beach Reser- 
vation to Middlesex Fells Parkway 
and Mvstic River Reservation, Re- 
vere, Chelsea, Everett and Med- 
ford, . . ' . 

■ 


1.55 
.52 

4.60 
2.90 

4.17 


.49 

2.83 
.69 

.53 

1 

1.07 


.24 
1.00 

2.23 
1.71 


2.26 

.52 

3.38 

.69 

4.60 

2.90 

2.28 

2.24 

5.24 


Totals, 


13.74 


5.11 


5.18 


24.08 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



67 



Table 2. — Bummary of Maps and Plana prepared during the Tear 
ending Nov. 2, 1904, omUUng Blue and Other Printa. 





Ahandonmenta and 
Oonveyaneea. 


« 

a 

m 

1 


• 

1 

s 


i 
1 

a 
H 


• 

1 

1 


Land and Settle, 
ment. 


• 

1 


Taklnga, Incladlng 
Oonveyaneea to 
Commonwealth. 


■ 

i 


Working Plana 
(Office). 


h 


Farkwayt 
Alewlfe Brook, 

Blae HUla, • . 

Freah Pond, . 

Fnmaee Brook, 

Lynnway, 

ICiddleaez Fella, . 

Myatic Valley, . 

Nahant Beach, 

Neponaet River, 

Revere Beach, . 

Bpy Pond, 






8 

1 


1 

12 

14 

6 

2 

4 

7 

90 

M 

1 
14 

8 

2 

25 
01 


6 
2 

4 
6 

1 

4 

2 

11 

2 


- 


1 
1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

1 

7 


2 

1 
1 
1 

4 

1 

10 

2 

8 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 
2 


2 
8 

6 

1 

1 
6 


8 

2 

1 

• 


41 

2 

1 
44 

2 

1 

1 

10 

28 
67 


15 
9 

4 

17 

1 

8 

18 

22 

2 


61 
12 

4 
80 
81 
16 
11 

7 

40 
48 

6 


Totala, 

Betervation 
Blae Hllla, 

Charlea River, . 

Hemlock Gorge, 

Klng'a Beach, . 

Lynn Shore, . 

ICiddleaez Fella, . 

ICyatlc River, . 

Nantaaket Beach, . 

Neponaet River, 

Qaincy Shore, . 

Revere Beach, . 

Winthrop Shore, . 


4 

10 

2 
1 


87 

4 
25 

8 

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76 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



i 
ii 



Dec. 1, 1908, to Dec. 1. 1904. 

Metropolitan Parks Loan Fund 

Receipts from bath-house, sales, etc., 

Expenditures, 

Blue Hills Reservation : — 
Construction : — 
Contract : — 

Stable yard, . $89S 00 

Stable yard wall, 1,147 00 

Sanitary building, 5,741 81 

Headquarters 

building, . . 8,339 46 

$16,121 27 

Labor and materials, . 3,692 41 

$19,813 68 

Engineering: — 
Pay rolls, $848 73 

Expenses 45 28 

389 01 

Landscape Architects : — 

^ Services $882 48 

Expenses, 57 00 

^ 939 4« 

Legal. 11 05 

Architects, services and plans, .... 820 86 

Portable forge 21 00 

Middlesex Fells Reservation : — 

Land WOl 00 

Construction, labor and material, . . 9,716 84 

Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $48 74 

Expenses 2 26 

*^ 50 99 

Landscape Architects : — 

Services, $902 64 

Expenses, 97 09 

^ 999 73 

Legal, . 45 10 

Forestry, 622 77 

Mlscellaneoue 8 08 

Revere Beach Reservation : — 
Construction : — 
Contract : — 
Addition to police 

station, • $5,646 44 

Granolithic side- 
walk. . . . S.209 2.') 
Shelter founda- 
tions, . . • I'*'"'"'! "^5 

$28,507 44 

Labor and materials, . . . 522 10 

$29,029 54 

Amounis carried fnrv^ard $29,029 54 



$7,680,000 00 
196,334 01 

$7,888,834 01 



$21,995 08 



11,844 51 



$33,839 59 $7,888,334 01 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 77 

Amount bright fortoard, ..... . $29,029 54 $88,889 59 $7,888,334 01 

Engineering : — 

^»y ">". $2,069 32 

Jfi3fP«a8e 2i?7 0« 

Landscape Architects:— 2.876 88 

Services ^57 7g 

Expenses 1 gO 

. — 59 36 

'^S^ 6 05 

Architects, serrlces and plans, .... 272 54 

Misoellaneons. " 4 14 

81.748 61 

Stony Brook Reserratlon : — 

Engineering: — 

Payrolls, $18 oo 

Expenses. 1 50 

^ _, $14 60 

Landscape Architects, expenses 3 08 

18 IS 

Beaver Brook Beseryation : — 

Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $8 00 

Expenses, 4 24 

Landscape Architects:— ^ *^ ^ 

Services. $3^ gg 

Expenses, 12 84 

49;32 

Hemlock Gorge Reservation : — "" ^ ^ 

Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $7 40 

Expenses, 90 

$8 30 

Charles River Reservation:— ®^ 

^^^ $43,951 25 

Construction : — 

Contract: — 

Headquarters 

building, bal. 

ance, . . . $14,680 19 
Finlay mill dam, 0,268 24 

Shelter building. 987 00 

Labor and materi- ^^'^ ^ 

als and grading. $8,409 66 
Arsenal Road, . 2.798 18 

California Street 
playground. . 750 00 

7.012 79 

Engineering:- 28,893 22 

Payrolls. $1,567 02* 

Expenses 137 15 

Landscape Architects:— 1,694 17 

Services, $289 50 

Expenses, 18 43 

252 93 

?*««**» 688 05 

Land experts, 2.182 17 

^^n*"' 410 00 

Architects, services and plans, .... 612 09 

Fowl house. 150 00 

Miscellaneous. 16 00" 

*78.848 88 

AmaufUa carried forward, $144,620 V! $7,888,834 01 



78 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

AmoufUa brought forward $ia.6W 07 $7,888,834 01 

Neponset River Beservatlon : — 

Land. $17,824 41 

Engineering: — 

Payrolls, $69 97 

Expenses, 14 80 

84 77 

Legal, M 75 

Land experts, 2»*® 85 

Claims, *0 00 

20,478 78 

Mystic River Reservation : — 

Land, . , t22.8»l 83 

Engineering : — 

PayroUs, $8,988 84 

Expenses, 4,969 42 

13,948 26 

Landscape Architects : — 

Services $^02 74 

Expenses, 24 80 

627 54 

Legal, 82 86 

Land experts, 1,104 83 

38,564 82 

Lynn Shore Reservation : — 

Land $109,219 11 

Constmction : — 
Contract : — 
Coleman Bros., . $34,994 70 
Aberthaw Con- 
struction Co., . 2,646 86 

$37,641 56 

Labor and materials, ... 670 87 

88,112 43 

Engineering : — 

PayroUs, $3,864 49 

Expenses 581 08 

3,945 52 

Landscape Architects : — 

Services $70 16 

Expenses 2 28 

7244 

Legal 152 99 

Land experts, 2«> 00 

Removal and alterations In Alien house, . . 2,618 62 

Advertising HI 76 

Miscellaneous 17 58 

164,510 45 

Quincy Shore Reservation : — 

Land $7,552 72 

Construction, contract, Coleman Bros., . . 25,895 42 
Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $907 78 

Expenses, 184 28 

1.092 06 

Landscape A i-chitects : — 

Services, $SW 39 

Expenses, 10 82 

*^ ' 825 21 

Legal, 92 83 

Land experts 500 00 

Advertising 115U 3^^^^^ 

Amounts carried fortoard $398,647 80 $7,888,334 01 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



79 



Amounts brought forward, $888,647 80 $7,888,384 01 

$16,888 85 



WJnthrop Shore Reservatioii : — 

Land, 

EnglDeerlng : -— 

Payrolls, 

Expenses 



Legal, . 
Land experts, 



King's Beach Reservation : — 
Engineering : — 
Payrolls, .... 
Expenses, .... 



Landscape Ai-chltects : 
Services, . 
Expenses, 



Wellington Bridge : — 
Construction : — 
Contract : — 
Jones & Meehan, $17,288 11 
Boston Bridge 

Works, . 4,244 87 

Republic Cheml. 
cal and Creosot- 
Ing Co., . . 3,685 60 



Labor and materials : — 
Installing draw 
. machinery, $2,588 00 

Miscellaneous, . 4,548 28 

Loam, . . 1,501 80 

Dredging, . . 894 40 

Motor, ... 604 35 

Masonry, 431 67 
Removing old 

bridge, . . 325 20 
Repairs, old 

bridge, . . 210 26 
Foundations, 

drawtender's 

house, . . 154 00 

Edgestone, . . 150 58 

Cables, . . . 148 46 

Sand, ... 62 60 

Stone cutters, 42 78 



Engineering : — 
Pay rolls, 
Expenses, 



Drawtender, 

Lighting, .... 

Supplies 

Plans, drawtender's house, 
Storing boat, 
Life-saving appliances, . 
Telephones, 
Rent of land. 



Amounts carried forward. 



$68 50 
6 15 



$101 00 
3 70 



$58 76 
7 78 



$25,218 58 



11,758 28 

$2,116 17 
281 80 



74 65 

886 80 

2,152 05 



$104 70 



67 55 



$86,877 87 



2,407 87 


1,208 60 


435 88 


274 78 


50 00 


34 25 


22 62 


20 81 


12 00 



18,517 45 



172 25 



41,488 80 
$454,777 80 $7,888,884 01 



80 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

AmoufUB brought forward $454,777 30 $7,8»»,8M 01 

Wlnthrop Parkway : — 
Landscape Architects :— 

Services $69 02 

Expenses, 3 45 



$72 47 



General expense : — 
Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $500 00 

Expenses, 604 81 



72 47 



Landscape Architects : — 

Services, $27 20 

Expenses, 3 80 



$1,194 81 



8100 



I^gal 1,847 43 

Claims 2,060 00 

y 6,138 34 

$450,988 01 

Amounts charged to Dec. 1, 1908 7,050,884 27 

7,510,817 28 



Balance In hands of State Treasurer, $377,516 73 



Metropolitan Parks Loan Fund, Series II., $4,185,000 00 

Receipts from sales, etc., 29 907 41 



EocpendUurea. 

Blue Hills Parkway : — 
Construction : — 
Contract : — 
U. A. Han scorn 

Co., . . . $10,676 82 
L. M. Ham & Co., 1,485 00 

Stuart & Son Co., 1,675 00 



$4,214,907 41 



$13,836 32 



Labor and materials, . . 26,874 88 

$39,210 70 

Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $496 69 

Expenses, 112 34 

Landscape Architects, services 

Middlesex Fells Parkway : ~ 

Land 

Construction, contract, Coleman Bros., 

Engineering : — 

Pay rolls $257 76 

Expenses, 15 20 



600 03 
2 68 


$39,822 41 


$4,744 49 
10,156 75 



Landscape Architects: — 

Services, $226 12 

Expenses 9 47 



272 96 



234 59 



I-egal 127 65 

Land experts, 75 00 

Claims 100 00 

15,711 34 



Amounts carried fbrward, $56,688 75 $4,214,907 41 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48, 81 

Amounts brought forward '. . , $56,583 75 $4,414,907 41 

Mystic Valley Parkway : — 
Constractlon, labor and materials : — 

Glnn Field $3^978 20 

Medford St. houae, ... 128 06 

Engineering:- $8,104 26 

Pay rolls ^264 78 

Expenses 9 20 

Landscape Architects:— ^^^ 

Services $42 00 i 

Expenses, 3 26 '''' 



46 26 ,f! 



^**^ 84 60 

Land experts, 25 00 

Miscellaneous, 2 26 * 

8,626 29 

Revere Beach Parkway : — 

^^^^ $28,885 66 

Construction : — 

Contract: — 

T. H. Gill A Co., . $2,894 18 

T. Stuart A Son 

Co 184,797 58 

Metropolitan 

Construction 

Co., . . . 14,476 06 

Boston Bridge 

Works, . . 11,792 00 
N. E. Structural 

Co 5,071 00 

O. W. Ramsay, . 2,100 14 

Scberzer Rolling 

Lift Bridge Co., 1,000 00 

$222,130 90 

Labor and materials : — 
Railroad bridges, 

piers, . . . $9,881 71 
Loam, etc., . . 2,896 00 

PJpea. ... 497 22 

Bridge guards, . 152 98 

Painting fence on 

bridge, . . 55 00 

Standpipe, . . 39 74 

Miscellaneous, . 672 56 

18,646 20 

Engineering : - *«^''^7« ^^ 

Payrolls, $8,059 11 

Expenses, 796 41 

Landscape Architects:— ~ ^,867 52 

Services, $26 00 

Expenses, 1 71 

T ^ 27 71 

Land experts ^^^ 

Jrff^ 65 20 

^a.„.: : : : : ; -^ 

Stone bounds, ^ q^ 

Miscellaneous, , 160 00 

270,285 85 

AnumnU carried forv>ard $329,294 89 $4;214,907 41 



82 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

AmcunU brought Jbrward $829,894 89 $4,214,907 41 

Neponset Rlyer Parkway : — 

Land, $9,432 77 

ConfltructlOD : — 

CoDtract, T. H. Gill ft Co., . . $8,871 21 

Labor and material, ... 211 61 

9,062 72 

Engineering : — 

Paj rolls, $2,480 58 

Expenaefl, 279 81 

2,710 89 

Landscape Architects : — 

Serrlces, $834 88 

Expenses 18 87 

388 05 

Legal, 887 98 

Land experts, 1,824 71 

28,226 67 

Fresh Pond Parkway : — 
Engineering: — 

Pay roUs, $6 40 

Expenses, 60 

$6 90 

Landscape Architects : — 

Services, $149 46 

Expenses 8 54 

168 00 

164 90 

Famace Brook Parkway : — 

Land, $6,829 94 

Construction, contract, Kowe ft Perini, . . 8,681 97 

Engineering : — 

Pay rolls, $1,246 66 

Expenses, 129 67 

1,876 W 

Landscape Architects : — 

Services, $624 60 

Expenses 19 44 

644 04 

Legal 82 16 

Land experts, 119 10 

Claims 16 00 

Advertising, 86 78 

12,086 11 

Nahant Beach Parkway : — 
■Engineering : — 

Payrolls, $96 39 

Expenses 20 20 

$116 69 

Landscape Architects, services, 29 28 

Land experts, 276 95 

421 82 

Charles River Speedway : — 
Construction : — 
Contract : — 
H. P. Cummings 

Co., . . . $16,021 89 
Coleman Bros., . 22,280 13 

$38,802 02 

AmourUa carried fortoard, $38,302 02 $865,143 29 $4,214,907 41 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



83 



AmoufUt brought forward, 

Constroction — Con. 
Labor and materials : — 

WaU, . $744 96 

Quarter.mlle en- 
trance, 396 60 

Pleasure grounds, 148 96 

Everett St. exten- 
sion, ... 160 74 

Filling at head- 
quarters, . . 78 90 

Gymnastic appa- 
ratus, ... 81 84 

Fence, ... 72 22 

Drinking fountain, 86 75 

Miscellaneous, . 12 60 



$88,302 02 



1,733 09 



Engineering:— 
Pay rolls. 
Expenses, 



$1,937 08 
161 47 



Landscape Architects, services, . 
Architects, services and plans, 
Headquarters furnishings, 



Lynn way : — 
Construction : — 
Contract:— 
Metropolitan Con- 
struction Co., . 
T. Stuart 3b Son 
Oo., • • . 
Oliver W.Kamsay, 
Scherzer Rolling 
Lift Bridge 
Company, 



$32,085 72 

8,445 13 
5,856 75 



1,000 00 



$47,387 60 

Labor and materials, bridge piers, 2,266 50 



Engineering: — 
Pay rolls. 
Expenses, 

Advertising, 



$2,858 29 
828 20 



Blue HlUs Roads: — 
Engineering: — 
Pay rolls. 
Expenses, 



$480 42 
148 11 



Middlesex Fells Roads : — 
Engineering : — 
Pay rolls, 
Expenses, 



$404 40 
22 35 



Lynn.Fells Parkway : — 
Bnglneering : — 
Pay rolls, 
Expenses, 



$849 40 
20 87 



$40,085 11 



2,088 50 

25 00 

809 66 

813 87 



$49,603 10 



8,18149 
816 37 



$687 53 



$426 75 



$365,143 29 $4,214,907 41 



43,271 64 



53,100 96 



637 58 



426 75 



$879 27 



Amounts carried forward. 



$879 27 $462,680 17 $4,214,907 41 



84 



METROPOLITAN PARKS- 



[Jan. 



Amounts brought fonoard. 

Landscape Architects : — 

Services, 

Expenses 



Spy Pond Parkway : — 
Engineering: — 
Payrolls, 
Expenses, 



Landscape Architects, services, 

General expense : — 
Engineering: — 
Payrolls, .... 
Expenses 



Legal 

Claims, 

Reports of street railway hearings. 
Plans, tool bouse, .... 



$882 12 
28 99 



$7 88 
10 



$666 00 
687 28 



$879 27 $462,580 17 $4,214,907 41 



806 11 



$7 48 
60 00 



$1,393 23 

2,004 90 

900 00 

68 00 

2000 



786 88 



57 43 



4,876 18 



$467,749 11 
Amount charged to Dec. 1, 1908 3,497,276 08 



Kalance in hands of State Treasurer, 



8,965,025 14 
<249,88J 27 



Metropolitan Parks System Maintenance. 

Appropriation for 1904 9155,97100 



1 1' 

u 



■ i I 



Ea^ndUures, 

General expense : — 

Salaries, 

Rent, 

Stationery and printing, 

Travelling expenses, 

Telephones 

Office expenses 

Maps and books, 

Police, 

Advertising rules 

Photographs, 

Annual report, 

AutomaUc cashier, 

Typewriter and desk, 

Towel supply, 

Boxing exhibit for St. Louis, 
Horse tags and drawtenders' badges, . 
Rent typewriter and table, .... 
Spring water 



Blue Hills Reservation : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, . 

Teaming 

Police:— 

Payrolls, 

Uniforms and equipment. 



Amounts carried forward, 



$9,658 00 


2,757 46 


783 35 


863 12 


584 88 


888 47 


357 40 


213 04 


864 40 


66 50 


901 96 


112 50 


108 50 


89 55 


13 00 


8 10 


5 50 


5 10 


$7,888 00 


262 22 


8,446 00 


829 83 


$16,875 56 



$16,620 42 



$16,620 42 $155,971 00 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 85 

Amounts Ir ought forward $16,870 56 $16,620 43 $156,971 00 

Forestry, 1,778 10 

Travelling 8 70 

Wat6riDg 45 67 

General supplies, 1,496 49 

Keep of horses, 2,046 86 

Horses, carriages, etc., 1,087 09 

Telephones 401 12 

Repairs, 164 60 

Portable police booths, 090 89 

Boats, 160 82 

Painting bouses, etc., 210 86 

Water rates 71 96 

Lighting 68 78 

Express, 47 85 

Stoves, 18 00 

Shrubs 20 61 

Steel mats, 7 60 

Money bag, 6 60 

Blankets, 5 00 

Towels, 2 46 

Miscellaneous, 64 29 

26,186 61 

Middlesex Fells Reservation : — 

Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $10,868 08 

Teaming, 2,016 60 

Police: — 

Pay roll 6,867 92 

Uniforms and equipment, 621 19 

Gypsy moth worlc, 10,619 86 

Forestry, 45 50 

Travelling, 108 61 

Lighting 429 96 

General supplies, 1,621 88 

Keep of horses 1,026 61 

Horses, carriages, etc., 66B 80 

Telephones 172 78 

Repairs 104 31 

Electric wiring, fixtures, etc. (superintendent's 

hoase) 286 80 

Screens, 69 00 

Drinking fountain, 86 60 

Express, 61 10 

Miscellaneous, 43 20 

84,777 M 

Revere Beach Reservation : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $6,077 40 

Teaming 200 60 

Police : — 

Pay rolls, 14,869 96 

(Jnlforms and equipment, 1,180 80 

Travelling, 62 76 

Watering, 694 00 

Lighting, 1,980 91 

General supplies, 857 82 

Keep of horses, ....... 406 45 

Horses, carriages, etc., ....•• 182 29 

Telephones, 844 68 

Repairs, 87 10 

Canvas covers for shelters, 282 70 

Amounts carried forteard, .... $26,525 84 $76,684 67 $155,971 00 



.li 



86 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



AmounU brought fottoardt .... $26|626 84 

Settees 800 00 

PhjslciaDs' Berrlces, ....... 136 00 

Rubbish barrels, ...'.... S6 60 

Photographs, 02 80 

Express, iS 18 

Water rates, 87 00 

Awnings SO 60 

Flags » 60 

Miscellaneous 19 73 

Stony Brook Reservation : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $3,668 54 

Teaming, 103 75 

Police: — 

Payrolls, 1,096 00 

Uniforms and equipment, ..... 24 85 

General supplies, 828 36 

Keep of horses 186 16 

Horses, carriages, etc., 73 37 

Telephones, 61 13 

Repairs 36 12 

Water rates 13 00 

Bxpress, 85 

Beaver Brook Reservation : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $1,370 65 

Teaming 40 50 

Police : — 

Pay rolls, 77 40 

Uniforms and equipment, 39 83 

Travelling 6 00 

General supplies 105 68 

Keep of horses, 102 41 

Horses, carriages, etc., 38 45 

Telephones, 61 30 

Repairs, 101 87 

Wat«r pipe, . 29 64 

Book case, 9 00 

Water rates, 5 00 

Sewer assessment, 4 50 

Miscellaneous 1 75 

Charles River Reservation : — 
Riverside Section : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials $2,746 58 

Teaming 127 66 

Police : — 

Pay rolls, 6,318 16 

Uniforms and equipment, 514 75 

Travelling 107 81 

General supplies, 819 17 

Horses, carriages, etc., 56 45 

Telephones 176 20 

Repairs, 19 75 

Boats, 256 00 

Gas and electric lighting 144 43 

Tool house, 126 00 

Changes in heating apparatus 109 14 



$76,584 67 $155,971 00 



27,112 06 



6,067 18 



1,092 48 



Amount* carried fortoardf 



$11,520 09 $111,766 33 $155,971 00 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



87 



Amounts hrought forward. 



$11,620 09 $111,756 88 $166,971 00 



Water rates, 

Signs 

Express, 

Float,' Forest Grove, 
Flag, . . . . 
Physicians' services, 
Ash barrels, 
Mlsoellaneous, . 



Charles Biver Reservation : — 
Speedway Section : — 
Labor: — 

Pay rolls and materials, 

Teaming, 

Police:— 

Payrolls 

Uniforms and equipment, . 

Travelling, 

Watering 

^Llghtiog 

General supplies, 

Keep of horses 

Horses, carriages, etc., . 
Telephones, .... 

Bepalrs, 

Gravel, loam, etc 

Electric lighting, 

Water rates, .... 

Trees 

Electric wiring, bells, etc., . 

Signs, 

Awnioge, 

Copper gutter 

Linen, 

Rugs. 

Rubber boots, .... 
Miscellaneous, .... 



Neponset River Reservation : — 
Labor, pay rolls and materials, 

Forestry, 

Telephones, .... 



Mystic River Reservation : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, 

Teaming, . 
Police, pay rolls, 
General supplies, 
Telephones, 
Miscellaneous, . 

Lynn Shore Reservation : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, 

Teaming, 

Police : — 

Payrolls, .... 

Uniforms and equipment, . 

Travelling, 

General supplies, 

Amouwtt earHsd/orwardt 



09 28 






20 74 






20 95 






12 00 






10 60 






660 






460 






26 80 


11,689 81 






• 


$7,746 93 




f 


2,097 00 






5,509 99 






826 63 






14 28 






1,895 69 






. 1,062 84 






1.168 08 






1,658 17 






684 36 






150 67 






68 80 






1,069 00 






61 62 






42 00 






4S 60 






26 66 






15 90 






15 00 






18 00 






12 86 






12 00 






8 90 






83 69 


23,720 41 








$194 10 






830 90 






27 88 


1,052 38 








$382 42 






22 60 






1,125 00 






13 85 






38 80 






6 00 


1,687 67 








$326 01 






48 50 






885 00 






21 90 






18 80 






139 25 







$1,438 46 $149,756 60 $155,971 00 



88 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

Amounf brought forward, .... «1,4S8 «6 9149,71)650 $lSt,gTl 00 

« 

Repairing wall, eo 00 

Fence, 15 99 

Advertising, U 60 

1,628 96 

Qalncy Shore Beservation : — 

Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $606 86 

Teaming 97 78 

rollce: — 

Pay rolls 192 60 

Uniforms and equipment, 8 00 

80868 

Wlnthrop Shore Reservation : — 

Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $977 66 

Teapiing 98 60 

Police : -- 

Pay rolls, 928 26 

Uniforms and equipment, 18 40 

Watering, 691 04 

Lighting • . . . 696 54 

General supplies, 192 10 

Telephones, 67 SO 

Water rates 9 00 

8.675 81 

165,789 89 

Balance, $211 11 



Metropolitan Parks Boulevard Maintenance. 

Appropriation for 1904, $88,000 00 

Expendiiures, 

General expense : — 

Salaries $8,114 34 

Rent, 2,757 62 

Stationery and printing 1,166 45 

Telephones, 687 73 

Maps and books, 342 74 

Travelling expenses 189 06 

Office expenses, 481 71 

Mechanical accountant, 160 00 

Repairing radiator 82 66 

Towel supply, 28 25 

Police, 18 10 

Photographs, 16 20 

Spring water, 3 76 

Miscellaneous 29 47 

$18,977 86 

Blue Hills Parkway : — 

Labor : — 

Pay roUs and materials, $2,015 58 

Teaming 496 11 

Police : — 

Pay rolls 2,146 25 

Uniforms and equipment 75 88 

Forestry, 160 82 

Watering, 1,729 04 

Lighting 2,618 87 

General supplies, 103 18 

Telephones, 72 96 

Drain pipe, 787 87 

Amounts carried fonoard, .... $10,200 05 $18,977 86 $88,000 00 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



89 



11,290 46 



21,680 10 



Amouta* hroughtftyrward, .... $10,200 05 $13,977 86 $88,000 00 

Gasoline engines and pumps, .... 680 00 

Police signal boxes, 300 47 

Wire fencing, 186 92 

Heater, 14^ 

Miscellaneous, n ei 

Middlesex Fells Parkway : — 
Labor: — 

Pay rolls and materials, $8,894 08 

Teaming, l!80» 00 

Police: — 

^*y «>"8, 5^117 50 

Uniforms and equipment, gog yg 

Forestry, 48 Ig 

Moths, 215 68 

W»*«^^ 1,747 89 

Lighting g 735 25 

General supplies, 422 07 

Horses, carriages, etc., 818 46 

Telephones 212 58 

Bepairs, 168 20 

. Plumbing office, ...*.... es 00 

Sewer assessment, qq 00 

Heating apparatus 2^08 

Lighting office 15 92 

Office furniture, 5 15 

Miscellaneous, 19 50 

Mystic Valley Parkway : — 
Labor: — 

Pay rolls and materials $2,689 47 

Teaming [ '73525 

Police : — 

I'*y rolls 2,788 00 

Uniforms and equipment, 67 20 

Watering, 889 4^ 

Lighting 2,640 24 

General supplies, 229 28 

Keep of horses, 48 80 

Horses, carriages, etc., 5 50 

Telephones, 96 86 

Mo^*>«' 2,068 87 

^^<»<8, 85 00 

Revere Beach Parkway : — 
Labor: — 

Pay rolls and materials, $8,672 96 

Teaming, '26826 

Police: — 

Payrolls 4,208 76 

Uniforms and equipment, 433 44 

Watering, 8,467 48 

^^e^^^« 4,660 04 

General supplies 296 88 

Keep of horses 84 60 

Horses, carriages, etc., 2,811 12 

Bubber boots * 9 96 

Damages by accident, ^50 

Oil suits 5 21 

Physician, 5 Oo 

Amounts earri4a/orward, .... $19,70908 $69,06129 $83,000^ 



12,088 87 



i 



90 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

Amount* brought Sorward, .... $19,700 08 $59,051 29 $83,000 00 

Water rates 5 00 • 

Repairs 20 51 

19,784 54 

Nahant Beach Parkway : — 
Labor : — 

Fay rolls and materials, $911 31 

Teaming, 80 60 

Police: — 

Pay roUs, 965 55 

Uniforms and equipment, 30 83 

Travelling expenses 8 40 

General supplies, 139 82 

Horses, carriages, etc., 23 44 

Telephones, 120 65 

*— 2,275 50 • 

Fresh Pond Parkway : — 
Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $454 76 

Teaming, 4 50 

Police : — 

Pay rolls, 910 00 

Uniform 8 and equipment 2190 

Watering ^. . . . . 17 46 

Lighting, 450 00 

General supplies, 44 11 

Signs, 5 50 

1,908 23 

Furnace Brook Parkway : — 

Labor, teaming, 1 67 

82,971 2S 



Balance $28 



<« 



N^ANTASKET BeACM MAINTENANCE. 
Appropriation for 19()4, $16,200 00 

Expenditures, 

Labor : — 

Pay rolls and materials, $3,067 81 

Teaming, 280 00 

Police: — 

Pay rolls, 9,057 63 

Uniforms and equipment, '288 76 

Travelling expenses 16 10 

Watering, 687 80 

Lighting 1,166 56 

General supplies 670 61 

Telephones 181 01 

Repairs, 70 14 

Board walks, 161 10 ' 

Rent, superintendent's house, 216 65 

Repairs, caf^, 289 82 

Dormitory supplies, 43 94 

Express, 17 46 

Miscellaneous 13 45 

16,126 83 

Balance, .............. $73 17 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 



91 



Metropolitan Parks Expense Fund. 

Balance Jan. 1, 1«04 $42,113 65 

Reoeipta, 1904 64,668 38 

$106,778 03 

Expenditures. 

General expense : — 
Stop-watchea $34 20 

— — — ^^-^ $34 20 

Blue Hills Reservation : — 

Horses, $750 oo 

Repairs, houses, 689 48 

Outside windows, superintendent's house, . 188 10 

Wells, 4^0 76 

Labor, telephone company 67 50 

Water rates 16 oo 

Middlesex Fells Reservation : — 

Repairs, stable, $80S 86 

Labor, 97 20 

Paint, 84 06 

Animals, 46 60 

Water rates, 22 00 

Shades, 14 72 

' 668 48 

Reyere Beach Reservation : — 

Bath-house: — 

Payrolls, $15,078 00 

Bathing suits, 4,167 02 

Coai 1,718 06 

Lighting 1,668 46 

Towels, 644 68 

Supplies, 487 64 

Stockings, 891 86 

I'aint, 836 44 

Sewing machines 810 70 

Findings 267 13 

Engine-room supplies, . '211 76 

Ice, 202 70 

Medicines and attendance, . . 16u 79 

Motor, 135 00 

Hardware 166 89 

Hose 148 06 

Matting 120 00 

Soap, etc., 116 78 

Tickets, etc., 92 70 

Water rates, 77 88 

Repairs, 77 46 

Caps 70 00 

Telephones, 67 62 

Disinfectant, 62 60 

Lumber 53 26 

Stationery, 82 86 

Flags, 25 06 

Repairing clocks 24 70 

Frames, 19 00 

Chairs, 15 75 

Blankets, 16 00 

Express 12 28 

Manager's uniform, ... 10 78 

Amounts carried forward, $26,776 60 $2,869 42 $106,772 08 



92 



METROPOLITAN PARKS. 



[Jan. 



AmourUt brought forward, $26,776 50 

Bath-house— Con, 

Silver rings 8 34 

Tide cards 8 00 

Miscellaneous, .... 38 11 

$26,826 96 

Patrol wagon 560 00 

Power dory 826 00 

Removal of piles, 807 91 

Horse 260 00 

Repairs, Ocean Avenue, 192 60 

Typewriter and desk, Ill 50 

Furniture, police station 80 86 

Changes in plumbing 66 00 

Police signals, 47 80 

Shades, superintendent's house 28 08 

Report, carnival wiring 26 00 

Skiflf 18 00 

Stony Brook Reservation : — 

Painting house, $142 60 

Water rates 41 00 

Beaver Brook Reservation : — 

Lumber $229 18 

Water connection, 210 66 

Fountain, 76 96 

Hemlock Gorge Reservation : — 

Repairs to house, $62 77 

Water rates, 12 49 

Charles River Reservation : — 
Riverside Section : — 

Repairs to shelter. Forest Grove, $896 00 

Rent, superintendent's house 800 00 

Fence, Charles Street, 70 00 

Repairs to house, Forest Grove, 36 69 

Water rates, '. 81 86 

Steps, Moody Street, 16 00 

Force pump, 7 60 

Speedway Section : — 

Horses $1,060 00 

Watering cart 400 00 

Snow sled 276 00 

Road machine 170 00 

Lumber, 164 64 

Signal system 142 60 

Drags, 126 99 

Quarter mile entrance 67 82 

Harrow, 11 00 

Advertising, 6 68 

Neponset River Reservation : — 

Advertising, $17 00 

Water rates, 16 00 

Miscellaneous 27 96 

Mystic River Reservation : — 

Repairs to barn, $811 16 

Horse 260 00 

Amourits carried forward, .... $6ei 15 



$2,869 42 $106,772 08 



28,817 09 



188 60 



616 69 



66 26 



866 66 



2,408 08 



60 96 



$86,771 65 $106,772 OS 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 93 

AminifUa brought forward 9661 16 $86,771 65 $106,772 OS 

MIscellaneouB labor, 173 27 

Bepaln to hoase, HI 50 ! 

Concrete walk, 94 00 

Water rates 34 01 

AdrertlBing 6 75 | 

960 68 

Lynn Shore Reservation : — 

Water rates, $9 00 

Advertising 3 75 

12 76 

Blue Hills Parkway : — 

Horse $360 00 

860 00 

Middlesex Fells Parkway : — 
Signal system, $69 16 

69 16 

Mystic Valley Parkway : — 

Road machine, . . $170 00 

Water rates 16 60 

18660 

Revere Beach Parkway : — 
Repairs, Gladstone Street house : — 

Grading, $297 87 

Repairs, 231 46 

Painting, 125 00 

Moving, 115 00 

Edgestone, 21 67 

$790 90 

Painting fence, ' 216 96 

Water rates 18 00 

Grading, 18 00 

Planting trees 16 00 

Paving, 14 20 

1,073 06 

KepoDset River Parkway : — 

Repairs to houses $24 12 

Water rates, 12 00 

36 12 

Furnace Brook Parkway : — 
Advertising, $2 60 

2 60 

Nantasket Beach Reservation : ~ 

Bath-house : — 

Pay rolls $4,901 36 

Coal 1,221 00 

Bathing suits, .... 842 20 

Shelter, bath house, ... 606 36 

Water rates, 281 68 

Paint 157 70 

Shelter roof, 100 00 

Engine-room supplies, . . • 80 19 

Stockings, 86 76 

Bath-house supplies, ... 68 07 

Towels, 66 90 

Lighting, 47 73 

Ice, 40 29 

Architects, 36 40 

Estimating cost of steam, . . 35 00 

Telephones, 27 00 

Medicines and attendance, . . 26 39 

Disinfectant, 25 00 



AtnourUa carried forward, $8,657 92 $88,482 41 $106,772 



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REPORT ON IMPROVEMENT 



OF THE 



UPPER MYSTIC RIVER AND ALEWIFE BROOK 



BY MEANS OF 



Tide Gates and Large drainage Channels. 



Bt JOHN R. FRBEMAN, Civil Engineer. 



BosTOK, Mass., Sept. 21, 19M. 

To the Metropolitan Park Commission^ Boston^ Mass, 

Gentlemen : — On July 23, 1903, you requested me to study 
a proposal of your Landscape Architects to facilitate, and lessen 
the expense of, improving Mystic River by placing tide gates 
at Cradock Bridge, near tlie City Hall, Medford, so arranged 
as to exclude high tides from the marshes and restrain the ebb 
tide by a weir from uncovering the muddy, unsightly and bad 
smelling banks which are now uncovered at low tide, and in 
that way make it possible to build the various roads and paths 
planned along the river at little above the present marsh level 
(10.5) instead of at above the level of the highest tide (15.6). 
You requested me also to study the project, authorized by 
chapter 327 of the Acts of 1903, for improving the sanitary and 
drainage conditions of Ale wife Brook by placing tide gates near 
its outlet into Mystic River, and by deepening and cleaning the 
brook under the joint action of Arlington, Belmont, Cambridge 
and Somerville. These two proposals of tide gates in the 
Mystic River and of tide gates in Alewife Brook suggested 
possibilities of co-operation, and also possibilities of conflict in 
operation. 

Your Board expressed a desire that, if possible, plans be 
studied out and submitted by which your proposed work along 
Mystic River could be carried out in full harmony with, and, 
if possible, so as to assist in the sanitary improvements along 
Alewife Brook contemplated by Arlington, Belmont, Cambridge 



98 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

and Somerville, under the Act above referred to, and further 
suggested that in connection therewith I should consider care- 
fully the conditions existing throughout the marshes and water 
margins of all this region before a large expense was incurred 
for new structures in either direction. 

I have, therefore, carefully inspected the entire watershed of 
Mystic Biver and made a thorough study of the conditions of 
stream flow in time of heavy rainfall and extra high tide along 
Mystic Eiver, and especially along Alewife Brook and Welling- 
ton Brook. I have been forced to the conclusion that any such 
simple arrangement of tide gates as that contemplated in Ale- 
wife Brook, unless supplemented by large and expensive storage 
basins, is likely to prove unsatisfactory by failure to prevent 
the occasional overflow of the marshes during the heavy storms 
from May to November. Moreover, unless arrangement is 
made, necessarily at large expense, for flushing out the stagnant 
pools above the proposed tide gates with cleaner upland water 
impounded in Spy Pond and Little Pond, a worse nuisance 
than that existing at present is liable to result from the present 
pollution of Alewife Brook by the flood overflows of the Cam- 
bridge sewers, by the foul flow of Tannery Brook, by the gutter 
wash of horse manure and the like brought into the brook in 
heavy rains, and by manure piles on the truck market gardens 
of Arlington and Belmont and at the railroad sidings. On the 
other hand, I am of the opinion that properly designed tide 
gates and weirs placed in Mystic Eiver at Cradock Bridge will 
not only facilitate the work to be carried out by your Commis- 
sion along the river, but will also improve the present condi- 
tions of Alewife Brook and its tributary region, and will be in 
the line of a future complete improvement of the sanitary and 
drainage conditions of Alewife Brook according to a plan sub- 
mitted with this report, which seems to me to be the most 
feasible and least expensive plan for accomplishing such im- 
provement, or according to any feasible plan which I can now 
foresee for such improvement. 

The details of my investigations and suggestions are as fol- 
lows : — 

Sanitary Coxditioxs. Malaria. 

As soon as I began my investigations I found conditions 
already existing along Alewife Brook and in the bordering 
marsh lands so contrary to what modem sanitary science 
teaches they should be that I was led to request of your Board 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 99 

that a complete sanitary survey of the neighborhood be author- 
ized, in order to learn how far the health of those living near 
the marshes had already suffered. This request was granted. 

The experts called on to make this further investigation were 
Mr. Charles Edward Amory Winslow of the biological labora- 
tories of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an investi- 
gator who has given much attention to problems of the public 
health, and Mr. William Lyman Underwood, lecturer in biology 
at Technology, a naturalist of exceptional information in all 
that pertains to the breeding of mosquitoes and the causes of 
malaria, who had for many yeara resided near the district and 
made himself familiar with the peculiar conditions presented, 
and who had, furthermore, gained practical experience as 
chairman of the board of health of the town of Belmont and 
in supervising drainage improvements on Wellington Brook. 

The results of this inquiry were startling. Every physician 
who was consulted testified that malarial disease was already 
prevalent, and that it was apparently increasing and slowly 
extending northerly and easterly from Cambridge and through 
the lowlands of Arlington toward West Medf ord. 

A canvass of twelve prominent practising physicians of Cam- 
bridge, Belmont, Arlington and Somerville disclosed that during 
the summer of 1903 these twelve physicians had treated in all 
about 800 cases of malaria in the region tributary to Alewife 
Brook, and that the disease was spreading away from the 
cheaper houses near the marshes and clay pits to the more 
expensive residential districts on the upland. The sum total 
of cases which twelve physicians reported, each for his own 
practice during the twelve months previous, reached 807. The 
records of these cases were not so complete as is desirable, and 
the count by the physicians was based largely on memory and 
general impressions, but any possible overestimate by these 
physicians may ^be regarded as balanced by the well-known 
fact that in many of the milder cases no physician was con- 
sulted. 

A brief house-to-house canvass through the lowlands and the 
houses near the marshes, visiting one-sixth of all the houses 
within a half mile of the stream and its branches, but naturally 
taking those nearest the stream first, made in December, 1903, 
showed that out of a total of 942 persons living in these 168 
houses 242 cases of malaria were reported, — a ratio of 1 in 4. 
This house-to-house canvass, made under the supervision of 



100 METROPOLITAN PARKS. [Jan. 

Messrs. Underwood and Winslow by Mr. W. C. Lonnsbury, 
was extended subsequently over a larger area, and the territory 
covered is shown on an accompanying map. 
The results in brief were as follows : — 

Penons. 

Families visited, 683 3,341 

Families reporting malaria within past five years, 222 446 

Proportion of families that had suffered from 

malaria, 1 in 3 1 In 7.5 

Within half a mile of these marshes the nmnher of dwellings are : 
Camhridge, 525; Belmont, 123; Arlmgton, 201; Somerville, 307; 
total, 1,156. Estimated at 5 persons per house total is 5,7S0. 

If proportions for whole district were as foond above, 1/3 is 385 ; 1/7* 5 
is 770. 

In some of the better class of the residential districts border- 
ing the marsh there was a manifest desire on the part of some 
residents to defend the district against the reproach of malaria, 
although physicians reported frequent cases therein. 

. In view of the results of this house-to-house canvass and of 
the approximate estimate of cases presented by the physicians 
I consider it not improbable that, counting recurrent cases and 
the mild cases in which a physician's aid is not sought, the 
unsanitary conditions of these marshes and of the clay pits near 
them have resulted in 500 or more cases of malarial disease in 
a single year, and considering that records of 446 individual 
cases were obtained from a limited area, and the impractica- 
bility of hunting down all the cases in many houses, it appears 
probable that the number in the whole district within five 
years has exceeded 1,000. 

But whatever the precise figure may be, it is certain that 
malaria prevails to an alarming extent and is spreading ; that 
this condition is due to bad drainage of the marshes and clay 
pits; that whether the number of cases per year is 500 or 200, 
these are a ta^c on the vital force and comfort of the community 
which demands a remedy. 

The Anopheles, the type of mosquito in which the malarial 
germ breeds, had been found by Mr. Underwood at various 
times during the past three years multiplying in various stag- 
nant pools in the upper marshes, and has again during this 
summer been found by him in large numbers.* 

* On Aug. 11, 1904, Mr. Underwood made a partial inspection of the marshes, 
visiting such places between Concord Avenue and the mouth of Little River as 
could be reached without a boat. Out of 32 jpoola examined 16 contained Ano- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 48. 101 

I was thus obliged at the outset to face a great sanitary 
problem, which for the time overshadowed the study of details 
of tide-gate designs, for questions of public health are para- 
mount, and should have precedence over landscape design and 
facilities for brickmaking or market gardening. 

In December last I placed before your Board these broader 
aspects of the problem, and was thereupon instructed to 
endeavor to design an economical method of accomplishing the 
sanitary improvement of Mystic Biver and of the entire area 
tributary to both Alewife Brook and Mystic Biver, and then to 
indicate the extent to which the expenditures by your Board 
for park improvements might be made to assist in carrying out 
such feasible design for the general sanitary improvement of 
the region. I was requested to carry these designs and the 
collection of data to such point only as would enable your Board 
to present the matter properly to the Legislature or to the State 
Board of Health for examination and approval, or for further 
recommendations. In carrying out these instructions your 
Engineering Department has co-operated most earnestly in 
meeting my requests for more complete and more accurate data 
than was obtainable when I began the work, and has had 
several field parties at work on surveys of the marshes and 
channels and on the collection of a variety of necessary infer* 
mation. Additional engineering and other assistance has also 
been furnished by your Board, and the engineering departments 
of the cities and towns adjacent to the region have co-operated 
in furnishing such plans and data as were already in their 
posses